Frank Lloyd Wright Influences and stages in career


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Frank Lloyd Wright Influences and stages in career

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Frank Lloyd Wright Influences and stages in career

  1. 1. As for the future—the work shall grow more truly simple; more expressive with fewer lines, fewer forms; more articulate with less labor; more plastic; more fluent, although more coherent; more organic. It shall grow not only to fit more perfectly the methods and processes that are called upon to produce it, but shall further find whatever is lovely or of good repute in method or process, and idealize it with the cleanest, most virile stroke I can imagine. As understanding and appreciation of life matures and deepens, this work shall prophesy and idealize the character of the individual it is fashioned to serve more intimately, no matter how inexpensive the result must finally be. It shall become in its atmosphere as pure and elevating in its humble way as the trees and flowers are in their perfectly appointed way, for only so can architecture be worthy its high rank as a fine art, or the architect discharge the obligation he assumes to the public—imposed upon him by the nature of his own profession. “ “
  2. 2.  TOTAL DESIGN APPROACH: Work through every stage of the project from holistic artistic design and vision in total till smallest details of the interior and furniture. Personal stamp to every detail in exterior and interior.  From “FORM FOLLOWS FUNCTION” which was theoretical approach of American architect Louis Sullivan till his own theoretical statement “UNITY OF FORM AND FUNCTION”  During rich career he has accomplished and built more than 400 projects. Many different period and styles during career.
  3. 3.  During his seventy-year career, Wright created over 1,100 designs nearly half of which were realized.  These included commercial buildings, apartment towers, recreational complexes, museums, religious houses, residences for the wealthy and those of more modest income, furniture, lighting features, textiles, and art glass.  In creating what he called an “architecture for democracy” he redefined our concept of space, offering everyone the opportunity to live and grow in nourishing environments, connected physically and spiritually to the natural world.
  4. 4.  Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959) was born in Richland Center, Wisconsin, on June 8, 1867, the son of William Carey Wright, a preacher and a musician, and Anna Lloyd Jones, a teacher whose large Welsh family had settled the valley area near Spring Green, Wisconsin.  Wright's parents divorced in 1885, making already difficult financial circumstances even more challenging.  F.L.Wright didn’t finish specialist college (due to lack of money and family issues). He took draftsmanship course at the State University of Wisconsin which he dropped and started to work for Sullivan studio.  He wanted to become an architect and in 1887 he left Madison for Chicago, where he found work with two different firms before being hired by the prestigious partnership of Adler and Sullivan, working directly under Louis Sullivan for six years.
  5. 5. • Louis Sullivan was the only architect whose influence Wright acknowledged. • During this period, the firm’s work included such famous designs as the Auditorium Building, the Walker Warehouse, the Schiller Building, the Transportation Building at the 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition, the Chicago Stock Exchange, the Wainwright Building, as well as the Getty and Ryerson tombs in Chicago’s Graceland Cemetery. • Wright was less influenced by Sullivan’s remarkable designs than by his philosophy and manner of thinking. •“the creation of architecture must be natural, intuitive,“ and “evolve from and express the environment from which it grows.“
  6. 6. Walker Warehouse Chicago Stock Exchange
  7. 7. Schiller Building Getty and Ryerson tombs in Chicago’s Graceland Cemetery
  8. 8.  1924. CHARLES ENNIS HOUSE was made out of industrially produced concrete blocks. Spirit of modernism interiors and applied technology is used in ARTS & CRAFTS way, decorate façade in Mayan style, against he spirit of Adolf Loos “ornament is crime”.
  9. 9.  F.L. Wright was impressed by high-rise buildings of Chicago and transformations that modern technology brouight to architecture and art. Problem of monumentality withing Sullivan and Wright architecture got dual character: classical style and stone in city and gothic style and shingle in suburb  Inspiration found in book “Grammar of Ornament” from Oven Jones – exotic, Chinese, Egyptian, Assyrian, Celtic ornaments collected in a book. Owen Jones (1809 – 1874) was a London-born architect and designer and one of the most influential design theorists of the nineteenth century.  In Wright’s atelier in Oak Park, mural presents a man of Arabia.
  10. 10.  The influential building blocks were developed by the German educator Friedrich Froebel in the late 1830s and early 1840s. His system of “gifts“ was a highly structured program that taught discipline as well as simple forms, geometric designs, and basic mathematical principles. Through the Froebel gifts, Wright learned design principles in geometric form.
