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New Moderns - Deutsche Werkbund, Bauhaus, Expressionism


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Module: 20th century design and culture …

Module: 20th century design and culture
Lecturer: Sandra Draskovic
Raffles International Institute Mongolia

Published in: Education, Business

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  • 1. Bauhaus in Germany with a goal to achieve better quality of design in objects for everyday use. The Bauhaus was a German design school that was active from 1919 to 1934.
  • 2. Bauhaus school • The name "Bauhaus" derives from the word "bauen" meaning to build, including the idea of creating in a spiritual sense, and "haus" meaning the house or building itself. • The primary driver behind the Bauhaus School was Walter Gropius, the founder of the school and the primary influence for the distinct style that the Bauhaus produced.
  • 3. The Bauhaus art school existed in three different cities: 1. (Weimar from 1919 to 1925, 2. Dessau from 1925 to 1932, and 3. Berlin from 1932 to 1933), under three different architect-directors (Walter Gropius from 1919 to 1928, Hannes Meyer from 1928 to 1930, and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe from 1930 to 1933). Bauhaus buildings are usually cubic, favour right angles, (although some feature rounded corners and balconies); they have smooth facades and an open floor plan. This style of architecture came about because of new engineering developments that allowed the walls to be built around steel or iron frames.
  • 4. Influences and historical background: •The main influences behind the Bauhaus were modernism, the English Arts and Crafts movement, and Constructivism. Gropius reconciled these disparate influences at the Bauhaus, where the reigning principles were unity of form and function, the idea that design is in service of the community, and a belief in the perfection and efficiency of geometry. •The Bauhaus should generate designs for mass- production, designs that were simple, rational, and accessible to all people. •The Bauhaus philosophy encouraged everyone to collaborate. In a radical move, women were allowed to enroll, almost exclusively placed in the weaving workshop.
  • 5. Characteristics of Bauhaus Architecture • Bauhaus architecture is a style of architecture for those that favours minimalism as well as function or style. • This style of architecture also holds true to the old saying that ‘less is more.’ • Intensive and advanced use of concrete, steel and glass. •Buildings constructed from the Bauhaus design are always cubic in shape. • They feature four flat sides as well as flat roof tops. • The colours of the typical Bauhaus building are generally black, white, grey or sometimes beige - however an owner can change the colour if desired.
  • 6. Characteristics of Bauhaus Architecture •The motivations behind the creation of the Bauhaus lay in the 19th century, in anxieties about the soullessness of manufacturing and its products, and in fears about art's loss of purpose in society. The Bauhaus aimed to unite arts, architecture and crafts once again, creating design for everyday life. •"The ultimate aim of all artistic activity is building! ... Architects, sculptors, painters, we must all get back to craft! ... The artist is a heightened manifestation of the craftsman. ... Let us form ... a new guild of craftsmen without the class divisions that set out to raise an arrogant barrier between craftsmen and artists! ... Let us together create the new building of the future which will be all in one: architecture and sculpture and painting.“ Walter Gropius
  • 7. The school was famous for its focus on the combination of both the world of fine art and the world of crafts.
  • 8. It was founded by Walter Gropius in 1919. Its core objective was a radical concept: to reimagine the material world to reflect the unity of all the arts. Gropius explained this vision for a union of art and design in the Proclamation of the Bauhaus (1919), which described a utopian craft guild combining architecture, sculpture, and painting into a single creative expression.
  • 9. •The Bauhaus combined elements of both fine arts and design education. •The curriculum commenced with a preliminary course that immersed the students, who came from a diverse range of social and educational backgrounds, in the study of materials, color theory, and formal relationships in preparation for more specialized studies. •This preliminary course was often taught by visual artists, including Paul Klee, Vasily Kandinsky, and Josef Albers, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy Ghost Chamber with the Tall Door, 1925, Paul Klee
  • 10. •Following their immersion in Bauhaus theory, students entered specialized workshops, which included metalworking, cabinetmaking, weaving, pottery, typography, and wall painting. It was at this time that the school adopted the slogan "Art into Industry."
  • 11. It moved to Dessau in 1925 In 1925, the Bauhaus moved from Weimar to Dessau, where Gropius designed a new building to house the school. This building contained many features that later became hallmarks of modernist architecture, including steel-frame construction, a glass curtain wall, and an asymmetrical, pinwheel plan, throughout which Gropius distributed studio, classroom, and administrative space for maximum efficiency and spatial logic.
