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Chapter 16
Chapter 16
Chapter 16
Chapter 16
Chapter 16
Chapter 16
Chapter 16
Chapter 16
Chapter 16
Chapter 16
Chapter 16
Chapter 16
Chapter 16
Chapter 16
Chapter 16
Chapter 16
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Chapter 16
Chapter 16
Chapter 16
Chapter 16
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Chapter 16

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  • 1. Kathleen Stassen Berger Part V Chapter Sixteen Adolescence: Psychosocial Development Identity Relationships Sexuality Sadness and Anger Prepared by Madeleine Lacefield Tattoon, M.A. 1
  • 2. Identity A consistent definition of one’s self as a unique individual, in terms of roles, attitudes, beliefs, and aspirations. 2
  • 3. Identity – identity versus diffusion • Erikson’s terms for the fifth stage of development, in which the person tries to figure out “Who am I?” but is confused as to which of many possible roles to adopt. 3
  • 4. Identity, cont. – identity achievement • Erikson’s term for the attainment of identity, or the point at which a person understands who he or she is as a unique individual, in accord with past experiences and future plans. 4
  • 5. Identity, cont. • Not Yet Achievement – identity diffusion is the opposite of identity achievement… • it is a situation in which an adolescent does not seem to know or care what his or her identity is. – “Whatever.” 5
  • 6. Identity, cont. • Not Yet Achievement – Foreclosure • Erickson’s term for premature identity formation, which occurs when an adolescent adopts parents’ or society’s roles and values wholesale, without questioning and analysis. – short-circuit their search by not questioning traditional values 6
  • 7. Identity, cont. • Not Yet Achievement, cont. – moratorium • A way for adolescents to postpone making identity achievement choices by finding an accepted way to avoid identity achievement. – going to college is the most common example 7
  • 8. Identity, cont. • Four Arenas of Identity Achievement highlighted by Erikson… – religious identity • few teenagers achieve • most religions expect young people to struggle with theological questions – sexual or gender identity • “sex/sexual” referring to biological male/female characteristics • “gender” referring to cultural and social characteristics 8
  • 9. Identity, cont. • Four Arenas of Identity Achievement… – “political” or “ethnic” identity • political, identifying with a party • ethnic, identifying with a person – vocational identity • few teenagers can find meaningful work • most available jobs are different from in the past • the required skills for many vocations take years to attain – makes it premature to select at age 16 9
  • 10. Relationships • Adults and teenagers • Conflicts at home – bickering – repeated, petty arguments What do you see in the body position of these two that suggests a generational conflict? 10
  • 11. Relationships • Closeness with the family – Communication • talk openly with one another – Support • rely on one another – Connectedness • emotionally close – Control • encourage or limit autonomy – parental monitoring – parent knowledge about child’s whereabouts 11
  • 12. Relationships • Ongoing influence • Peer Support • Cliques and Crowds – Clique • A group of adolescents made up of close friends who are loyal to one another while excluding outsiders – Crowd • A large group of adolescents who have something in common but who are not necessarily related 12
  • 13. Relationships • Choosing friends – peer pressure • social pressure to conform to peer activities – deviance training • destructive peer support in which one person shows another how to rebel against authority or social norms – peer selection • ongoing, active process whereby adolescents select friends based on shared interests and values – peer facilitation • encouragement adolescents give one another to partake in activities or behaviors they would not otherwise do alone – constructive or destructive 13
  • 14. Relationships • Friends of Both Sexes – parents sometime worry about boy-girl contact.. • Immigrant Youth – millions of immigrants born abroad or those whose parents were born in another nation • one-third in Frankfurt • one-half in Amsterdam • two-thirds in Los Angeles and New York 14
  • 15. Sexuality • Before Committed Partnership 1. groups of friends, exclusively one sex or the other 2. a loose association of girls and boys, with public interactions within a crowd 3. small mixed-sex groups of the advanced members of the crowd 4. formation of couples, with private intimacies 15
  • 16. Sexuality • Romances – first appears in high school 16
  • 17. Sexuality • Homosexual Youth – complications slow down the formation of friendships and romantic bonds • Learning About Sex – parents and societies continue to be concerned about adolescent sexual relationships • Peers – sexual behavior is strongly influenced by information, and examples of other adolescents 17
  • 18. Sexuality, cont. • Parents – play a pivotal role in teenagers sexual decisions • Sex Education in School – U.S. began a massive experiment in 1998 • Sexual Behavior – not all adolescents are having sex – rates vary from nation to nation • teen births overall have decreased dramatically in every nation • the use of “protection” has increased • the abortion rate is also down 18
  • 19. Sadness and Anger • Comorbidity – a situation in which two or more unreleated illnesses or disorders occur at the same time • Depression – Clinical depression • Suicide – Suicidal ideation • Parasuicide • Cluster suicides 19
  • 20. Sadness and Anger, cont. • More destructiveness • Breaking the law – Incidence – Prevalence 20
  • 21. Sadness and Anger, cont. • Cause of delinquency – Life-course-persistent offender – Adolescence-limited offender 21

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