Prepared by Madeleine Lacefield Tattoon, M.A. 1 Part I Heredity and Environment Chapter Two What Theories Do Grand Theories Emergent Theories What Theories Contribute
2 What Theories Do developmental theories a systematic statement of principles and generalizations that provides a coherent framework for understanding how and why people change as they grow older lead to pivotal hypotheses generate discover offer practical guidance
3 What Theories Do developmental theories grand theories describe universal processes and development throughout the entire life span offers a framework for interpreting and understanding…change and development of all individuals some are emergent theories–new systematic and comprehensive theories of the future
4 Grand Theories psychoanalytic behaviorism (learning theory) cognitive grand in that they are… comprehensive enduring widely applied
5 Psychoanalytic Theory a grand theory of human development that holds that irrational, unconscious drives and motives, often originating in childhood, underlies human behavior
6 Psychoanalytic Theory Freud 1856-1936 development in the first six years has three stages, each characterized by sexual pleasure… infancy – the mouth – the oral stage early childhood – the anus – the anal stage preschool years – the penis – the phallic stage beginning of adolescence through death – latency – genital stages
7 Psychoanalytic Theory Erikson – 1902-1994 a follower of Freud, interested in culture diversity social change psychological crises described eight developmental stages Trust vs. Mistrust Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Initiative vs. Guilt Industry vs. Inferiority Identity vs. Role Confusion Intimacy vs. Isolation Generativity vs. Stagnation Integrity vs. Despair
8 Psychoanalytic Theory
9 Behaviorism Theory Watson 1878 – 1958 emphasis on unconscious hidden urges all behavior is learned specific laws of learning apply to conditioning
10 Behaviorism Theory
11 Behaviorism Theory Law of Behavior - learning theories …all behavior is learned step by step conditioning the processes by which responses become linked to particular stimuli classical conditioning - respondent conditioning a person or animal is conditioned to associate a neutral stimulus with a meaningful stimulus operant conditioning - instrumental conditioning learning process by which a particular action is followed by something desired – the person will repeat the action reinforcement A technique for conditioning behavior where behavior is followed by something desired
12 Behaviorism Theory Social Learning Theory an extension of behaviorism that emphasizes the influence that other people have over a person’s behavior modeling The central process of social learning by which a person observes the actions of others and then copies them
13 Cognitive Theory The third grand theory emphasized the structure and development of thought processes
14 Cognitive Theory Jean Piaget’s 4 Stages sensorimotor preoperational concrete operational formal operational
15 Cognitive Theory
16 Cognitive Theory Cognitive equilibrium—state of mental balance. If threatened, how do we achieve equilibrium again? Assimilation: incorporate new events into existing schemas Accommodation: change schema
17 Emergent Theories …multicultural and multidisciplinary , developed not only by men of European ancestry but also by many non-Western, non-White, and female scientists…
18 Sociocultural Theory an emergent theory that holds that development results from the dynamic interaction between each person and the surrounding social and cultural forces Lev Vygotsky
19 Sociocultural Theory cultural variation adult responses are shaped by culture society provides not only customs but also the tools and theories guided participation a technique in which skilled mentors help novices lean not only by providing instruction, but also by allowing direct, shared involvement in the activity
20 Sociocultural Theory Zone of proximal development skills, knowledge, and concepts that the learner is close to acquiring but cannot master without help
21 Zone of proximal development
22 Epigenetic Theory An emergent theory of development that considers both the genetic origins of behavior (within each person and within each species) and the direct, systematic influences that environmental forces have over time on genes
23 Genetic Adaptation Selective adaptation the process by which humans and other organisms gradually adjust to their environment genes for the traits that are most useful will become more frequent, thus making survival of species more likely.
24 What Theories Contribute Psychoanalytic theory has made us aware of the importance of early childhood experiences. Behaviorism has shown effect of the immediate environment on learning. Cognitive theory shows how intellectual process and thinking affect actions. Sociocultural theory has reminded us of the importance of culture in learning. Epigenetic theory reminds us of the power of genes and their interaction with the environment.
25 The Nature-Nurture Controversy Nature The genes that people inherit Nurture To all the environmental influences
26 The Nature-Nurture Controversy Nature and Nurture Always interact Heredity vs. Environment How much of any characteristic, behavior, or pattern of development is the result of genes and how much is the result of experience?
27 Theoretical Perspectives on… Hyperactivity Nature They are usually boys who have male relatives with the same problem They are overactive in every context, home as well as school They are often calmed by stimulants, such as Ritalin, Adderall, and even coffee Nurture The rapid increase in ADHA (from 1 to 5 percent of all U.S. children within the past 50 years) cannot be genetic, since selective adaptation takes centuries Many environmental factors correlate with ADHD, including crowded homes, television, lead, food additives, and rigid teaching
28 Theoretical Perspectives on… Homosexuality Nature vs. Nurture Children raised by homosexual couples (either adopted or the biological offspring of one of the parents) become heterosexual or homosexual in about the same proportions as children raised by heterosexual and do not seem particularly rebellious or emotionally disturbed.