  • 12. The Bauhaus started in Weimar, Germany
  • 13. It moved to Dessau in 1925
  • 14. In 1932, the Bauhaus moved to Berlin where it was shut down a year later by the Nazi party
  • 15. The Bauhaus’s ideals were that the artist must recognize his social responsibility to the community and likewise, the community must accept and support the artist.
  • 16. The Bauhaus school strived to produce a new approach to architecture that incorporated artistic design, craftsmanship, and modern machine technology.
  • 17. The major goals of the school were to encourage craftsman and artists to collaborate, to elevate the status of crafts, and to maintain relations with industry and craft leaders in order to eventually become independent of government control.
  • 18. Furniture was created according to the theory of “form follows function.” The goal was to create lightweight, adaptable, multi-purpose furniture in clean, hard materials for maximum economic sustainability. Tubular steel, metal, glass and wood were chief materials used for design. It was within the walls of the Bauhaus where “combination furniture” or unit furniture was invented. The goal was to create multi-purpose, space saving furniture that matched – and could mix and match. "MR" armchair, 1927 Ludwig Mies van der Rohe
  • 19. Marcel Breuer's famous Wassily chair
  • 20. Marcel Breuer (American, born Hungary, 1902–1981) Oak, wool upholstery Inspired by the extruded steel tubes of his bicycle, he experimented with metal furniture, ultimately creating lightweight, mass-producible metal chairs.
  • 21. Lamps
  • 22. Popular home furnishing store Ikea shows significant Bauhaus influence in many of its designs Ikea Bauhaus
  • 23. The textile workshop, especially under the direction of designer and weaver Gunta Stölzl (1897–1983), created abstract textiles suitable for use in Bauhaus environments.
  • 24. Stölzl encouraged experimentation with unorthodox materials, including cellophane, fiberglass, and metal. Fabrics from the weaving workshop were commercially successful, providing vital and much needed funds to the Bauhaus. The studio's textiles, along with architectural wall painting, adorned the interiors of Bauhaus buildings
  • 25. Gunta Stölzl
  • 26. Gunta Stölzl
  • 27. Gunta Stölzl
  • 28. Bauhaus artists were active in the graphic arts.
  • 29. The typography workshop, while not initially a priority of the Bauhaus, became increasingly important under figures like Moholy-Nagy and the graphic designer Herbert Bayer.
  • 30. typography curriculum
  • 31. Metalworking was another popular workshop at the Bauhaus and, along with the cabinetmaking studio, was the most successful in developing design prototypes for mass production. In this studio, designers such as Marianne Brandt, Wilhelm Wagenfeld , and Christian Dell (1893–1974) created beautiful, modern items such as lighting fixtures and tableware. Tea infuser and strainer, 1924 Marianne Brandt , Silver and ebony
  • 32. Kubus stacking containers, ca. 1938 Wilhelm Wagenfeld , Glass
  • 33. PRINCIPLES • Mass production over individual craftsmanship. • Synthesis of fine & applied arts. • New & modern sense of beauty through rational design. • A forward-thinking over an academically qualified faculty, including purely creative artists as spiritual counterpoints to the practical technicians. • Thorough experience with materials. • Student offered no refuge in the past, should be equipped for modern world in various aspects: artistic, technical, social, economic, spiritual. He must function in society not as a decorator but as a vital participant.
  • 34. Itten THREE TASKS OF FIRST YEAR COURSE: 1 Free unique creativity of student. 2 Make choice of career easier. 3 Convey design fundamentals. COURSE METHODOLOGY: 1 Experiments with actual materials. 2 Analyses of old masters. 3 Color and form theory. FIRST YEAR: PRELIMINARY COURSE Johannes
  • 35. Itten FIRST YEAR: PRELIMINARY COURSE Johannes Horizontal/Vertikal, 1915 Vogelthema, 1918
  • 36. Albers Month 1: GLASS. Month 2: PAPER Month 3: TWO MATERIAL COMBINATION. Month 4: STUDENT CHOICE. PRELIMINARY COURSE 1922-33 Josef “Discover” specific qualities of materials. Produce no waste. Grid Mounted, glass assemblage 1922
  • 37. Albers 1888-1976 Josef Homage to a Square, 1971 Bundled, 1925
  • 38. Moholy-Nagy PRELIMINARY COURSE 1923-1928 László 1: Combine elements to corresponded to preconceived idea. Response manifested on “tactile charts.” Grid Mounted, glass assemblage 1922 3: 3D studies to sharpen sense of volume: simple elements and materials used to construct objects in both visual and real balance. 2: Distinguish composition (balance between parts) from construction.
