DESIGN STUDIO 3TERM: April 2013LECTURER: SANDRA DRASKOVICEVOLUTION OF OFFICE SPACE&CHANGING ATTITUDES TOWARD WORK
LITERATURE AND READINGSWWW platforms:http://workawesome.com/office-life/office-designs/http://www.businessinteriors.co.ukhttp://www.officemuseum.com/photo_gallery_1890s_ii.htm
Small office such as a bench in thecorner of a small business (smalloffice/home office) through entire floorsof buildings up to and including massivebuildings dedicated entirely to onecompany. In modern terms an officeusually refers to the locationwhere white-collar workers areemployed.WHAT IS AN OFFICE?
Blue collar and white collar are occupationgroupings. BLUE COLLAR does skilled labor andphysical labor. WHITE COLLAR wears suits andties and does the office and managerial stuff(better working conditions and you get paidmore).The term WHITE-COLLAR worker refers to aperson who performs professional, managerial,or administrative work, in contrast with a BLUE-COLAR worker, whose job requires manuallabor. Typically, white collar work is performed inan office or cubicle.
The word stems from the Latin OFFICIUMwhich referred to often mobile bureautwo thirds of people spendtheir working lives in officesof one sort or another
The relatively elaborate Romanbureaucracy had offices in classicalantiquity as often part of a palacecomplex or a large temple.There was usually a room where scrollswere kept (storage) and scribes(writing) did their work.FIRST OFFICE SPACES – Roman period
ROMAN SCRIBESFrom Latin word scribae wasa public notary or clerk.The public scribes were thehighest in rank of the fourprestigious occupationalgrades.They were writingtreaties (contracts)and edicts (publicdocuments).
ROMAN SCRIBESIn ancient Rome, thescriba (Latin, pluralscribae) was a publicnotary or clerk (see alsoscrivener). The publicscribes were the highest inrank of the four prestigiousoccupational grades(decuriae) among theapparitores, theattendants of themagistrates who werepaid from the statetreasury.A Roman Scribe Writing Dispatches
Pre–Industrial RevolutionThe High Middle Ages (1000–1300) saw the riseof the medieval chancery (middle ageoffice), which was usually the place wheremost government letters were written andwhere laws were copied in the administrationof a kingdom.The rooms of the CHANCERY often had wallsfull of pigeonholes (book shelf), constructed tohold rolled up pieces of parchment forsafekeeping or ready reference.
Medieval chancery withtable for writing andpigeonholes for storingdocuments and transcripts.
Late Medieval Court of Chancery, 1424–1529Medievalchancery in theform of court.Theword chancery is from French,from Latin, andultimately refersto the lattice-work partitionthat divided asection of achurch or court
Pre–Industrial Revolution•Pre-industrial illustrations such as paintings or tapestriesoften show us personalities or eponyms in their privateoffices, handling record keeping books or writing on scrolls ofparchment. Books were read or written in the same space atthe same desk or table, and general accounting andpersonal or private letters were also done there.•Geoffrey Chaucer (English novelist) appears to have firstused the word “office” in 1395 to mean a place wherebusiness is transacted.•Before the Industrial Revolution of the late 18th century and19th century most people worked as farmers. Only a smallminority worked in industry.
Pre–Industrial Revolution•Before the invention of the printing press and itsdistribution there was often a very thin line between aprivate office and a private library since books wereread or written in the same space at the same desk ortable, and general accounting and personal or privateletters
Pre–Industrial Revolution - Renaissance•As mercantilism (Mercantilism is the economicdoctrine that government control of foreign trade is ofparamount importance for ensuring the military securityof the country) became the dominant economictheory of the Renaissance, merchants tended toconduct their business in the same buildings, whichmight include retail sales, warehousing and clericalwork.•During the 15th century, population density in manycities reached the point where stand-alone buildingswere used by merchants to conduct their business, andthere was a developing a distinction between church,government/military and commerce uses for building
A European office from the early 18th century.
Industrial Revolution•The Industrial Revolution was the transition tonew manufacturing processes that occurred inthe period from about 1760 to some timebetween 1820 and 1840.•This transition included going from handproduction methods to machines, newchemical manufacturing and iron productionprocesses, improved efficiency of waterpower, the increasing use of steam power anddevelopment of machine tools.
Industrial Revolution•The Industrial Revolution (18th and 19th century)brought the rise of banking, railroads, insurance,retailing, oil, and the telegraph industries. Anincreasing large number of clerks (white-collarworker who conducts general office tasks ) wereneeded to handle order-processing, accounting,and file documents, with increasingly specializedoffice space required.•Most of the desks of the era were top heavy withpaper storage bins extending above the desk-work area, giving the appearance of a cubicaland offering the workers some degree of privacy.
