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Chapter 2


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  • 1. Prepared by Madeleine Lacefield Tattoon, M.A.
    Part I
    Heredity and Environment
    Chapter Two
    What Theories Do
    Grand Theories
    Emergent Theories
    What Theories Contribute
  • 2. 2
    What Theories Do
    developmental theories
    a systematic statement of principles and generalizations that provides a coherent framework for understanding how and why people change as they grow older
    lead to pivotal hypotheses
    generate discover
    offer practical guidance
  • 3. 3
    What Theories Do
    developmental theories
    grand theories
    describe universal processes and development throughout the entire life span
    offers a framework for interpreting and understanding…change and development of all individuals
    some are emergent theories–new systematic and comprehensive theories of the future
  • 4. 4
    Grand Theories
    behaviorism (learning theory)
    grand in that they are…
    widely applied
  • 5. 5
    Psychoanalytic Theory
    a grand theory of human development that holds that irrational, unconscious drives and motives, often originating in childhood, underlies human behavior
  • 6. 6
    Psychoanalytic Theory
    Freud 1856-1936
    development in the first six years has
    three stages, each characterized by sexual pleasure…
    infancy – the mouth – the oral stage
    early childhood – the anus – the anal stage
    preschool years – the penis – the phallic stage
    beginning of adolescence through death – latency – genital stages
  • 7. 7
    Psychoanalytic Theory
    Erikson – 1902-1994
    a follower of Freud, interested in
    culture diversity
    social change
    psychological crises
    described eight developmental stages
    Trust vs. Mistrust
    Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
    Initiative vs. Guilt
    Industry vs. Inferiority
    Identity vs. Role Confusion
    Intimacy vs. Isolation
    Generativity vs. Stagnation
    Integrity vs. Despair
  • 8. 8
    Psychoanalytic Theory
  • 9. 9
    Behaviorism Theory
    Watson 1878 – 1958
    emphasis on unconscious
    hidden urges
    all behavior is learned
    specific laws of learning apply
    to conditioning
  • 10. 10
    Behaviorism Theory
  • 11. 11
    Behaviorism Theory
    Law of Behavior - learning theories
    …all behavior is learned step by step
    the processes by which responses become linked to particular stimuli
    classical conditioning - respondent conditioning
    a person or animal is conditioned to associate a neutral stimulus with a meaningful stimulus
    operant conditioning - instrumental conditioning
    learning process by which a particular action is followed by something desired – the person will repeat the action
    A technique for conditioning behavior where behavior is followed by something desired
  • 12. 12
    Behaviorism Theory
    Social Learning Theory
    an extension of behaviorism that emphasizes the influence that other people have over a person’s behavior
    The central process of social learning by which a person observes the actions of others and then copies them
  • 13. 13
    Cognitive Theory
    The third grand theory
    emphasized the structure and development of thought
  • 14. 14
    Cognitive Theory
    Jean Piaget’s 4 Stages
    concrete operational
    formal operational
  • 15. 15
    Cognitive Theory
  • 16. 16
    Cognitive Theory
    Cognitive equilibrium—state of mental balance.
    If threatened, how do we achieve equilibrium again?
    Assimilation: incorporate new events into existing schemas
    Accommodation: change schema
  • 17. 17
    Emergent Theories
    …multicultural and multidisciplinary , developed not only by men of European ancestry but also by many non-Western, non-White, and female scientists…
  • 18. 18
    Sociocultural Theory
    an emergent theory that holds that development results from the dynamic interaction between each person and the surrounding social and
    cultural forces
    Lev Vygotsky
  • 19. 19
    Sociocultural Theory
    cultural variation
    adult responses are shaped by culture
    society provides not only customs but also the tools and theories
    guided participation
    a technique in which skilled mentors help novices lean not only by providing instruction, but also by allowing direct, shared involvement in the activity
  • 20. 20
    Sociocultural Theory
    Zone of proximal development
    skills, knowledge, and concepts that the learner is close to acquiring but cannot master without help
  • 21. 21
    Zone of proximal development
  • 22. 22
    Epigenetic Theory
    An emergent theory of development that considers both the genetic origins of behavior (within each person and within each species) and the direct, systematic influences that environmental forces have over time on genes
  • 23. 23
    Genetic Adaptation
    Selective adaptation
    the process by which humans and other organisms gradually adjust to their environment
    genes for the traits that are most useful will become more frequent, thus making survival of species more likely.
  • 24. 24
    What Theories Contribute
    Psychoanalytic theory has made us aware of the importance of early childhood experiences.
    Behaviorism has shown effect of the immediate environment on learning.
    Cognitive theory shows how intellectual process and thinking affect actions.
    Sociocultural theory has reminded us of the importance of culture in learning.
    Epigenetic theory reminds us of the power of genes and their interaction with the environment.
  • 25. 25
    The Nature-Nurture Controversy
    The genes that people inherit
    To all the environmental influences
  • 26. 26
    The Nature-Nurture Controversy
    Nature and Nurture Always interact
    Heredity vs. Environment
    How much of any characteristic,
    behavior, or pattern of development is
    the result of genes and how much is
    the result of experience?
  • 27. 27
    Theoretical Perspectives on…
    They are usually boys who have male relatives with the same problem
    They are overactive in every context, home as well as school
    They are often calmed by stimulants, such as Ritalin, Adderall, and even coffee
    The rapid increase in ADHA (from 1 to 5 percent of all U.S. children within the past 50 years) cannot be genetic, since selective adaptation takes centuries
    Many environmental factors correlate with ADHD, including crowded homes, television, lead, food additives, and rigid teaching
  • 28. 28
    Theoretical Perspectives on…
    Nature vs. Nurture
    Children raised by homosexual couples (either adopted or the biological offspring of one of the parents) become heterosexual or homosexual in about the same proportions as children raised by heterosexual and do not seem particularly rebellious or emotionally disturbed.
  • 29. 29
    No Answer Yet