  • 39. Moholy-Nagy 1895-1946 László Dual Form with Chromium Rods, 1946 Eifersucht (Jealousy), 1927 AXL II, 1924 Leuk 5, 1946
  • 40. From left: Josef Albers, Hinnerk Scheper, Georg Muche, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, Herbert Bayer, Joost Schmidt, Walter Gropius, Marcel Breuer, Vassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, Lyonel Feininger, Gunta Stozl and Oskar Schlemmer. MASTERS
  • 41. & textile design • woman-run • weaving technique coupled well with Bauhaus aesthetic • contrasting material, thick / thin, glossy / matte Gunta Stölzl weaving w/ Marcel Breuer African Chair, 1921 Kitty Fischer-van der Mijll- Dekker woollen blanket design, gouache 1932
  • 42. Kathedrale Woodcut, 1919 Street in Arceuil 1915 Gables I, Lueneberg, 1925 1871- 1956 FINE ART MASTERS: Lyonel Feininger
  • 43. & Joost Schmidt Weimar Bauhaus Poster 1923 Universal Type 1926 Bauhaus Journal Cover 1928 graphic design typography Kiosk for exhibition stand 1924 • ALL CAPS or all lower case • sans serif • grid structures & geometric forms • bold & primary colors HERBERT BAYER
  • 44. FINE ART MASTERS: Vassily Kandinski Impression III 1911 Untitled 1922 1866-1944 Swinging 1925
  • 45. & metalwork photography Self portrait with jewelry for metal party 1929 Marianne Brandt
  • 46. cont. Marianne Bildergalerie Teapot, 1930 Bildergalerie Ruppel-Trio desk set, 1930 Touch desk lamp 1930 Weimar Metal Workshop, 1923 Lidded Bowl, 1930 Ashtrays…
  • 47. Highway and Byways 1929 Senecio 1922 Zitronin 1932 1879- 1940 FINE ART MASTERS: Paul Klee
  • 49. Born : May 18, 1883 Berlin , Germany  He has been recognized as one of the great modernist architects of twentieth century.  According to Gropius, the spirit of modern times was crystallized not in glass and iron construction like glass , places or bridges.  Which possessed no architectural qualities for him absolutely determined by function with no link to historical architecture.
  • 50.  Walter Gropius studied architecture between 1903 and 1907 at the Technical Universities in Munich and Berlin.  He joined the office of Peter Behrens in 1908. He accepted a position at the German General Electric Company (AEG) and would be responsible for assisting in all aesthetic considerations of the company including its products, advertising and buildings.  It was while he was working under at AEG that he would be introduced to Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Dietrich Marcks and Le Corbousier.
  • 51. In 1910 Gropius left the firm of Behrens and together with fellow employee Adolf Meyer established a practice in Berlin for three years. Together they share credit for one of the seminal modernist buildings created during this period: 1. the Faguswerk in Alfeld-an- der- Leine, Germany, a shoe last factory.
  • 52.  The Fagus Factory , a shoe last factory in Alfeld on the Leine in Germany, is an important example of early modern architecture.  The Fagus main building can be seen as an inversion of the Turbine factory.  Both have corners free of supports, and glass surfaces between piers that cover the whole height of the building.
  • 53. Simplicity of all elements that have same significance: 1. Load-bearing construction 2. Non-bearing elements and curtain wall (glass façade) 3. Glass corners – lightness • Functional, technical language of forms. Functionality is getting aesthetic dimensions. The first one is the use of floor-to-ceiling glass windows on steel frames that go around the corners of the buildings without a visible (most of the time without any) structural support. The other unifying element is the use of brick.The first one is the use of floor-to-ceiling glass windows on steel frames that go around the corners of the buildings without a visible (most of the time without any) structural support. The other unifying element is the use of brick.