Industrial Revolution•First multi-story buildings,which were limited toabout 10 stories until theuse of iron and steel.•The Temple Building, builtin 1895, was one of the firstskyscrapers and the tallestbuilding in Toronto
Industrial Revolution•The Home InsuranceBuilding, Chicago, 1890•By the end of the 19thcentury, larger officebuildings frequentlycontained largeglass atriums to allow lightinto the complex andimprove air circulation.
Industrial Revolution•The invention of thesafety elevator in 1852by Elisha Otis saw therapid escalationupward of buildings.• By the end of the19th century, largeroffice buildingsfrequently containedlarge glass atriums toallow light into thecomplex and improveair circulation.Larkin Building, N.Y,1903–05 (Frank Lloyd Wright)
Industrial RevolutionOffice space from 18thCentury specialized tomeet needs of growingworking activities such asprocessing, accounting,and file documents.
Industrial RevolutionHistoric Photos of the PatentOffice Building "Great Hall,"19th century
Industrial RevolutionOffice of R.G.Dun &CO. Mercantile(commercial) agency.
Industrial RevolutionPostal, Telegraph &Telephone Service
Industrial Revolution"Grimmestad Landand Loan Office,"Belview, Minn., c. 1895
Industrial RevolutionMan and woman inprivate office, 1895
Industrial Revolution"Main Office," HomeOffice Building,National Fire InsuranceCo. of Hartford, CT,1897.
Taylorism (ca. 1904)•American engineer FrederickTaylor (American mechanical engineerwho sought to improve industrialefficiency) was obsessed with efficiencyand oversight and is credited as one ofthe first people to design an office space.•Taylor crowded workers together in acompletely open environment whilebosses looked on from private offices,much like on a factory floor.01
01With his “Johnson Wax” office complex,Frank Lloyd Wright aimed to create anarchitectural “gesamtkunstwerk”Taylorism (ca. 1904)
01Office interior of Frank Lloyd Wright’sJohnson Wax BuildingTaylorism (ca. 1904)
The Austrian Post Office Savings Bank(Die Österreichische Postsparkasse)Otto Wagner, 190601Taylorism (ca. 1904)
The Austrian Post Office Savings Bank(Die Österreichische Postsparkasse)Otto Wagner, 190601Taylorism (ca. 1904)
This layout was rooted in the work of industrialengineers and efficiency experts such as FrederickWinslow Taylor and Henry Ford.01Taylorism (ca. 1904)
Bürolandschaft (ca. 1960)•The German "office landscape" broughtthe socialist values of 1950s Europe to theworkplace: Management was no longercosseted in executive suites.•Local arrangements might vary byfunction, side-by-side workstations forclerks, typists, engineers or pinwheelperformed repetitive functions,arrangements that make chatting easier,but the layout stayed undivided.02
Bürolandschaft (ca. 1960)•Typical designs used contemporary butconventional furniture which was available atthe time. Standard desks and chairs, withlateral file cabinets, curved screens, and largepotted plants used as visual barriers and spacedefiners.•Floor plans frequently used irregular geometryand organic circulation patterns to enhancethe egalitarian nature of the plan.•Many designs used slightly lower than normaloccupancy density to mitigate the acousticalproblems inherent in open designs.02
Bürolandschaft (ca. 1960)• The German "office landscape" brought thesocialist values of 1950s Europe to theworkplace:1.Management was no longer cosseted inexecutive suites.2.Local arrangements might vary by function:side-by-side workstations for clerks or pinwheelarrangements for designers, to make chattingeasier, but the layout stayed undivided.02
Bürolandschaft (ca. 1960) 02German State Library (1964–79, Hans Scharoun)
Bürolandschaft (ca. 1960) 02Early use of Herman miller’s Action Office, late 1960s
Bürolandschaft (ca. 1960) 02•The sea of cubicles, likely enhanced by somefancy matte painting, speaks volumes aboutmodern corporate life.•The idea of the Action Office is to create anenvironment where creative people caninteract with each other more freely.•However, there is a trend to do away with thecubicle and just give workers a place to settheir laptops; no walls, no personal space, justcompletely open.
ACTION OFFICE (ca. 1968) 03•First introduced in 1964 as the Action Office I product line,then superseded by the Action Office II series, it is aninfluential design in the history of “contract furniture” (officefurniture). The Action Office II series introduced the concept ofthe flexible, semi-enclosed workspaces, now better known asthe cubicle.•Derived from organizational theory, the rationale ofbürolandschaft was based on a more complex scientific‘model’ of ‘human relations’ rather than Taylorism.•Bürolandschaft inspired Herman Miller and Robert Propst tocreate a product based on the new European workplacephilosophy. Action was the first modular business furnituresystem, with low dividers and flexible work surfaces. Its still inproduction today and widely used. In fact, you probablyknow Action by its generic, more sinister name: cubicle.
