It seeks to create an environment addressing the needs for all age groups and people of different abilities including temporary disability. The designer and building owner/developer hold the key to create an environment allowing people with different levels of physical and/or cognitive capabilities to move independently so as to integrate as fully as possible into the mainstream of daily life. Infants and Children Expectant Mothers Elderly Wheelchair Users Physically Injured Persons Sightless or Partially Sighted Persons Hearing Impaired Persons
Approved Document Acceptable Solutions (BCA) Universal Design Guide (BCA) Singapore Civil Defence Force. Code of Practice for Fire Precautions in Building, Singapore, 2002. Building and Construction Authority. Code on Barrier-Free Accessibility In Buildings, Singapore, 2007. Neufert Architectural Data Building Construction Illustrated by Frank Ching
1. Building Planning for Staircases
2. Relativity, 1953, M.C. ESCHER
3. Evolution of Staircases
Why do we need Staircase?
Types of Staircases
Building Codes on Staircase
Universal Design of Staircase
4. “Staircases are one of the oldest
building elements in architectural
histories…reflecting the prevailing
philosophies and symbolic language…”
- Staircases through history by Eva Jiricna
5. Angkor Wat Steps, Cambodia
Symbolic Meaning of Staircase
6. Paris Opera House by Charles Garnier, Beaux Arts Architecture Movement
Reflecting Architectural Movement
7. Glass Spiral Staircase at Apple Store , Boston
Staircase as a Lifestyle
8. “…to protect people from injury and
to facilitate access during movement
from one level to another in a
- Building & Construction Authority (BCA)
Acceptable Solutions – under Regulation 27 of the
Building Control Regulations Ver 3.01
9. handrails or guides to assist movement
10. landings to break a fall and provide a place for rest
11. sufficient headroom to avoid injury
12. barriers against falling from 1.0 m or more from an open side
14. Pitch line
15. Staircase Terminology
16. Straight Flight Staircase
17. Straight two-flight stair
18. Quarter-turn stair with landing
19. Dogleg stair with half-landing
20. Quarter-turn stair with
21. Spiral stair with central column
22. Circular stair with central well
23. Helical staircase
24. No projection, other than handrails, is allowed in a staircase
within a height of 2.0 m from the landing or pitch line.
2.0 m headroom
25. The width of every staircase shall not
be less than 900 mm
The width is measured from the inner
side of the wall, balustrade or handrail.
Width of Staircase
26. The height of a riser shall not be more than 175 mm.
The width of a tread shall not be less than 250 mm
The risers and treads within each flight of stairs shall
be of uniform height and size.
Risers & Treads
27. A landing shall be provided at every
floor level and door opening.
An intermediate landing shall be
provided in between floor levels at
intervals of not more than 18 risers.
The length of any intermediate
landing, measured in the direction
of travel, shall not be less than 900
Landings of Staircase
28. The headroom of any staircase shall not be less than 2.0 m.
2.0 m headroom
29. A handrail shall be provided on at
least one side of the flight of
The height of the handrail shall be
between 750 mm and 900 mm above
the pitch line.
A handrail need not be provided for a
flight of not more than 5 steps.
A handrail may terminate at the
landing and the ends of the handrail
should be properly formed or rounded
off so that they do not pose a danger to
30. Protection from falling
The height of a barrier shall not be less
The size of any opening or gap in a
barrier shall not be large enough as to
permit the passage of a sphere of a
diameter of 100 mm.
Any triangular opening or void formed
around a tread, riser and the bottom
edge of the barrier, the size of any
opening or gap shall not be large
enough as to permit the passage of a
sphere of a diameter of 150 mm
31. “design for all people”.
32. Uniform risers of maximum 150 mm and
treads of minimum 300 mm
All steps shall be fitted with non-slip
nosing strips between 50 mm and 65mm
in width with permanent contrasting
Tactile strips should be provided at the
start and end of every flight of stairs.
Treads & Risers
33. Width of Staircase & Landings
The width of stairs is to be of minimum width of 1200 mm and should be adjusted
according to the expected flow of traffic.
Floor landings shall have a level platform of the same width as that of the stairs.
Width min 1200mm
landing min 1200mm
34. Handrails should be provided on both sides of the stairs and continuous
throughout the entire length.
35. Handrails shall extend at least 1 tread depth or 300 mm beyond the top and bottom
The height of the handrails is to be between 800 mm and 900 mm
800 - 900mm
36. After a maximum of 16 risers an intermediate landing should be
Staircases of widths wider than 2300 mm should be separated by a
handrail into segments between 1100 mm and 1800 mm.
Feature Staircase at Lobby, New Majestic Hotel, Singapore
Feature Staircase, Longchamp Retail Store in New York City
Hanging Staircase, Apple Store, Beijing
Staircase, Stadium Circle Line MRT Station