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    Guías de manejo evaluación cardiovascular preoperatoria en cirugía no cardiaca 2007 Guías de manejo evaluación cardiovascular preoperatoria en cirugía no cardiaca 2007 Document Transcript

    • Cardiovascular Anesthesiology Cardiovascular and Thoracic Education Hemostasis and Transfusion MedicineSection Editor: Charles W. Houge, Jr. Section editor: Martin J. London Section Editor: Jerrold H. LevySpecial Article ACC/AHA 2007 Guidelines on Perioperative Cardiovascular Evaluation and Care for Noncardiac Surgery: Executive SummaryA Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association TaskForce on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Revise the 2002 Guidelines onPerioperative Cardiovascular Evaluation for Noncardiac Surgery)Developed in Collaboration With the American Society of Echocardiography, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology,Heart Rhythm Society, Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography andInterventions, Society for Vascular Medicine and Biology, and Society for Vascular SurgeryWRITING COMMITTEE MEMBERSLee A. Fleisher, MD, FACC, FAHA, Chair; Joshua A. Beckman, MD, FACC¶; Kenneth A. Brown, MD, FACC, FAHA†;Hugh Calkins, MD, FACC, FAHA‡; Elliott Chaikof, MD#; Kirsten E. Fleischmann, MD, MPH, FACC;William K. Freeman, MD, FACC*; James B. Froehlich, MD, MPH, FACC; Edward K. Kasper, MD, FACC;Judy R. Kersten, MD, FACC§; Barbara Riegel, DNSc, RN, FAHA; John F. Robb, MD, FACCACC/AHA TASK FORCE MEMBERSSidney C. Smith, Jr, MD, FACC, FAHA, Chair; Alice K. Jacobs, MD, FACC, FAHA, Vice Chair; Cynthia D. Adams, MSN, PhD,FAHA†; Jeffrey L. Anderson, MD, FACC, FAHA††; Elliott M. Antman, MD, FACC, FAHA**; Christopher E. Buller, MD, FACC;Mark A. Creager, MD, FACC, FAHA; Steven M. Ettinger, MD, FACC; David P. Faxon, MD, FACC, FAHA††;Valentin Fuster, MD, PhD, FACC, FAHA††; Jonathan L. Halperin, MD, FACC, FAHA††; Loren F. Hiratzka, MD, FACC, FAHA††;Sharon A. Hunt, MD, FACC, FAHA††; Bruce W. Lytle, MD, FACC, FAHA; Rick Nishimura, MD, FACC, FAHA;Joseph P. Ornato, MD, FACC††; Richard L. Page, MD, FACC, FAHA; Barbara Riegel, DNSc, RN, FAHA††;Lynn G. Tarkington, RN; Clyde W. Yancy, MD, FACC * American Society of Echocardiography Official Representative. † American Society of Nuclear Cardiology Official Representative. ‡ Heart Rhythm Society Official Representative. § Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists Official Representative. Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions Official Representative. ¶ Society for Vascular Medicine and Biology Official Representative. # Society for Vascular Surgery Official Representative. ** Immediate Past Chair. †† Task Force member during this writing effort. This document was approved by the American College of Cardiology Foundation Board of Trustees in 2007 and by the American HeartAssociation Science Advisory and Coordinating Committee in June 2007. When this document is cited, the American College of Cardiology Foundation and American Heart Association request that the followingcitation format be used: Fleisher LA, Beckman JA, Brown KA, Calkins H, Chaikof E, Fleischmann KE, Freeman WK, Froehlich JB, Kasper EK,Kersten JR, Riegel B, Robb JF. ACC/AHA 2007 guidelines on perioperative cardiovascular evaluation and care for noncardiac surgery: executivesummary: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee toRevise the 2002 Guidelines on Perioperative Cardiovascular Evaluation for Noncardiac Surgery). Circulation. 2007;116:1971–1996. This article has been copublished in the October 23, 2007, issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology. Copies: This document is available on the World Wide Web sites of the American College of Cardiology (www.acc.org) and the AmericanHeart Association (my.americanheart.org). To purchase Circulation reprints, call 843-216-2533 or e-mail kelle.ramsay@wolterskluwer.com. Permissions: Multiple copies, modification, alteration, enhancement, and/or distribution of this document are not permitted without the expresspermission of the American College of Cardiology Foundation or the American Heart Association. Instructions for obtaining permission are located athttp://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier 4431. A link to the “Permission Request Form” appears on the right side of the page. Originally published in Circulation. 2007;116:1971-1996. © 2007 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation and the American Heart Association, Inc.DOI: 10.1213/01/ane.0000309024.28586.70Vol. 106, No. 3, March 2008 685
    • TABLE OF CONTENTS VII. Anesthetic Considerations andPreamble.........................................................................686 Intraoperative Management ....................................703I. Definition of the Problem .......................................688 A. Intraoperative Management ..................................703 A. Purpose of These Guidelines ...........................688 B. Perioperative Pain Management...........................703 B. Methodology and Evidence..............................689 VIII. Perioperative Surveillance ......................................703II. General Approach to the Patient .........................692 A. Intraoperative and Postoperative Use of A. History..................................................................693 Pulmonary Artery Catheters.................................703 B. Physical Examination and Routine B. Surveillance for Perioperative MI ...................703 Laboratory Tests .................................................693 IX. Postoperative and Long-Term Management ....703 C. Multivariable Indices to Predict A. Myocardial Infarction: Surveillance and Preoperative Cardiac Morbidity......................694 Treatment.............................................................703 D. Clinical Assessment...........................................694 B. Long-Term Management...................................704 1. Stepwise Approach to Perioperative X. Conclusions ..............................................................704 Cardiac Assessment......................................695 Appendix I ................................................................705III. Disease-Specific Approaches ...............................696 Appendix II...............................................................706 A. Coronary Artery Disease ..................................696 Appendix III .............................................................710 1. Patients With Known CAD ........................696 B. Hypertension .......................................................696 C. Valvular Heart Disease .....................................696 PREAMBLEIV. Surgery-Specific Issues .........................................697 It is important that the medical profession play aV. Supplemental Preoperative Evaluation ..............697 significant role in critically evaluating the use of A. Assessment of LV Function ........................................697 diagnostic procedures and therapies as they are intro- B. Assessment of Risk for CAD and duced and tested in the detection, management, or Assessment of Functional Capacity ................697 prevention of disease states. Rigorous and expert 1. The 12-Lead ECG ..........................................697 analysis of the available data documenting the abso- 2. Exercise Stress Testing for Myocardial lute and relative benefits and risks of those procedures Ischemia and Functional Capacity .............698 and therapies can produce helpful guidelines that 3. Noninvasive Stress Testing ..........................698 improve the effectiveness of care, optimize patientVI. Perioperative Therapy ..........................................698 outcomes, and favorably affect the overall cost of care A. Preoperative Coronary Revascularization by focusing resources on the most effective strategies. With Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting The American College of Cardiology (ACC) Foun- or PCI ...................................................................698 dation and the American Heart Association (AHA) 1. Preoperative Coronary Artery Bypass have jointly engaged in the production of such guide- Grafting ...........................................................698 lines in the area of cardiovascular disease since 1980. 2. Preoperative PCI ...........................................698 The ACC/AHA Task Force on Practice Guidelines, 3. PCI Without Stents: Coronary Balloon whose charge is to develop, update, or revise practice Angioplasty .....................................................698 guidelines for important cardiovascular diseases and 4. PCI: Bare-Metal Coronary Stents ................699 procedures, directs this effort. Writing committees are 5. PCI: Drug-Eluting Stents ..............................699 charged with the task of performing an assessment of 6. Perioperative Management of Patients the evidence and acting as an independent group of With Prior PCI Undergoing Noncardiac authors to develop, update, or revise written recom- Surgery.............................................................699 mendations for clinical practice. 7. Perioperative Management in Patients Who Experts in the subject under consideration have Have Received Intracoronary been selected from both organizations to examine Brachytherapy.............................................................700 subject-specific data and write guidelines. The process 8. Strategy of Percutaneous Revascularization includes additional representatives from other medi- in Patients Needing Urgent Noncardiac cal practitioner and specialty groups when appropri- Surgery.............................................................700 ate. Writing committees are specifically charged to B. Perioperative Medical Therapy ........................701 perform a formal literature review, weigh the strength 1. Perioperative Beta-Blocker Therapy ...........701 of evidence for or against a particular treatment or a. Titration of Beta Blockers ........................701 procedure, and include estimates of expected health b. Withdrawal of Beta Blockers ..................702 outcomes where data exist. Patient-specific modifiers, 2. Perioperative Statin Therapy .......................702 comorbidities, and issues of patient preference that 3. Alpha-2 Agonists............................................702 might influence the choice of particular tests or thera- 4. Perioperative Calcium Channel Blockers ..702 pies are considered, as well as frequency of follow-up C. Intraoperative Electromagnetic Interference and cost-effectiveness. When available, information With Implantable Pacemakers and Cardioverter from studies on cost will be considered; however, Defibrillators..............................................................702 review of data on efficacy and clinical outcomes will686 ACC/AHA 2007 Perioperative Guidelines ANESTHESIA & ANALGESIA
    • Table 1. Applying classification of recommendations and level of evidence. Vol. 106, No. 3, March 2008 © 2007 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation and the American Heart Association, Inc. 687