  11. 11.  From nature, he abstracted patterns and forms. Anna Wright instilled in her son a love of nature’s beauty and variety. This appreciation was reinforced during the summers Wright spent on his uncle’s farm, where he became familiar with the cycles of growth and change.  Wright’s appreciation for music stayed with him throughout his lifetime, a constant inspiration for his work.  Later, Louis Sullivan, through his own abstractions of nature, taught Wright how to analyze nature, not just as it appears at the moment, but as a process of growth and an evolution from seed to plant to flower to seed. “A building is only organic when the exterior and the interior exist in unison and when both are in harmony with the character and nature of its purpose, its reason for existance, its location, and the time of it’s creation.”
  12. 12.  Commercial building Prism  House Heller, 1895  House Husser, 1899
  13. 13.  In 1889, at age twenty-two, Wright married Catherine Lee Tobin.  Anxious to build his own home, he negotiated a five-year contract with Sullivan in exchange for the loan of the necessary money. He purchased a wooded corner lot in the Chicago suburb of Oak Park and built his first house, a modest residence reminiscent of the East Coast shingle style with its prominent roof gable, but reflecting Wright’s ingenuity as he experimented with geometric shapes and volumes in the studio and playroom he later added for his ever-growing family of six children.  1894. Wright set up his own studio in Chicago. The split with Sullivan, however, presented the opportunity Wright needed to go out on his own. He opened an office and began his quest to design homes that he believed would truly belong on the American prairie.
  14. 14.  The William H. Winslow House was Wright’s first independent commission.  These houses reflected the long, low horizontal prairie on which they sat with low-pitched roofs, deep overhangs, no attics or basements, and generally long rows of casement windows that further emphasized the horizontal theme.  Some of Wright's most important residential works are: 1. the Darwin D. Martin House in Buffalo, New York (1903); 2. the Avery Coonley House in Riverside, Illinois (1907); and 3. the Frederick C. Robie House in Chicago (1908).  Important public commissions included: 1. the Larkin Company Administration Building in Buffalo (1903, demolished 1950) and 2. Unity Temple in Oak Park (1905).
  15. 15.  Free open plan  House living room assembled around the hearth (brick or stone fire place) – moral and spiritual center of house  House opens on the landscape  Wide projecting roof  Massive base  Windows that occupy all sides  Dominant horizontals and vertical chimney  One level house plan  Low slope roof  Commercial buildings - unified space with light from above (skylight) surrounded by galleries
  16. 16. Darwin D. Martin House in Buffalo, New York
  17. 17. Frederick C. Robie House in Chicago
  18. 18.  Frank Lloyd Wright designed some 14 buildings for Japan: an embassy, a school, two hotels and a temporary hotel annex, a commercial-residential complex, a theater, an official residence for the prime minister and six private residences. Of these, six were built: the Imperial Hotel and Annex, the Jiyu Gakuen School, the Aisaku Hayashi House, the Arinobu Fukuhara House and the Tazaemon Yamamura House.
  19. 19.  His 1893 visits to Japan’s national pavilion at the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago had a lasting affect on the young architect. He first went to Japan in 1905, and returned from the trip with a large selection of prints, many of which he intended to sell. Later, he resided in Japan while working on Tokyo’s Imperial Hotel, giving him the chance to deepen his appreciation of Japanese nature and culture as seen in woodblock prints.  “At last I had found one country on earth where simplicity, as nature, is supreme”  He returned from his first trip to Japan with hundreds of ukiyo-e (woodblock) prints, planning to sell them in America.  Tokonoma as inspiration, center of house, interior divisions, flexibility
  20. 20.  Imperial Hotel, Tokyo, 1912 - 1922 U.S. Embassy (Project), Tokyo, 1914 Aisaku Hayashi House, Tokyo, 1917 Odawara Hotel (Project), Odawara, 1917 Ginza Motion Picture Theater (Project), Tokyo, 1918 Mihara House (Project), Tokyo, 1918 Arinobu Fukuhara House, Hakone, 1918 Tadashiro Inoue House (Project), Tokyo, 1918 Tazaemon Yamamura House, Ashiya, 1918 Imperial Hotel Annex, Tokyo, 1920 Shimpei Goto House (Project), Tokyo, 1921 Jiyu Gakuen School, Tokyo, 1921 Prime Minister's Residence (Project), Tokyo, 1922 Hibiya Triangle Building (Project), Tokyo, 1922
  21. 21.  Wright began designing the new Imperial Hotel in 1912, and spent 11 years nurturing the masterpiece to completion. Located on a prime site in central Tokyo, just across from Hibiya Park and the Imperial Palace, the hotel had to serve a unique role: pleasing foreign visitors with the latest amenities while upholding Japan's proud aesthetic tradition.  Although Wright's design was fairly classical, it included controversial "floating foundations" to protect the structure from Tokyo's frequent earthquakes. The H-shaped building featured two three-story wings running the 500-foot length of the site, with some 245 guestrooms opening onto interior courtyards. The wings led to a seven-story building at the back, containing a theater, cabaret and banquet rooms.