  • 54.  The Turbine factory the corners are covered by heavy elements that slant inside. The glass surfaces also slant inside and are recessed in relation to the piers.  The load-bearing elements are attenuated and the building has an image of stability and monumentality.  In Fagus exactly the opposite happens; the corners are left open and the piers are recessed leaving the glass surface to the front
  • 55. The interiors of the building, which contained mainly offices, were finished in the mid 20s. The other two big buildings on the site are the production hall and the warehouse. Both were constructed in 1911 and expanded in 1913. The interior of the building reflects a functional, open floor plan.
  • 56. CONSTRUCTION SYSTEM  The main building was erected on top of a structurally stable basement with flat caps. Nonreinforced (or compressed) concrete, mixed with pebble dashing was used for the basement walls, an unfortunate blend unable to support great individual loads.  The ceilings were underpinned with a formwork shell and finished in rough-cast plaster on the services installation side. The floors were composed of planks on loose sleepers – that is, sleepers that were not fixed between the floor joists.  Along the side of the building, 3-millimetre-thick steel plates sealed the wedge between window frame and piers.
  • 57.  All buildings have a base of about 40 cm of black brick and the rest is built of yellow bricks.  In order to enhance this feeling of lightness, Gropius and Meyer used a series of optical refinements like greater horizontal than vertical elements on the windows, longer windows on the corners and taller windows on the last floor.
  • 58. The basic structure of the Bauhaus consists of a clear and carefully thought-out system of connecting wings, which correspond to the internal operating system of the school. The technical construction of the building is demonstrated by the latest technological development of the time: a skeleton of reinforced concrete with brickwork, mushroom- shaped ceilings on the lower level, and roofs covered with asphalt tile
  • 59. • "It consists of three connected wings or bridges. • School and workshop are connected through a two-story bridge, which spans the approach road from Dessau. The administration was located on the lower level of the bridge, and on the upper level was the private office of the two architects, Walter Gropius and Adolf Meyer. • The dormitories and the school building are connected through a wing where the assembly hall and the dining room are located, with a stage between. ORGANIZATION
  • 60. Site plan
  • 61. Floor plan
  • 62. Floor plan
  • 63. Stairs in Weimar and Dessau. detail
  • 64. the-20th-century/ Bauhaus: The Face of the 20th Century
  • 65. 30&list=PL6445F1A076E706C0&index=3 Bauhaus documentary
  • 66. 1st World War brought the end of long 19th century, with Arts and crafts movement and William Morris in UK, and “Deutsche Werkbund – Unity of artists: Hermann Muthesion, Peter Behrens, Teodor Fischer. Strong individuals, industrial production and craft- oriented.
  • 67. Peter Behrens  Born: 1868 Birthplace: Hamburg, Germany  Peter Behrens was a German architect and painter.  He was trained as a painter from 1886 to 1889 at the Karlsruhe school of art.
  • 68.  At the beginning of the century, he brought forth outstanding works in painting, architecture, graphic design and industrial design, which exerted a paramount influence in all these various fields.  In 1899 Behrens accepted the invitation of the Grand-duke Ernst-Ludwig of Hesse to be the second member of his recently-inaugurated Darmstadt Artists' Colony.  Behrens built his own house and fully conceived everything inside the house (furniture, towels, paintings, pottery, etc.)
  • 69. ROLE IN INDUSTRIAL DESIGN  He was one of the leaders of architectural reform at the turn of the century and was a major designer of factories and office buildings in brick, steel and glass.  IN 1907 HE CAME WITH TEN PEOPLE AND 12 COPANIES TO FORM GERMAN WERKBUND: 1. Strong functionality 2. Imposing monumentality 3. Cubic volumes 4. Pared-down language of forms 5. Artistic expression
  • 70.  In 1907, Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gessellschaft (AEG) hired Behrens as a consultant. For them, he re-formed the company's image and create a corporate identity, a first for the time - designing its trademark, stationery and catalogues, and key products of the company. The great architect Walter Gropius later wrote, "It was Behrens who first introduced me to logical and systematical coordination in the handling of architectural problems."
  • 75. CONSTRUCTION DETAILS  Glass and iron took over a workshop of an industrial plant, with an enormous span (28.16 yd.; 25.6 m). Behrens achieved a plastic effect and a dynamic form of construction of the trusses. Very monumental appearance.  which were pulled towards the outside, as well as through the tapering iron trusses and the glass areas which were drawn towards the inside.