    • constitute the primary basis for preparing recommen- ultimate judgment regarding care of a particular pa-dations in these guidelines. tient must be made by the healthcare provider and the The ACC/AHA Task Force on Practice Guidelines patient in light of all of the circumstances presented bymakes every effort to avoid any actual, potential, or that patient. There are circumstances in which devia-perceived conflicts of interest that may arise as a result of tions from these guidelines are appropriate.an industry relationship or personal interest of the The guidelines will be reviewed annually by thewriting committee. Specifically, all members of the writ- ACC/AHA Task Force on Practice Guidelines anding committee, as well as peer reviewers of the docu- will be considered current unless they are updated,ment, were asked to provide disclosure statements of all revised, or sunsetted and withdrawn from distribu-such relationships that may be perceived as real or tion. The executive summary and recommendationspotential conflicts of interest. Writing committee mem- are published in the October 23, 2007, issue of thebers are also strongly encouraged to declare a previous Journal of the American College of Cardiology andrelationship with industry that may be perceived as October 23, 2007, issue of Circulation. The full text-relevant to guideline development. If a writing commit- guidelines are e-published in the same issue of thetee member develops a new relationship with industry journals noted above, as well as posted on the ACCduring their tenure, they are required to notify guideline (www.acc.org) and AHA (www.americanheart.org)staff in writing. The continued participation of the writ- Web sites. Copies of the full text and the executiveing committee member will be reviewed. These state- summary are available from both organizations.ments are reviewed by the parent task force, reported Sidney C. Smith, Jr, MD, FACC, FAHAorally to all members of the writing committee at each Chair, ACC/AHA Task Force on Practice Guidelinesmeeting, and updated and reviewed by the writing Alice K. Jacobs, MD, FACC, FAHA,committee as changes occur. Please refer to the method- Vice Chair, ACC/AHA Task Force on Practice Guidelinesology manual for ACC/AHA guideline writing commit-tees, available on the ACC and AHA World WideWeb sites (http://www.acc.org/qualityandscience/ I. DEFINITION OF THE PROBLEMclinical/manual/manual_I.htm and http://circ.ahajournals.org/manual/), for further description A. Purpose of These Guidelinesof the policy on relationships with industry. Please These guidelines represent an update to those pub-see Appendix I for author relationships with indus- lished in 2002 and are intended for physicians andtry and Appendix II for peer reviewer relationships nonphysician caregivers who are involved in thewith industry that are pertinent to these guidelines. preoperative, operative, and postoperative care of These practice guidelines are intended to assist patients undergoing noncardiac surgery. They pro-healthcare providers in clinical decision making by vide a framework for considering cardiac risk ofdescribing a range of generally acceptable approaches noncardiac surgery in a variety of patient and surgicalfor the diagnosis, management, and prevention of situations. The writing committee that prepared thesespecific diseases or conditions. These guidelines at- guidelines strove to incorporate what is currentlytempt to define practices that meet the needs of most known about perioperative risk and how this knowl-patients in most circumstances. Clinical decision mak- edge can be used in the individual patient.ing should consider the quality and availability of The tables and algorithms provide quick refer-expertise in the area where care is provided. These ences for decision making. The overriding theme ofguideline recommendations reflect a consensus of this document is that intervention is rarely neces-expert opinion after a thorough review of the avail- sary to simply lower the risk of surgery unless suchable, current scientific evidence and are intended to intervention is indicated irrespective of the preop-improve patient care. erative context. The purpose of preoperative evalu- Patient adherence to prescribed and agreed on ation is not to give medical clearance but rather tomedical regimens and lifestyles is an important aspect perform an evaluation of the patient’s current medi-of treatment. Prescribed courses of treatment in accor- cal status; make recommendations concerning thedance with these recommendations will only be effec- evaluation, management, and risk of cardiac prob-tive if they are followed. Because lack of patient lems over the entire perioperative period; and pro-understanding and adherence may adversely affect vide a clinical risk profile that the patient, primarytreatment outcomes, physicians and other healthcare physician and nonphysician caregivers, anesthesi-providers should make every effort to engage the ologist, and surgeon can use in making treatmentpatient in active participation with prescribed medical decisions that may influence short- and long-termregimens and lifestyles. cardiac outcomes. No test should be performed If these guidelines are used as the basis for regula- unless it is likely to influence patient treatment. Thetory or payer decisions, the ultimate goal is quality of goal of the consultation is the optimal care of thecare and serving the patient’s best interests. The patient.688 ACC/AHA 2007 Perioperative Guidelines ANESTHESIA & ANALGESIA
    • B. Methodology and Evidence factor* who are undergoing vascular surgical The ACC/AHA Committee to Revise the 2002 procedures. (Level of Evidence: B)Guidelines on Perioperative Cardiovascular Evalua- 2. Preoperative resting 12-lead ECG is recom-tion for Noncardiac Surgery conducted a comprehen- mended for patients with known coronary heartsive review of the literature relevant to perioperative disease, peripheral arterial disease, or cerebrovas-cardiac evaluation published since the last publication cular disease who are undergoing intermediate-of these guidelines in 2002. Literature searches were risk surgical procedures. (Level of Evidence: C)conducted in the following databases: PubMed, MED-LINE, and the Cochrane Library (including the Class IIaCochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the 1. Preoperative resting 12-lead ECG is reasonableCochrane Controlled Trials Register). Searches were in persons with no clinical risk factors who arelimited to the English language, the years 2002 undergoing vascular surgical procedures.through 2007, and human subjects. Related-article (Level of Evidence: B)searches were conducted in MEDLINE to find addi- Class IIbtional relevant articles. Finally, committee members 1. Preoperative resting 12-lead ECG may be rea-recommended applicable articles outside the scope of sonable in patients with at least 1 clinical riskthe formal searches. factor who are undergoing intermediate-risk All of the recommendations in this guideline up- operative procedures. (Level of Evidence: B)date were converted from the tabular format used inthe 2002 guidelines to a listing of recommendations Class IIIthat has been written in full sentences to express a 1. Preoperative and postoperative resting 12-leadcomplete thought, such that a recommendation, even ECGs are not indicated in asymptomatic per-if separated and presented apart from the rest of the sons undergoing low-risk surgical procedures.document, would still convey the full intent of the (Level of Evidence: B)recommendation. It is hoped that this will increasethe reader’s comprehension of the guidelines. Also, Recommendations for Noninvasive Stress Testingthe level of evidence, either an A, B, or C, for each Before Noncardiac Surgeryrecommendation is now provided (Table 1). Class I 1 Patients with active cardiac conditions (Table 2) Recommendations in whom noncardiac surgery is planned shouldRecommendations for Preoperative Noninvasive be evaluated and treated per ACC/AHA guide-Evaluation of Left Ventricular Function lines† before noncardiac surgery. (Level of Evi-Class IIa dence: B) 1. It is reasonable for patients with dyspnea of Class IIa unknown origin to undergo preoperative 1. Noninvasive stress testing of patients with 3 or evaluation of left ventricular (LV) function. more clinical risk factors and poor functional (Level of Evidence: C) capacity (less than 4 metabolic equivalents 2. It is reasonable for patients with current or [METs]) who require vascular surgery‡ is rea- prior heart failure with worsening dyspnea or sonable if it will change management. (Level of other change in clinical status to undergo pre- Evidence: B) operative evaluation of LV function if not per- formed within 12 months. (Level of Evidence: C) Class IIb 1. Noninvasive stress testing may be consideredClass IIb for patients with at least 1 to 2 clinical risk 1. Reassessment of LV function in clinically factors Gand poor functional capacity (less than stable patients with previously documented cardiomyopathy is not well established. (Level *Clinical risk factors include history of ischemic heart disease, history of compensated or prior heart failure, history of cerebrovas- of Evidence: C) cular disease, diabetes mellitus, and renal insufficiency. † ACC/AHA/ESC 2006 Guidelines for the Management of Pa-Class III tients With Atrial Fibrillation,1 ACC/AHA 2005 Guideline Update 1. Routine perioperative evaluation of LV func- for the Diagnosis and Management of Chronic Heart Failure in the Adult,2 ACC/AHA Guidelines for the Management of Patients tion in patients is not recommended. (Level of With ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction,3 ACC/AHA/ESC Guide- Evidence: B) lines for the Management of Patients With Supraventricular Ar- rhythmias,4 ACC/AHA Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Unstable Angina and Non–ST-Segment Elevation MyocardialRecommendations for Preoperative Resting 12-Lead Infarction,5 ACC/AHA 2006 Guidelines for the Management ofECG Patients With Valvular Heart Disease,6 and ACC/AHA/ESC 2006Class I Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Ventricular Ar- rhythmias and the Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death.7 1. Preoperative resting 12-lead ECG is recom- ‡ Vascular surgery is defined by aortic and other major vascular mended for patients with at least 1 clinical risk surgery and peripheral vascular surgery. See Table 4.Vol. 106, No. 3, March 2008 © 2007 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation and the American Heart Association, Inc. 689