ACTION OFFICE (ca. 1968) 02“Action Office 1”, a collaboration project byGeorge Nelson and Robert Probst,the most influential concepts inthe history of office furniture and design
ACTION OFFICE I• AO-I featured desks and workspaces of varyingheight that allowed the worker freedom of movement,and the flexibility to assume the work position bestsuited for the task. It was ideally suited to smallprofessional offices in which managers and employeesoften interacted using the same furnishings. It sufferedfrom a few problems, however, as it was expensive,difficult to assemble, and it wasn’t suitable for offices atlarge corporationsACTION OFFICE (ca. 1968) 03
ACTION OFFICE II• Propst was free to explore concept of an office that wascapable of frequent modification to suit the changingneeds of the employee, without having to purchase newfurnishings.• He wanted to allow the employee a degree of privacy,and the ability to personalize their work environment withoutimpacting the environment of the workers around them.• Propst recognized that people are more productive withina territorial enclave that they can personalize, but alsorequire vistas outside their space.• The AO-II lineup was an unprecedented success, and wasquickly copied by other manufacturers.ACTION OFFICE (ca. 1968) 03
ACTION OFFICE II todayACTION OFFICE (ca. 1968) 03
CUBE FARM (ca. 1980) 04•Its the cubicle concept taken to the extreme. As theranks of middle managers swelled, a new class ofemployee was created: too important for a mere deskbut too junior for a window seat.•Facilities managers accommodated them in thecheapest way possible, with modular walls. The sea ofcubicles was born.•Тhe cubicle, cubicle desk, office cubicle or cubicleworkstation is a partially enclosed workspace,separated from neighboring workspaces by partitionsthat are usually 5–6 feet (1.5–1.8 m) tall. Its purpose is toisolate office workers from the sights and noises of anopen workspace so that they may concentratewithout distractions.
CUBE FARM (ca. 1980) 04• The term cubicle comes from the Latin cubiculum, for bedchamber. It was used in English as early as the 15th century.It eventually came to be used for small chambers of all sorts,and for small rooms or study spaces with partitions which donot reach to the ceiling.• Like the older carrel desk, a cubicle seeks to give a degreeof privacy to the user while taking up minimal space in alarge or medium sized room. Prior to the widespreadadoption of cubicles, office workers often worked at desksarranged in rows in an open room, where they wereexposed to the sounds and activity of those working aroundthem. Many cube farms were built during the dotcomboom.• Cube farms are often found in high-tech companies, butthey also appear in the insurance industry and otherservice-related fields.
Virtual office and networking (ca. 1994) 05•Ad agency TBWA Chiat Days LA headquarters was a FrankGehry masterpiece. But the interior, dreamed up by thecompanys CEO, was a fiasco. The virtual office had nopersonal desks; you grabbed a laptop in the morning andscrambled to claim a seat.•Productivity nose-dived, and the firm quickly became alaughingstock.•During the past decade, furniture designers have tried topart the sea of cubicles and encourage sociability.•Knoll, for example, created systems with movable, semi-enclosed pods and connected desks whose shapeseparates work areas in lieu of dividers.•Vitra unveiled furniture in which privacy is suggested if notrealized. Its large tables have low dividers that cordon offpersonal space but wont guard personal calls.
Virtual office and networking (ca. 1994) 05•Now, we have some companies that encouragecomfort and creativity by allowing their employees towear slippers or casual clothes to work. Most officeshave also adopted a casual Friday where employeesare allowed to go to office wearing casual, be itappropriate for the office, clothing. •Aside from fashion and our attire, a lot of others thingshave changed including the very idea of going tooffice. When you say going to office, people generallythink of you having a 9:00 AM to 5:00 PM everyweekday. Now, people are able to have what is beingcalled “virtual offices” also offered by RingCentralwhere they can work out of the office or any spacethey deem conducive to productivity
LAYOUT ORGANIZATION WORKOPEN OFFICE CUBICLE TEAM SPACEPRIVATE OFFICE SHARED OFFICE WORK LOUNGE
LAYOUT ORGANIZATION MEETINGSMALL MEETINGROOMLARGE MEETINGROOMSMALL MEETINGSPACELARGE MEETINGSPACEBRAINSTORMINGROOMMEETING POINT
LAYOUT ORGANIZATION - SUPPORTFILING AREA BREAK AREA CIRCULATIONLOCKERS ACTIVITY ROOM MAILING