  22. 22.  Creatively exhausted and emotionally restless, late in 1909 Wright left his family for an extended stay in Europe with Mamah Borthwick Cheney.  During this European period Wright worked on two publications of his work, published by Ernst Wasmuth, one of drawings known as the Wasmuth Portfolio, Ausgeführte Bauten und Entwürfe von Frank Lloyd Wright, and one of photographs, Ausgeführte Bauten, both released in 1911.  Commissions: 1. 1913 for an entertainment center called Midway Gardens in Chicago; 2. 1916, for the new Imperial Hotel in Tokyo, Japan.
  23. 23.  In August 1914, Wright’s life with Mamah was tragically closed: while Wright was in Chicago working on Midway Gardens, an insane servant set fire to the living quarters of Taliesin, and murdered Mamah Cheney, her two children, and four others.  Emotionally and spiritually devastated by the tragedy, Wright was able to find solace only in work and he began to rebuild Taliesin in Mamah’s memory.  The years between 1922 and 1934 Wright had established an office in Los Angeles, but following his return from Japan in 1922 commissions were scarce, with the exception of the four textile block houses of 1923–1924 (Millard, Storer, Freeman and Ennis). He soon abandoned the West Coast and returned to Taliesin.
  24. 24.  In 1928, Wright married Olga Lazovich (known as Olgivanna), daughter of a Chief Justice of Montenegro, whom he had met a few years earlier in Chicago. She proved to be the partner and stabilizing influence he needed.  With few architectural commissions coming his way, Wright turned to writing and lecturing .Two important publications came out in 1932: An Autobiography and The Disappearing City.  At about this same time, Wright and Olgivanna founded an architectural school at Taliesin, the "Taliesin Fellowship" an apprenticeship program to provide a total learning environment, integrating not only architecture and construction, but also farming, gardening, and cooking, and the study of nature, music, art, and dance.
  25. 25. An Autobiography and The Disappearing City Taliesin Fellowship
  26. 26. Taliesin Fellowship
  27. 27. 'Saguaro Forms and Cactus Flowers.' Rug design, 1955. Scherzo. Rug design, 1955.
  28. 28.  Wright was by this time still considered a great architect, but one whose time had come and gone. In 1936, Wright proved this sentiment wrong as he staged a remarkable comeback with several important commissions, including: 1. the S.C. Johnson and Son Company Administration Building in Racine, Wisconsin; 2. Fallingwater, the country house for Edgar Kaufmann in rural Pennsylvania; and 3. the Herbert Jacobs House (the first executed "Usonian" house) in Madison, Wisconsin.  Here he and the Taliesin Fellowship began the construction of Taliesin West as a winter camp, a bold new endeavor for desert living where he tested design innovations, structural ideas, and building details that responded to the dramatic desert setting.
  29. 29. Herbert Jacobs House Fallingwater Taliesin West
  30. 30.  With the end of the war in 1945, many apprentices returned and work again flowed into the studio.  Completed public projects over the next decade included: 1. the Research Tower for the SC Johnson Company, 2. a Unitarian meeting house in Madison, 3. a skyscraper in Oklahoma, 4. Other, ultimately unbuilt, projects included a hotel for Dallas, Texas, two large civic commissions for Pittsburgh, a sports club for Hollywood, a mile-high tower for Chicago, a department store for Ahmedabad, India, and a plan for Greater Baghdad.  Wright opened his last decade with work on a large exhibition, Frank Lloyd Wright: Sixty Years of Living Architecture, which was soon on an international tour traveling to Florence, Paris, Zurich, Munich, Rotterdam, and Mexico City.
  31. 31. Research Tower for the SC Johnson Company Unitarian meeting house in Madison
  32. 32. Desk chair, designed by Frank Lloyd Wright, 1936-7 Chair from the Isobel Roberts House, designed by Frank Lloyd Wright, 1908.