    • 4 METs) who require intermediate-risk noncar- Class IIa diac surgery if it will change management. 1. In patients in whom coronary revascularization (Level of Evidence: B) with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is 2. Noninvasive stress testing may be considered appropriate for mitigation of cardiac symptoms for patients with at least 1 to 2 clinical risk and who need elective noncardiac surgery in the factors and good functional capacity (greater subsequent 12 months, a strategy of balloon an- than or equal to 4 METs) who are undergoing gioplasty or bare-metal stent placement followed vascular surgery. (Level of Evidence: B) by 4 to 6 weeks of dual-antiplatelet therapy is probably indicated. (Level of Evidence: B)Class III 2. In patients who have received drug-eluting 1. Noninvasive testing is not useful for patients coronary stents and who must undergo urgent with no clinical risk factors undergoing surgical procedures that mandate the discon- intermediate-risk noncardiac surgery. (Level tinuation of thienopyridine therapy, it is rea- of Evidence: C) sonable to continue aspirin if at all possible 2. Noninvasive testing is not useful for patients and restart the thienopyridine as soon as pos- undergoing low-risk noncardiac surgery. (Level sible. (Level of Evidence: C) of Evidence: C) Class IIb 1. The usefulness of preoperative coronary revascu-Recommendations for Preoperative Coronary Revas- larization is not well established in high-riskcularization With Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting ischemic patients (eg, abnormal dobutamineor Percutaneous Coronary Intervention stress echocardiogram with at least 5 segments of(All of the Class I indications below are consistent wall-motion abnormalities). (Level of Evidence: C)with the ACC/AHA 2004 Guideline Update for Cor- 2. The usefulness of preoperative coronary revas-onary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery.) cularization is not well established for low-risk ischemic patients with an abnormal dobuta-Class I mine stress echocardiogram (segments 1 to 4). 1. Coronary revascularization before noncardiac (Level of Evidence: B) surgery is useful in patients with stable angina who have significant left main coronary artery Class III stenosis. (Level of Evidence: A) 1. It is not recommended that routine prophylac- 2. Coronary revascularization before noncardiac tic coronary revascularization be performed in patients with stable coronary artery disease surgery is useful in patients with stable angina (CAD) before noncardiac surgery. (Level of Evi- who have 3-vessel disease. (Survival benefit is dence: B) greater when left ventricular ejection fraction is 2. Elective noncardiac surgery is not recommended less than 0.50.) (Level of Evidence: A) within 4 to 6 weeks of bare-metal coronary stent 3. Coronary revascularization before noncardiac implantation or within 12 months of drug-eluting surgery is useful in patients with stable angina coronary stent implantation in patients in whom who have 2-vessel disease with significant proxi- thienopyridine therapy or aspirin and thienopy- mal left anterior descending stenosis and either ridine therapy will need to be discontinued peri- ejection fraction less than 0.50 or demonstrable operatively. (Level of Evidence: B) ischemia on noninvasive testing. (Level of Evi- 3. Elective noncardiac surgery is not recom- dence: A) mended within 4 weeks of coronary revascu- 4. Coronary revascularization before noncardiac larization with balloon angioplasty. (Level of surgery is recommended for patients with high- Evidence: B) risk unstable angina or non–ST-segment ele- vation myocardial infarction (MI).§ (Level of Recommendations for Beta-Blocker Medical Therapy Evidence: A) Class I 5. Coronary revascularization before noncardiac 1. Beta blockers should be continued in patients surgery is recommended in patients with acute undergoing surgery who are receiving beta ST-elevation MI. (Level of Evidence: A) blockers to treat angina, symptomatic arrhyth- mias, hypertension, or other ACC/AHA Class I § High-risk unstable angina/non–ST-elevation MI patients were guideline indications. (Level of Evidence: C)identified as those with age greater than 75 years, accelerating 2. Beta blockers should be given to patients un-tempo of ischemic symptoms in the preceding 48 hours, ongoingrest pain greater than 20 minutes in duration, pulmonary edema, dergoing vascular surgery who are at highangina with S3 gallop or rales, new or worsening mitral regurgita-tion murmur, hypotension, bradycardia, tachycardia, dynamic ST- Care should be taken in applying recommendations on beta-segment change greater than or equal to 1 mm, new or presumed blocker therapy to patients with decompensated heart failure,new bundle-branch block on ECG, or elevated cardiac biomarkers, nonischemic cardiomyopathy, or severe valvular heart disease insuch as troponin. the absence of coronary heart disease.690 ACC/AHA 2007 Perioperative Guidelines ANESTHESIA & ANALGESIA
    • cardiac risk owing to the finding of ischemia on Class III preoperative testing. (Level of Evidence: B) 1. Alpha-2 agonists should not be given to patients undergoing surgery who have con-Class IIa traindications to this medication. (Level of 1. Beta blockers are probably recommended for Evidence: C) patients undergoing vascular surgery in whom preoperative assessment identifies coronary Recommendation for Preoperative Intensive Care heart disease. (Level of Evidence: B) 2. Beta blockers are probably recommended for Monitoring patients in whom preoperative assessment for Class IIb vascular surgery identifies high cardiac risk, as 1. Preoperative intensive care monitoring with a defined by the presence of more than 1 clinical pulmonary artery catheter for optimization of risk factor.* (Level of Evidence: B) hemodynamic status might be considered; 3. Beta blockers are probably recommended for however, it is rarely required and should be patients in whom preoperative assessment iden- restricted to a very small number of highly tifies coronary heart disease or high cardiac risk, selected patients whose presentation is un- as defined by the presence of more than 1 clinical stable and who have multiple comorbid condi- risk factor,* who are undergoing intermediate- tions. (Level of Evidence: B) risk or vascular surgery. (Level of Evidence: B) Recommendations for Use of Volatile AnestheticClass IIb Agents 1. The usefulness of beta blockers is uncertain Class IIa for patients who are undergoing either 1. It can be beneficial to use volatile anesthetic intermediate-risk procedures or vascular sur- agents during noncardiac surgery for the main- gery, in whom preoperative assessment iden- tenance of general anesthesia in hemodynam- tifies a single clinical risk factor.* (Level of ically stable patients at risk for myocardial Evidence: C) ischemia. (Level of Evidence: B) 2. The usefulness of beta blockers is uncertain in patients undergoing vascular surgery with no Recommendation for Prophylactic Intraoperative clinical risk factors who are not currently tak- Nitroglycerin ing beta blockers. (Level of Evidence: B) Class IIb 1. The usefulness of intraoperative nitroglycerinClass III as a prophylactic agent to prevent myocardial 1. Beta blockers should not be given to patients ischemia and cardiac morbidity is unclear for undergoing surgery who have absolute contrain- high-risk patients undergoing noncardiac dications to beta blockade. (Level of Evidence: C) surgery, particularly those who have requiredRecommendations for Statin Therapy nitrate therapy to control angina. The recom-Class I mendation for prophylactic use of nitroglycerin 1. For patients currently taking statins and sched- must take into account the anesthetic plan and uled for noncardiac surgery, statins should be patient hemodynamics and must recognize that continued. (Level of Evidence: B) vasodilation and hypovolemia can readily oc- cur during anesthesia and surgery. (Level ofClass IIa Evidence: C) 1. For patients undergoing vascular surgery with or without clinical risk factors, statin use is Recommendation for Use of Transesophageal reasonable. (Level of Evidence: B) Echocardiography Class IIaClass IIb 1. The emergency use of intraoperative or periop- 1. For patients with at least 1 clinical risk factor erative transesophageal echocardiography is who are undergoing intermediate-risk proce- reasonable to determine the cause of an acute, dures, statins may be considered. (Level of persistent, and life-threatening hemodynamic Evidence: C) abnormality. (Level of Evidence: C)Recommendations for Alpha-2 AgonistsClass IIb Recommendation for Maintenance of Body 1. Alpha-2 agonists for perioperative control of Temperature hypertension may be considered for patients Class I with known CAD or at least 1 clinical risk 1. Maintenance of body temperature in a normo- factor who are undergoing surgery. (Level of thermic range is recommended for most proce- Evidence: B) dures other than during periods in which mildVol. 106, No. 3, March 2008 © 2007 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation and the American Heart Association, Inc. 691
    • hypothermia is intended to provide organ pro- Class IIb tection (eg, during high aortic cross-clamping). 1. Intraoperative and postoperative ST-segment (Level of Evidence: B) monitoring may be considered in patients with single or multiple risk factors for CAD who are Recommendations for Perioperative Control of undergoing noncardiac surgery. (Level of Evi- Blood Glucose Concentration dence: B)Class IIa Recommendations for Surveillance for Perioperative 1. It is reasonable that blood glucose concentra- MI tion be controlled¶ during the perioperative Class I period in patients with diabetes mellitus or 1. Postoperative troponin measurement is recom- acute hyperglycemia who are at high risk for mended in patients with ECG changes or chest myocardial ischemia or who are undergoing vas- pain typical of acute coronary syndrome. (Level cular and major noncardiac surgical procedures of Evidence: C) with planned intensive care unit admission. (Level of Evidence: B) Class IIb 1. The use of postoperative troponin measure-Class IIb ment is not well established in patients who are 1. The usefulness of strict control of blood glu- clinically stable and have undergone vascular cose concentration¶ during the perioperative and intermediate-risk surgery. (Level of Evi- period is uncertain in patients with diabetes dence: C) mellitus or acute hyperglycemia who are un- dergoing noncardiac surgical procedures with- Class III out planned intensive care unit admission. 