  • 77. Expressionism •was a modernist movement, initially in poetry and painting, originating in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century. • Its typical trait is to present the world solely from a subjective perspective, distorting it radically for emotional effect in order to evoke moods or ideas. •expressionist artists sought to express meaning or emotional experience rather than physical reality. expressionism was developed as an avant-garde style before the First World War. •It remained popular during the Weimar Republic, particularly in Berlin. The style extended to a wide range of the arts, including painting, literature, theatre, dance, film, architecture and music.
  • 78. Expressionist architects Adolf Behne Hermann Finsterlin Antoni Gaudí Walter Gropius Hugo Häring Fritz Höger Michel de Klerk Piet Kramer Carl Krayl Erich Mendelsohn Hans Poelzig Hans Scharoun Rudolf Steiner Bruno Taut
  • 79. Hans Poelzig - 1919 Grosses Schauspielhaus, in Berlin
  • 80. Hans Poelzig - 1919 Grosses Schauspielhaus, in Berlin
  • 81. Hans Poelzig - 1919 Grosses Schauspielhaus, in Berlin
  • 82. HANS SCHAROUN Berlin Philharmonic concert hall and the Schminke House in Löbau, Saxony. He was an important exponent of organic and expressionist architecture.
  • 83. HANS SCHAROUN Berlin Philharmonic concert hall
  • 84. HANS SCHAROUN the Schminke House in Löbau, Saxony. He was an important exponent of organic and expressionist architecture.
  • 85. HANS SCHAROUN the Schminke House in Löbau, Saxony. He was an important exponent of organic and expressionist architecture.
  • 86. HANS SCHAROUN the Schminke House in Löbau, Saxony. He was an important exponent of organic and expressionist architecture.
  • 87. HANS SCHAROUN the Schminke House in Löbau, Saxony. He was an important exponent of organic and expressionist architecture.
  • 88. HANS SCHAROUN the Schminke House in Löbau, Saxony.
  • 89. A living area opens directly off the staircase hall accessed via large sliding glass doors where a pair of 1940s armchairs and two matching sofas have been arranged around a low coffee table HANS SCHAROUN the Schminke House in Löbau, Saxony.
  • 90. In a design decades ahead of its time the ceiling of the winter garden consists of a grid of circular orange concave apertures containing a series of down lights HANS SCHAROUN the Schminke House in Löbau, Saxony.
  • 91. The curved lines of the staircase soften the uncompromising modernist design of the architecture HANS SCHAROUN the Schminke House in Löbau, Saxony.
  • 92. A poignant reminder of the history of the house, a child's wooden railway set and a few books in the built- in bookshelf in the now empty open-plan living area next to the entrance hall HANS SCHAROUN the Schminke House in Löbau, Saxony.
  • 93. HANS SCHAROUN the Schminke House in Löbau, Saxony.
  • 94. •The style was characterised by an early-modernist adoption of novel materials, formal innovation, and very unusual massing, sometimes inspired by natural biomorphic forms, sometimes by the new technical possibilities offered by the mass production of brick, steel and especially glass.
  • 95. Distortion of form for an emotional effect. Subordination of realism to symbolic or stylistic expression of inner experience. An underlying effort at achieving the new, original, and visionary. Representations of concepts more important than pragmatic finished products. Themes of natural romantic phenomena, such as caves, mountains, lightning, crystal and rock formations. As such it is more mineral and elemental than florid and organic which characterised its close contemporary art nouveau. Utilises creative potential of artisan craftsmanship. Tendency more towards the gothic than the classical. Expressionist architecture also tends more towards the romanesque and the rococo than the classical. Conception of architecture as a work of art.
  • 96. Example of expressionist use of monolithic materials was by Erich Mendelsohn at the Einstein Tower. Not to be missed was a pun on the towers namesake, Einstein, and an attempt to make the building out of one stone, Ein stein. Though not cast in one pour of concrete (due to technical difficulties, brick and stucco were used partially) the effect of the building is an expression of the fluidity of concrete before it is cast. ‘Architecture of Steel and Concrete' was the title of an 1919 exhibition of Mendelsohn's sketches at Paul Cassirer's gallery in Berlin. Brick was used in a similar fashion to express the inherent nature of the material.
  • 97. The Einstein Tower is an astrophysical observatory in the Albert Einstein Science Park in Potsdam, Germany built by Erich Mendelsohn.