1. Postoperative troponin measurement is not rec- (Level of Evidence: C) ommended in asymptomatic stable patients who have undergone low-risk surgery. (Level of Recommendations for Perioperative Use of Pul- Evidence: C) monary Artery CathetersClass IIb II. GENERAL APPROACH TO THE PATIENT 1. Use of a pulmonary artery catheter may be This guideline focuses on the evaluation of the patient reasonable in patients at risk for major hemo- undergoing noncardiac surgery who is at risk for peri- dynamic disturbances that are easily detected operative cardiac morbidity or mortality. In patients by a pulmonary artery catheter; however, the with known CAD or the new onset of signs or symptoms decision must be based on 3 parameters: suggestive of CAD, baseline cardiac assessment should patient disease, surgical procedure (ie, intra- be performed. In the asymptomatic patient, a more operative and postoperative fluid shifts), and extensive assessment of history and physical examina- practice setting (experience in pulmonary ar- tion is warranted in those individuals 50 years of age or tery catheter use and interpretation of results), older, because the evidence related to the determination because incorrect interpretation of the data of cardiac risk factors and derivation of a revised cardiac from a pulmonary artery catheter may cause risk index occurred in this population.8 Preoperative harm. (Level of Evidence: B) cardiac evaluation must therefore be carefully tailored to the circumstances that have prompted the evaluationClass III and to the nature of the surgical illness. In patients in 1. Routine use of a pulmonary artery catheter whom coronary revascularization is not an option, it is perioperatively, especially in patients at low often not necessary to perform a noninvasive stress test. risk of developing hemodynamic disturbances, Under other, less urgent circumstances, the preoperative is not recommended. (Level of Evidence: A) cardiac evaluation may lead to a variety of responses, including cancellation of an elective procedure.Recommendations for Intraoperative and Postopera- If a consultation is requested, then it is important totive Use of ST-Segment Monitoring identify the key questions and ensure that all of theClass IIa perioperative caregivers are considered when provid- 1. Intraoperative and postoperative ST-segment ing a response. Once a consultation has been obtained, monitoring can be useful to monitor patients the consultant should review available patient data, with known CAD or those undergoing vascular obtain a history, and perform a physical examination surgery, with computerized ST-segment analy- that includes a comprehensive cardiovascular exami- sis, when available, used to detect myocardial nation and elements pertinent to the patient’s problem ischemia during the perioperative period. and the proposed surgery. A critical role of the (Level of Evidence: B) consultant is to determine the stability of the patient’s ¶ Blood glucose levels less than 150 mg/dL appear to be benefi- cardiovascular status and whether the patient is incial. optimal medical condition within the context of the692 ACC/AHA 2007 Perioperative Guidelines ANESTHESIA & ANALGESIA
    • Table 2. Active Cardiac Conditions for Which the Patient Should Undergo Evaluation and Treatment Before Noncardiac Surgery(Class I, Level of Evidence: B) Condition ExamplesUnstable coronary syndromes Unstable or severe angina* (CCS class III or IV)† Recent MI‡Decompensated HF (NYHA functional class IV; worsening or new-onset HF)Significant arrhythmias High-grade atrioventricular block Mobitz II atrioventricular block Third-degree atrioventricular heart block Symptomatic ventricular arrhythmias Supraventricular arrhythmias (including atrial fibrillation) with uncontrolled ventricular rate (HR greater than 100 beats per minute at rest) Symptomatic bradycardia Newly recognized ventricular tachycardiaSevere valvular disease Severe aortic stenosis (mean pressure gradient greater than 40 mm Hg, aortic valve area less than 1.0 cm2, or symptomatic) Symptomatic mitral stenosis (progressive dyspnea on exertion, exertional presyncope, or HF)* According to Campeau.9† May include stable angina in patients who are unusually sedentary.‡ The American College of Cardiology National Database Library defines recent MI as more than 7 days but less than or equal to 1 month (within 30 days).CCS indicates Canadian Cardiovascular Society; HF, heart failure; HR, heart rate; MI, myocardial infarction; NYHA, New York Heart Association.surgical illness. The consultant may recommend increased perioperative cardiovascular risk. In pa-changes in medication, suggest preoperative tests or tients with established cardiac disease, any recentprocedures, or propose higher levels of care postop- change in symptoms must be ascertained. Accurateeratively. In general, preoperative tests are recom- recording of current medications used, includingmended only if the information obtained will result in herbal and other nutritional supplements, and dos-a change in the surgical procedure performed, a ages is essential. Use of alcohol, tobacco, and over-the-change in medical therapy or monitoring during or counter and illicit drugs should be documented.after surgery, or a postponement of surgery until the The history should also seek to determine thecardiac condition can be corrected or stabilized. patient’s functional capacity (Table 3). An assess- The consultant must also bear in mind that the ment of an individual’s capacity to perform a spec-perioperative evaluation may be the ideal opportunity to trum of common daily tasks has been shown toeffect the long-term treatment of a patient with signifi- correlate well with maximum oxygen uptake bycant cardiac disease or risk of such disease. The referring treadmill testing.10 A patient classified as high riskphysician and patient should be informed of the results owing to age or known CAD but who is asymptom-of the evaluation and implications for the patient’s atic and runs for 30 minutes daily may need noprognosis. It is the cardiovascular consultant’s responsi- further evaluation. In contrast, a sedentary patientbility to ensure clarity of communication so that findings without a history of cardiovascular disease but withand impressions will be incorporated effectively into the clinical factors that suggest increased perioperativepatient’s overall plan of care. This ideally would include risk may benefit from a more extensive preoperativedirect communication with the surgeon, anesthesiolo- evaluation.12–15gist, and other physicians, as well as frank discussiondirectly with the patient and, if appropriate, the family.The consultant should not use phrases such as “clear for B. Physical Examination and Routine Laboratory Testssurgery.” A careful cardiovascular examination should in- clude an assessment of vital signs (including mea-A. History surement of blood pressure in both arms), carotid A careful history is crucial to the discovery of pulse contour and bruits, jugular venous pressurecardiac and/or comorbid diseases that would place and pulsations, auscultation of the lungs, precordialthe patient in a high surgical risk category. The history palpation and auscultation, abdominal palpation,should seek to identify serious cardiac conditions such and examination of the extremities for edema andas unstable coronary syndromes, prior angina, recent vascular integrity.or past MI, decompensated heart failure, significant Anemia imposes a stress on the cardiovascular sys-arrhythmias, and severe valvular disease (Table 2). It tem that may exacerbate myocardial ischemia and ag-should also determine whether the patient has a prior gravate heart failure.16 Hematocrits of less than 28% arehistory of a pacemaker or implantable cardioverter associated with an increased incidence of perioperativedefibrillator (ICD) or a history of orthostatic intoler- ischemia and postoperative complications in patientsance and should identify risk factors associated with undergoing prostate and vascular surgery.16 –18Vol. 106, No. 3, March 2008 © 2007 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation and the American Heart Association, Inc. 693
    • Table 3. Estimated Energy Requirements for Various Activities Can you. . . Can you. . . 1 MET Take care of yourself? 4 METs Climb a flight of stairs or walk up a hill? Eat, dress, or use the toilet? Walk on level ground at 4 mph (6.4 kph)? 4™™™™™™™™™™™™™™™™™™™™™™™™™ ™™™™™™™™™™™™ Walk indoors around the house? Run a short distance? Walk a block or 2 on level ground at Do heavy work around the house like 2 to 3 mph (3.2 to 4.8 kph)? scrubbing floors or lifting or moving heavy furniture? 44 METs Do light work around the house like Participate in moderate recreational activities dusting or washing dishes? like golf, bowling, dancing, doubles tennis, or throwing a baseball or football? Greater than 10 METs Participate in strenuous sports like swimming, singles tennis, football, basketball, or skiing?kph indicates kilometers per hour; MET, metabolic equivalent; and mph, miles per hour.* Modified from Hlatky et al,10 copyright 1989, with permission from Elsevier, and adapted from Fletcher et al.11C. Multivariable Indices to Predict Preoperative Cardiac of surgery unless the surgery is emergent (Table 2).Morbidity These include The basic clinical evaluation obtained by history, • Unstable coronary syndromes,physical examination, and review of the ECG usually Unstable or severe angina,provides the consultant with sufficient data to esti- Recent MI,mate cardiac risk. Lee et al.8 derived and validated a • Decompensated heart failure,“simple index” for the prediction of cardiac risk for • Significant arrhythmias,stable patients undergoing nonurgent major noncar- • Severe valvular disease.diac surgery. Six independent risk correlates wereidentified: ischemic heart disease (defined as history Given the increasing use of the Revised Cardiacof MI, history of positive treadmill test, use of nitro- Risk Index, the committee chose to replace theglycerin, current complaints of chest pain thought to intermediate-risk category with the clinical risk factorsbe secondary to coronary ischemia, or ECG with from the index, with the exclusion of the type ofabnormal Q waves); congestive heart failure (defined surgery, which is incorporated elsewhere in the ap-as history of heart failure, pulmonary edema, parox- proach to the patient. Clinical risk factors includeysmal nocturnal dyspnea, peripheral edema, bilateral • history of ischemic heart disease,rales, S3, or chest radiograph with pulmonary vascular • history of compensated or prior heart failure,redistribution); cerebral vascular disease (history of • history of cerebrovascular disease,transient ischemic attack or stroke); high-risk surgery • diabetes mellitus, and(abdominal aortic aneurysm or other vascular, tho- • renal insufficiency.8racic, abdominal, or orthopedic surgery); preoperativeinsulin treatment for diabetes mellitus; and preopera- A history of MI or abnormal Q waves by ECG istive creatinine greater than 2 mg per dL. Increasing listed as a clinical risk factor, whereas an acute MInumbers of risk factors correlated with increased risk, (defined as at least 1 documented MI 7 days or lessyet the risk was substantially lower than described in before the examination) or recent MI (more than 7many of the original indices.8 The Revised Cardiac days but less than or equal to 1 month before theRisk Index has become one of the most widely used examination) with evidence of important ischemicrisk indices.8 risk by clinical symptoms or noninvasive study is an active cardiac condition. This definition reflects the consensus of the ACC Cardiovascular DatabaseD. Clinical Assessment Committee. Minor predictors are recognized mark- In the original guidelines, the committee chose to ers for cardiovascular disease that have not beensegregate clinical risk factors into major, intermedi- proven to independently increase perioperativeate, and minor risk factors. There continues to be a risk, For example, advanced age (greater than 70group of active cardiac conditions that when years), abnormal ECG (LV hypertrophy, left bundle-present indicate major clinical risk. The presence of branch block, ST-T abnormalities), rhythm other than1 or more of these conditions mandates intensive sinus, and uncontrolled systemic hypertension. Themanagement and may result in delay or cancellation presence of multiple minor predictors might lead to a694 ACC/AHA 2007 Perioperative Guidelines ANESTHESIA & ANALGESIA
    • Figure 1. Cardiac evaluation and care algorithm for noncardiac surgery based on active clinical conditions, known cardiovasculardisease, or cardiac risk factors for patients 50 years of age or greater. *See Table 2 for active clinical conditions. †See Table 3 forestimated MET level equivalent. ‡Clinical risk factors include ischemic heart disease, compensated or prior heart failure, diabetesmellitus, renal insufficiency, and cerebrovascular disease. §Consider perioperative beta blockade (see Table 5) for populations in whichthis has been shown to reduce cardiac morbidity/mortality. ACC/AHA indicates American College of Cardiology/American HeartAssociation; HR, heart rate; LOE, level of evidence; and MET, metabolic equivalent.higher suspicion of CAD but is not incorporated into the proceed to Step 3. In patients being considered forrecommendations for treatment. elective noncardiac surgery, the presence of unstable coronary disease, decompensated heart failure, or severe 1. Stepwise Approach to Perioperative Cardiac arrhythmia or valvular heart disease usually leads to Assessment cancellation or delay of surgery until the cardiac Figure 1 presents in algorithmic form a framework problem has been clarified and treated appropriately.for determining which patients are candidates for Examples of unstable coronary syndromes includecardiac testing. Since publication of the perioperative previous MI with evidence of important ischemic riskcardiovascular evaluation guidelines in 2002,19 several by clinical symptoms or noninvasive study, unstablenew randomized trials and cohort studies have led to or severe angina, and new or poorly controlled ischemia-modification of the original algorithm. Given theavailability of this evidence, the Writing Committee mediated heart failure. Many patients in these circum-chose to include the level of the recommendations and stances are referred for coronary angiography to assessstrength of evidence for many of the pathways. further therapeutic options. Depending on the results of Step 1: The consultant should determine the ur- the test or interventions and the risk of delayinggency of noncardiac surgery. In many instances, surgery, it may be appropriate to proceed to thepatient- or surgery-specific factors dictate an obvious planned surgery with maximal medical therapy.strategy (eg, emergent surgery) that may not allow for Step 3: Is the patient undergoing low-risk surgery?further cardiac assessment or treatment. In such cases, In these patients, interventions based on cardiovascu-the consultant may function best by providing recom- lar testing in stable patients would rarely result in amendations for perioperative medical management change in management, and it would be appropriateand surveillance. to proceed with the planned surgical procedure. Step 2: Does the patient have 1 of the active cardiac Step 4: Does the patient have good functionalconditions or clinical risk factors listed in Table 2? If not, capacity without symptoms? In highly functionalVol. 106, No. 3, March 2008 © 2007 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation and the American Heart Association, Inc. 695
    • Table 4. Cardiac Risk* Stratification for Noncardiac management. Other types of surgery may be associ-Surgical Procedures ated with similar risk to vascular surgery but have Risk Stratification Procedure Examples not been studied extensively. In nonvascular sur-Vascular (reported Aortic and other major vascular gery in which the perioperative morbidity related to cardiac risk often surgeryPeripheral vascular the procedures ranges from 1% to 5% (intermediate- more than 5%) surgery risk surgery), there are insufficient data to deter-Intermediate (reported Intraperitoneal and cardiac risk intrathoracic surgery mine the best strategy (proceeding with the planned generally 1% to 5%) Carotid endarterectomy surgery with tight heart rate control with beta Head and neck surgery blockade or further cardiovascular testing if it will Orthopedic surgery Prostate surgery change management).Low† (reported Endoscopic procedures cardiac risk Superficial procedure generally less than Cataract surgery III. DISEASE-SPECIFIC APPROACHES 1%) Breast surgery A. Coronary Artery Disease Ambulatory surgery 1. Patients With Known CAD*Combined incidence of cardiac death and nonfatal myocardial infarction. In patients with known CAD, as well as those with†These procedures do not generally require further preoperative cardiac testing. previously occult coronary disease, the questions be- come 1) What is the amount of myocardium in jeop- ardy? 2) What is the ischemic threshold, that is, theasymptomatic patients, management will rarely be amount of stress required to produce ischemia? 3)changed on the basis of results of any further cardio- What is the patient’s ventricular function? and 4) Is thevascular testing. It is therefore appropriate to proceed patient on his or her optimal medical regimen? Clari-with the planned surgery. In patients with known fication of these questions is an important goal of thecardiovascular disease or at least 1 clinical risk factor, preoperative history and physical examination, andperioperative heart rate control with beta blockade selected noninvasive testing is used to determine theappears appropriate as outlined in Section VI.B. patient’s prognostic gradient of ischemic response If the patient has not had a recent exercise test, during stress testing.functional status can usually be estimated from theability to perform activities of daily living.20 For this B. Hypertensionpurpose, functional capacity has been classified as For stage 3 hypertension (systolic blood pressureexcellent (greater than 10 METs), good (7 to 10 METs), greater than or equal to 180 mm Hg and diastolic bloodmoderate (4 to 7 METs), poor (less than 4 METs), or pressure greater than or equal to 110 mm Hg), theunknown. The Duke Activity Status Index (Table 3) potential benefits of delaying surgery to optimize thecontains questions that can be used to estimate the effects of antihypertensive medications should bepatient’s functional capacity.21 weighed against the risk of delaying the surgical Step 5: If the patient has poor functional capacity, is procedure. With rapidly acting intravenous agents,symptomatic, or has unknown functional capacity, blood pressure can usually be controlled within athen the presence of active clinical risk factors will matter of several hours. One randomized trial wasdetermine the need for further evaluation. If the unable to demonstrate a benefit to delaying surgery inpatient has no clinical risk factors, then it is appropri- chronically treated hypertensive patients who pre- sented for noncardiac surgery with diastolic bloodate to proceed with the planned surgery, and no pressure between 110 and 130 mm Hg and who hadfurther change in management is indicated. no previous MI, unstable or severe angina pectoris, If the patient has 1 or 2 clinical risk factors, then it renal failure, pregnancy-induced hypertension, LVis reasonable either to proceed with the planned hypertrophy, previous coronary revascularization,surgery or, if appropriate, with heart rate control with aortic stenosis, preoperative dysrhythmias, conduc-beta blockade, or to consider testing if it will change tion defects, or stroke.23management. In patients with 3 or more clinical risk Several authors have suggested withholdingfactors, the surgery-specific cardiac risk is important. angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angio- The surgery-specific cardiac risk (Table 4) of non- tensin receptor antagonists the morning of sur-cardiac surgery is related to 2 important factors. First, gery.24 –26 Consideration should be given to restartingthe type of surgery itself may identify a patient with a angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in the post-greater likelihood of underlying heart disease and operative period only after the patient is euvolemic, tohigher perioperative morbidity and mortality. Per- decrease the risk of perioperative renal dysfunction.haps the most extensively studied example is vascularsurgery, in which underlying CAD is present in a C. Valvular Heart Diseasesubstantial portion of patients. If the patient is under- In symptomatic aortic stenosis, elective noncardiacgoing vascular surgery, recent studies suggest that surgery should generally be postponed or canceled.testing should only be considered if it will change Such patients require aortic valve replacement before696 ACC/AHA 2007 Perioperative Guidelines ANESTHESIA & ANALGESIA
    • elective but necessary noncardiac surgery. If the aortic IV. SURGERY-SPECIFIC ISSUESstenosis is severe but asymptomatic, the surgery Although different operations are associated withshould be postponed or canceled if the valve has not different cardiac risks, these differences are most oftenbeen evaluated within the year. On the other hand, in a reflection of the context in which the patient under-patients with severe aortic stenosis who refuse cardiac goes surgery (stability or opportunity for adequatesurgery or are otherwise not candidates for aortic preoperative preparation), surgery-specific factors (eg,valve replacement, noncardiac surgery can be per- fluid shifts, stress levels, duration of procedure, orformed with a mortality risk of approximately blood loss), or patient-specific factors (the incidence of10%.27,28 If a patient is not a candidate for valve CAD associated with the condition for which thereplacement, percutaneous balloon aortic valvulo- patient is undergoing surgery). The surgical proce-plasty may be reasonable as a bridge to surgery in dures have been classified as low risk, high risk, andhemodynamically unstable adult patients with aortic vascular. Although coronary disease is the over-stenosis who are at high risk for aortic valve replace- whelming risk factor for perioperative morbidity, pro-ment surgery and may be reasonable in adult patients cedures with different levels of stress are associatedwith aortic stenosis in whom aortic valve replacement with different levels of morbidity and mortality. Su-cannot be performed because of serious comorbid perficial and ophthalmologic procedures represent theconditions.6,29 lowest risk and are rarely associated with excess Significant mitral stenosis increases the risk of heart morbidity and mortality. Major vascular proceduresfailure. However, preoperative surgical correction of represent the highest-risk procedures and are nowmitral valve disease is not indicated before noncardiac considered distinctly in the decision to perform fur-surgery, unless the valvular condition should be cor- ther evaluation because of the large body of evidencerected to prolong survival and prevent complications regarding the value of perioperative interventions inunrelated to the proposed noncardiac surgery. When this population (Figure 1). Both endovascular aorticthe stenosis is severe, the patient may benefit from aneurysm repair and carotid endarterectomy shouldballoon mitral valvuloplasty or open surgical repair be considered within the intermediate-risk category,before high-risk surgery.30 distinct from the open vascular surgery procedures, In patients with persistent or permanent atrial on the basis of their preoperative morbidity andfibrillation who are at high risk for thromboembolism, mortality rates, but clinicians should incorporate thepreoperative and postoperative therapy with intrave- similarly poor long-term survival rates that accom-nous heparin or subcutaneous low-molecular-weight pany these procedures into their decision-makingheparin may be considered to cover periods of sub- processes. Within the intermediate-risk category, mor-therapeutic anticoagulation.1,31–33 bidity and mortality vary depending on the surgical Patients with a mechanical prosthetic valve are of location and extent of the procedure. Some proceduresconcern because of the need for endocarditis prophy- may be short, with minimal fluid shifts, whereas others may be associated with prolonged duration,laxis34 when they undergo surgery that may result in large fluid shifts, and greater potential for postopera-bacteremia and the need for careful anticoagulation tive myocardial ischemia and respiratory depression.management. The Seventh American College of Chest Therefore, the physician must exercise judgment toPhysicians Consensus Conference on Antithrombotic correctly assess perioperative surgical risks and theand Thrombolytic Therapy35 recommends the fol- need for further evaluation.lowing: for patients who require minimally invasiveprocedures (dental work, superficial biopsies), therecommendation is to briefly reduce the international V. SUPPLEMENTAL PREOPERATIVE EVALUATIONnormalized ratio to the low or subtherapeutic rangeand resume the normal dose of oral anticoagulation A. Assessment of LV Functionimmediately after the procedure. Perioperative hepa- Resting LV function has been evaluated preopera- tively before noncardiac surgery by radionucliderin therapy is recommended for patients in whom the angiography, echocardiography, and contrast ven-risk of bleeding with oral anticoagulation is high and triculography. It is noteworthy that resting LV func-the risk of thromboembolism without anticoagulation tion was not found to be a consistent predictor ofis also high (mechanical valve in the mitral position; perioperative ischemic events.Bjork-Shiley valve; recent [ie, less than 1 year] throm-bosis or embolus; or 3 or more of the following riskfactors: atrial fibrillation, previous embolus at any B. Assessment of Risk for CAD and Assessment oftime, hypercoagulable condition, mechanical prosthe- Functional Capacitysis, and LV ejection fraction less than 30%).36 For 1. The 12-Lead ECGpatients between these 2 extremes, physicians must Although the optimal time interval between obtain-assess the risk and benefit of reduced anticoagulation ing a 12-lead ECG and elective surgery is unknown,versus perioperative heparin therapy. general consensus suggests that an ECG within 30 daysVol. 106, No. 3, March 2008 © 2007 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation and the American Heart Association, Inc. 697
    • of surgery is adequate for those with stable disease in trial39 was designed to evaluate the utility of cardiacwhom a preoperative ECG is indicated. testing in patients undergoing major vascular surgery with intermediate cardiac risk factors and adequate 2. Exercise Stress Testing for Myocardial Ischemia beta-blocker therapy. A composite end point of death and Functional Capacity and nonfatal MI was assessed at 30 days after vascular The aim of supplemental preoperative testing is surgery. This study confirms that extensive cardiacto provide an objective measure of functional capac- ischemia is a risk factor for perioperative cardiacity, to identify the presence of important preopera- events, but it was too small to assess the effect oftive myocardial ischemia or cardiac arrhythmias, revascularization.and to estimate perioperative cardiac risk and long- The DECREASE-V pilot study40 identified a high-term prognosis. risk cohort of patients scheduled for vascular surgery who were randomized to best medical therapy and 3. Noninvasive Stress Testing revascularization or best medical therapy alone before Pharmacological stress with vasodilators or adren- vascular surgery. There was no difference in theergic stimulation in conjunction with radionuclide orechocardiographic cardiac imaging has been shown to combined outcomes of death or MI at 30 days or 1 yearpredict perioperative cardiac events in patients sched- between the revascularization and medical therapyuled for noncardiac surgery who are unable to exer- groups, although there was a high incidence of cardiaccise.37 Importantly, perioperative cardiac risk is directly events in this high-risk cohort. This study was notrelated to the extent of jeopardized viable myocardium sized to definitively answer the question as to theidentified by stress cardiac imaging.37 value of preoperative revascularization in high-risk The expertise of the practitioner’s available stress patients; however, the findings are consistent with thelaboratory resources in identifying severe coronary previously published literature suggesting a lack ofdisease is as important as the particular type of stress benefit of preoperative coronary revascularization intest ordered. For patients with unstable myocardial preventing death or MI. The indications for preopera-ischemia, who are at high risk for noncardiac surgery, tive surgical coronary revascularization, therefore, areit is usually appropriate to proceed with coronary essentially identical to those recommended by theangiography or to attempt to stabilize them with ACC/AHA 2004 Guideline Update for Coronary Ar-aggressive medical treatment rather than to perform a tery Bypass Graft Surgery and the accumulated datastress test. on which those conclusions were based.41VI. PERIOPERATIVE THERAPY 2. Preoperative PCIA. Preoperative Coronary Revascularization With Coronary Review of the literature suggests that PCI beforeArtery Bypass Grafting or PCI noncardiac surgery is of no value in preventing peri- operative cardiac events, except in those patients in 1. Preoperative Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting whom PCI is independently indicated for an acute Until recently, all of the evidence regarding the coronary syndrome. However, unscheduled noncar-value of surgical coronary revascularization was de- diac surgery in a patient who has undergone a priorrived from cohort studies in patients who presentedfor noncardiac surgery after successful cardiac sur- PCI presents special challenges, particularly with re-gery. There are now several randomized trials that gard to management of dual-antiplatelet agents re-have assessed the overall benefit of prophylactic cor- quired in those who receive coronary stents.onary bypass surgery to lower the perioperative car-diac risk of noncardiac surgery, the results of which 3. PCI Without Stents: Coronary Ballooncan be applied to specific subsets of patients and will Angioplastybe discussed later. Several retrospective series of coronary balloon The first large, randomized trial (Coronary Artery angioplasty before noncardiac surgery have been re-Revascularization Prophylaxis [CARP]) was pub- ported.42– 49 On the basis of the available literature,lished by McFalls and colleagues,38 who randomly delaying noncardiac surgery for more than 8 weeksassigned 510 patients with significant coronary artery after balloon angioplasty increases the chance thatstenosis from among 5859 patients scheduled for restenosis at the angioplasty site will have occurredvascular operations to either coronary artery revascu- and theoretically increases the chances of periopera-larization before surgery or no revascularization be- tive ischemia or MI. However, performing the surgicalfore surgery. The authors concluded that routine procedure too soon after the PCI procedure might alsocoronary revascularization in patients with stable car- be hazardous. Delaying surgery for at least 2 to 4diac symptoms before elective vascular surgery does weeks after balloon angioplasty to allow for healing ofnot significantly alter the long-term outcome or short- the vessel injury at the balloon treatment site isterm risk of death or MI. supported by a study by Brilakis et al.49 Daily aspirin The DECREASE (Dutch Echocardiographic Cardiac antiplatelet therapy should be continued periopera-Risk Evaluation Applying Stress Echocardiography) II tively. The risk of stopping the aspirin should be698 ACC/AHA 2007 Perioperative Guidelines ANESTHESIA & ANALGESIA
    • weighed against the benefit of reduction in bleeding regarding the prevention of premature discontinua-complications from the planned surgery. tion of dual-antiplatelet therapy in patients with coro- nary artery stents.54 This advisory report54 concluded 4. PCI: Bare-Metal Coronary Stents that premature discontinuation of dual-antiplatelet If a coronary stent is used in the revascularization therapy markedly increases the risk of catastrophic stentprocedure, as in the majority of percutaneous revas- thrombosis and death and/or MI. To eliminate thecularization procedures, further delay of noncardiac premature discontinuation of thienopyridine therapy,surgery may be beneficial. Bare-metal stent thrombo- the advisory group recommended the following:sis is most common in the first 2 weeks after stentplacement and is exceedingly rare (less than 0.1% of • Elective procedures for which there is a signifi-most case series) more than 4 weeks after stent place- cant risk of perioperative or postoperativement.50,51 Given that stent thrombosis will result in bleeding should be deferred until patients haveQ-wave MI or death in the majority of patients in completed an appropriate course of thienopy-whom it occurs, and given that the risk of bare-metal ridine therapy (12 months after drug-elutingstent thrombosis diminishes after endothelialization of stent implantation if they are not at high risk ofthe stent has occurred (which generally takes 4 to 6 bleeding and a minimum of 1 month for bare-weeks), it appears reasonable to delay elective noncar- metal stent implantation).diac surgery for 4 to 6 weeks to allow for at least • For patients treated with drug-eluting stents whopartial endothelialization of the stent, but not for more are to undergo subsequent procedures that man-than 12 weeks, when restenosis may begin to occur. date discontinuation of thienopyridine therapy, A thienopyridine (ticlopidine or clopidogrel) is aspirin should be continued if at all possible andgenerally administered with aspirin for 4 weeks after the thienopyridine restarted as soon as possiblebare-metal stent placement. The thienopyridines and after the procedure because of concerns aboutaspirin inhibit platelet aggregation and reduce stent late-stent thrombosis.thrombosis but increase the risk of bleeding. Rapidendothelialization of bare-metal stents makes late Given the above reports and recommendations, thethrombosis rare, and thienopyridines are rarely use of drug-eluting stents for coronary revasculariza-needed for more than 4 weeks after implantation of tion before imminent or planned noncardiac surgerybare-metal stents. For this reason, delaying surgery 4 that will necessitate the discontinuation of dual-to 6 weeks after bare-metal stent placement allows antiplatelet agents is not recommended.proper thienopyridine use to reduce the risk of coro- In patients with stable CAD, the indications for PCInary stent thrombosis; then, after the thienopyridine in the preoperative setting should be identical to thosehas been discontinued, the noncardiac surgery can be developed by the joint ACC/AHA Task Force thatperformed. However, once the thienopyridine is provided guidelines for the use of PCI in patients withstopped, its effects do not diminish immediately. It is stable angina and asymptomatic ischemia.55 There isfor this reason that some surgical teams request a no evidence to support prophylactic preoperative percu-1-week delay after thienopyridines are discontinued taneous revascularization in patients with asymptomaticbefore the patient proceeds to surgery. In patients ischemia or stable angina, particularly with drug-elutingwith bare-metal stents, daily aspirin antiplatelet stents. Similarly, there is little evidence to show howtherapy should be continued perioperatively. The risk long a more distant PCI (ie, months to years beforeof stopping the aspirin should be weighed against the noncardiac surgery) protects against perioperative MIbenefit of reduction in bleeding complications from or death. Because additional coronary restenosis isthe planned surgery. In the setting of noncardiac unlikely to occur more than 8 to 12 months after PCIsurgery in patients who have recently received a (whether or not a stent is used), it is reasonable tobare-metal stent, the risk of stopping dual-antiplatelet expect ongoing protection against untoward perioper-agents prematurely (within 4 weeks of implantation) ative ischemic complications in currently asymptom-is significant compared with the risk of major bleeding atic, active patients who had been symptomatic beforefrom most commonly performed surgeries. complete percutaneous coronary revascularization more than 8 to 12 months previously. 5. PCI: Drug-Eluting Stents Thrombosis of drug-eluting stents may occur late 6. Perioperative Management of Patients Withand has been reported up to 1.5 years after implanta- Prior PCI Undergoing Noncardiac Surgerytion, particularly in the context of discontinuation of For patients who have undergone successful coro-antiplatelet agents before noncardiac surgery.52,53 In nary intervention with or without stent placementJanuary 2007, an AHA/ACC/Society for Cardiovas- before planned or unplanned noncardiac surgery,cular Angiography and Interventions (SCAI)/ there is uncertainty regarding how much time shouldAmerican College of Surgeons (ACS)/American Dia- pass before the noncardiac procedure is performed.betes Association (ADA) science advisory was issued One approach is outlined in Figure 2, which is basedVol. 106, No. 3, March 2008 © 2007 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation and the American Heart Association, Inc. 699
    • Figure 2. Proposed approach to the management of patients with previous percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) who require noncardiac surgery, based on expert opinion.on expert opinion. Given the reports of late drug- 2005 Guideline Update for Percutaneous Coronaryeluting stent thrombosis and the current recommen- Intervention, with a class IIa recommendation.55dations discussed above, clinicians should remain Serious consideration should be given to continu-vigilant even beyond 365 days after drug-eluting stent ing dual-antiplatelet therapy in the perioperative pe-placement. The times of 14, 30 to 45, and 365 days for riod for any patient who has received brachytherapyballoon angioplasty, bare-metal stent, and drug- for restenosis or in-stent restenosis, particularly thoseeluting stent, respectively, recommended in Figure 2 in whom additional stents (bare-metal or drug-are somewhat arbitrary because of a lack of high- eluting) were placed at the time of or subsequent toquality evidence. the administration of brachytherapy. The risk of stop- Consideration should be given to continuing dual- ping antiplatelet therapy should be weighed againstantiplatelet therapy in the perioperative period for any the benefit of reduction in bleeding complicationspatient needing noncardiac surgery that falls within the from the planned surgery.time frame that requires dual-antiplatelet therapy, par-ticularly those who have received drug-eluting stents. In 8. Strategy of Percutaneous Revascularization inaddition, consideration should be given to continuing Patients Needing Urgent Noncardiac Surgerydual-antiplatelet therapy perioperatively beyond the rec- Patients who require percutaneous coronary revascu-ommended time frame in any patient at high risk for the larization in whom near-term noncardiac surgery isconsequences of stent thrombosis, such as patients in necessary require special consideration.54,56 A potentialwhom previous stent thrombosis has occurred, after left strategy is outlined in Figure 3. Percutaneous coronarymain stenting, after multivessel stenting, and after stent revascularization should not be routinely performed inplacement in the only remaining coronary artery or graft patients who need noncardiac surgery unless clearlyconduit. Even after thienopyridines have been discontin- indicated for high-risk coronary anatomy, unstable an-ued, serious consideration should be given to continua- gina, MI, or hemodynamically or rhythmically unstabletion of aspirin antiplatelet therapy perioperatively in any active CAD amenable to percutaneous intervention. Ifpatient with previous placement of a drug-eluting stent. PCI is necessary, then the urgency of the noncardiacThe risk of stopping antiplatelet therapy should be surgery and the risk of bleeding associated with theweighed against the benefit of reduction in bleeding surgery in a patient taking dual-antiplatelet agents needcomplications from the planned surgery. If thienopyri- to be considered. If there is little risk of bleeding or if thedines must be discontinued before major surgery, aspi- noncardiac surgery can be delayed 12 months or more,rin should be continued and the thienopyridine restarted then PCI with drug-eluting stents and prolonged aspirinas soon as possible. There is no evidence that warfarin, and thienopyridine therapy could be considered if theantithrombotics, or glycoprotein IIb/IIIa agents will re- patient meets the criteria outlined in the AHA/ACC/duce the risk of stent thrombosis after discontinuation of SCAI/ACS/ADA Science Advisory Group recommen-oral antiplatelet agents.54 dations discussed above.54 If the noncardiac surgery is likely to occur within 1 to 12 months, then a strategy of 7. Perioperative Management in Patients Who bare-metal stenting and 4 to 6 weeks of aspirin and Have Received Intracoronary Brachytherapy thienopyridine therapy with continuation of aspirin Intracoronary radiation with gamma or beta perioperatively should be considered. Although the riskbrachytherapy has been used in the past to treat of restenosis with this strategy is higher than withrecurrent in-stent restenosis. Antiplatelet therapy drug-eluting stents, restenotic lesions are usually notshould be continued as per the ACC/AHA/SCAI life-threatening, even though they may present as an700 ACC/AHA 2007 Perioperative Guidelines ANESTHESIA & ANALGESIA
    • Figure 3. Treatment for patients requiring percutaneous coronary intervention who need subsequent surgery. ACS indicates acutecoronary syndrome; COR, class of recommendation; LOE, level of evidence; and MI, myocardial infarction.Table 5. Recommendations for Perioperative Beta-Blocker Therapy Based on Published Randomized Clinical Trials Patients Currently No Clinical 1 or More Clinical CHD or High Taking Beta Surgery Risk Factors Risk Factors Cardiac Risk BlockersVascular Class IIb, Level of Class IIa, Level of Patients found to have myocardial Class I, Level of Evidence: B Evidence: B ischemia on preoperative Evidence: B testing: Class I, Level of Evidence: B* Patients without ischemia or no previous test: Class IIa, Level of Evidence: BIntermediate risk Class IIb, Level of Class IIa, Level of Evidence: B Class I, Level of Evidence: C Evidence: CLow risk Class I, Level of Evidence: CSee Table 4 for definition of procedures. Ellipses () indicate that data were insufficient to determine a class of recommendation or level ofevidence. See text for further discussion. CHD indicates coronary heart disease.* Applies to patients found to have coronary ischemia on preoperative testing.† Applies to patients found to have coronary heart disease.acute coronary syndrome,57 and they can usually be to the earlier studies that demonstrated efficacy.58,59dealt with by repeat PCI if necessary. If the noncardiac Although many of the randomized controlled trials ofsurgery is imminent (within 2 to 6 weeks) and the risk of beta blocker therapy are small, the weight ofbleeding is high, then consideration should be given to evidence— especially in aggregate—suggests a benefitballoon angioplasty and provisional bare-metal stenting to perioperative betablockade during noncardiac sur-plus continued aspirin antiplatelet monotherapy, with gery in high-risk patients (Table 5). Current studiesrestenosis dealt with by repeat PCI if necessary. If the suggest that beta blockers reduce perioperative isch-noncardiac surgery is urgent or emergent, then cardiac emia and may reduce the risk of MI and death inrisks, the risk of bleeding, and the long-term benefit of patients with known CAD. Available evidencecoronary revascularization must be weighed, and if strongly suggests but does not definitively prove thatcoronary revascularization is absolutely necessary, coro- when possible, beta blockers should be started days tonary artery bypass grafting combined with the noncar- weeks before elective surgery. Additionally, data sug-diac surgery could be considered. gest that long-acting beta blockade may be superior toB. Perioperative Medical Therapy short-acting beta blockade.60 1. Perioperative Beta-Blocker Therapy a. Titration of Beta Blockers Since publication of the ACC/AHA focused update Feringa and colleagues61 performed an observa-on perioperative beta-blocker therapy, several ran- tional cohort study of 272 vascular surgery patients.domized trials have been published that have not An absolute mean perioperative heart rate less than 70demonstrated the efficacy of these agents, in contrast beats per minute was associated with the best out-Vol. 106, No. 3, March 2008 © 2007 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation and the American Heart Association, Inc. 701
    • come. Poldermans and colleagues39 randomly as- C. Intraoperative Electromagnetic Interference Withsigned 770 intermediate-risk patients to cardiac stress Implanted Pacemakers and Cardioverter Defibrillatorstesting (n 386) or no testing (n 384). The authors It is important to be aware of the potential forconcluded that cardiac testing can safely be omitted in adverse interactions between electrical/magnetic ac-intermediate-risk patients, provided that beta blockers tivity and pacemaker or ICD function that may occuraimed at tight heart rate control are prescribed. Accu- during the operative period. A practice advisory onmulating evidence suggests that effective heart rate this topic has been published recently by the Ameri-control with beta blockers should be targeted at less can Society of Anesthesiology.70 Patients with perma-than 65 beats per minute. nent pacemakers, who are pacemaker dependent,b. Withdrawal of Beta Blockers should have their device evaluated within 3 to 6 Concerns regarding the discontinuation of beta- months before significant surgical procedures, as wellblocker therapy in the perioperative period have as after surgery. Significant surgical procedures in-ex-isted for several decades.62– 64 As noted in the clude major abdominal or thoracic surgery, particu-recommendations, continuation of beta-blocker larly when the surgery involves large amounts oftherapy in the perioperative period is a Class I electrocautery. If a patient is pacemaker dependent,indication, and accumulating evidence suggests that the device should be reprogrammed to an asynchro-titration to maintain tight heart rate control should nous mode during surgery (VOO or DOO), or abe the goal. magnet should be placed over the device during surgery. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator devices 2. Perioperative Statin Therapy should have their tachyarrhythmia treatment algo- The evidence accumulated thus far suggests a rithms programmed off before surgery and turned onprotective effect of perioperative statin use on car- after surgery to prevent unwanted shocks due todiac complications during noncardiac surgery. Hin- spurious signals that the device might interpret asdler and colleagues65 conducted a meta-analysis to ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation. If emergent car-evaluate the overall effect of preoperative statin dioversion is required, the paddles should be placed astherapy, and a 44% reduction in mortality was far from the implanted device as possible and in anobserved. Le Manach and colleagues66 demon- orientation likely to be perpendicular to the orienta-strated that postoperative statin withdrawal (more tion of the device leads (anterior-posterior paddlethan 4 days) was an independent predictor of post- position is preferred). After the surgery, the functionoperative myonecrosis. Most of these data are ob- of the implanted device should be assessed and inservational and identify patients in whom time of some cases formally evaluated. In the case of an ICD,initiation of statin therapy and duration of statin an interrogated programmer printout should be pro-therapy are unclear. duced to verify that its antitachycardia function has been restored to its active status. 3. Alpha-2 Agonists Placement of a magnet over an implanted device Wijeysundera and colleagues67 performed a meta- has variable effects depending on the type of device,analysis of perioperative alpha-2 agonist administra- its manufacturer, and its model. If a magnet will betion through 2002 comprising 23 trials enrolling 3395 used during surgery in a patient with a pacemakerpatients. Alpha-2 agonists reduced mortality (relative who is pacemaker dependent, it should be appliedrisk 0.76, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.91) and MI (relative risk 0.66, before surgery to be certain that appropriate asynchro-95% CI 0.46 to 0.94) during vascular surgery. nous pacing is triggered by the magnet. Magnet More recently, Wallace et al.68 conducted a prospec- application will affect only the antitachycardia func-tive, double-blinded, clinical trial on patients with or tion of an ICD. With some models of ICDs, the magnetat risk for CAD and determined that administration of will first suspend the antitachycardia (shocking) func-clonidine had minimal hemodynamic effects and re- tion and then actually turn the therapy off. With otherduced postoperative mortality for up to 2 years. ICD models, the magnet will only temporarily disable the shock function (while the magnet is in place), and 4. Perioperative Calcium Channel Blockers the therapy will then become active again on its A meta-analysis of perioperative calcium channel removal (either intentional or unintentional). Pro-blockers in noncardiac surgery that was published in gramming the shock function off with an ICD pro-2003 identified 11 studies involving 1007 patients.69 grammer (and turning it back on after the surgery) isCalcium channel blockers significantly reduced ische- the preferred method of addressing these issues. Be-mia (relative risk 0.49, 95% confidence interval 0.30 to cause some patients with ICDs are also pacemaker0.80, P 0.004) and supraventricular tachycardia (rela- dependent, the pacing function of the ICD may needtive risk 0.52, 95% confidence interval 0.37 to 0.72, P to be programmed to an asynchronous mode (eg,less than 0.0001) and were associated with trends VOO or DOO) during surgery to prevent electromag-toward reduced death and MI. netic interference–induced inhibition.702 ACC/AHA 2007 Perioperative Guidelines ANESTHESIA & ANALGESIA
    • VII. ANESTHETIC CONSIDERATIONS AND and autopsy studies. Over the last decade, the diag-INTRAOPERATIVE MANAGEMENT nosis of myocardial damage has become more sensi- There are many different approaches to the details tive with the application of cardiac biomarkers. Mea-of the anesthetic care of the cardiac patient, including surement of troponin T or I facilitates the recognitionthe use of specific anesthetic agents or anesthetic of myocardial damage with much smaller amounts oftechniques (eg, general, regional, or monitored anes- injury. Because of the augmentation of sensitivity, thethesia care). Each has implications regarding anes- threshold to diagnosis of an MI is lower and thethetic and intraoperative monitoring. In addition, no frequency greater.74 On the basis of current evidence,study has clearly demonstrated a change in outcome in patients without documented CAD, surveillancefrom the routine use of the following techniques: a should be restricted to those patients who developpulmonary artery catheter, St-segment monitor, trans- perioperative signs of cardiovascular dysfunction. Theesophageal echocardiography, or intravenous nitro- diagnosis of a perioperative MI has both short- andglycerin. Therefore, the choice of anesthetic technique long-term prognostic value.and intraoperative monitors is best left to the discre- On the basis of the available literature, routinetion of the anesthesia care team. Intraoperative man- measurement of troponin after surgery is more likelyagement may be influenced by the perioperative plan, to identify patients without acute MI than with MI.including the need for postoperative monitoring, Moreover, studies of troponin elevations neither con-ventilation, analgesia, and the perioperative use of sistently show associations with adverse cardiovascu-anticoagulants or antiplatelet agents. Therefore, a lar outcomes at any time point nor provide insightdiscussion of these issues before the planned surgery into the effect of treatment on outcomes in patientswill allow for a smooth transition through the periop- with an elevated troponin level. Although it is knownerative period. that elevations in troponin are more likely to occur in patients with more extensive CAD, the role of revas- cularization in patients with an elevated troponinB. Perioperative Pain Management level but no other manifestation of MI remains un- From the cardiac perspective, pain management clear. Until each of these issues has been addressed,may be a crucial aspect of perioperative care. Al- routine troponin measurement cannot be recom-though no randomized controlled study specifically mended. Perioperative surveillance for acute coronaryaddressing analgesic regimens has demonstrated im- syndromes with routine ECG and cardiac serum bi-provement in outcome, patient-controlled analgesia omarkers is unnecessary in clinically low-risk patientstechniques are associated with greater patient satisfac- undergoing low-risk operative procedures.tion and lower pain scores. An effective analgesicregimen must be included in the perioperative planand should be based on issues unique to a given IX. POSTOPERATIVE AND LONG-TERMpatient undergoing a specific procedure at a specific MANAGEMENTinstitution. Advances in preoperative risk assessment, surgical and anesthetic techniques, and better implementation of medical therapy have served to decrease the frequencyVIII. PERIOPERATIVE SURVEILLANCE of cardiovascular complications associated with noncar-A. Intraoperative and Postoperative Use of Pulmonary diac surgery. Despite these advances, cardiovascularArtery Catheters complications represent the most common and most Use of a pulmonary artery catheter may provide treatable adverse consequences of noncardiac sur-significant information critical to the care of the cardiac gery. Those patients who have a symptomatic MIpatient; however, the potential risk of complications and after surgery have a marked increase in the risk ofthe cost associated with catheter insertion and use must death, reaching as high as 40% to 70%.75 Because thebe considered. Practice guidelines for pulmonary artery consequences of infarction are so severe, manage-catheterization, as well as methods of performing peri- ment of patients must continue after risk assessmentoperative optimization of the high-risk surgical patient, to the postoperative setting.have been developed and reported elsewhere.71,72 Evi-dence of benefit of pulmonary artery catheter use from A. Myocardial Infarction: Surveillance and Treatmentcontrolled trials is equivocal, and a large-scale cohort In contrast to clinically silent elevations in troponin,study demonstrated potential harm.73 the development of coronary artery plaque rupture that results in thrombotic coronary artery occlusion requires B. Surveillance for Perioperative MI rapid intervention. Although fibrinolytic therapy has Perioperative MI can be documented by assessing been administered to patients for life-threatening pulmo-clinical symptoms, serial ECGs, cardiac-specific bi- nary embolus shortly after noncardiac surgery, the fi-omarkers, comparative ventriculographic studies brinolytic dosage has generally been less and has beenbefore and after surgery, radioisotopic or magnetic administered over a longer time interval than is standardresonance studies specific for myocardial necrosis, for the treatment of acute MI.76,77 Only a single smallVol. 106, No. 3, March 2008 © 2007 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation and the American Heart Association, Inc. 703
    • study74 has evaluated the role of immediate angiogra- smoking cessation, and antiplatelet therapy all re-phy and angioplasty among 48 patients who were be- ceived Class I indications.82lieved able to take aspirin and intravenous heparin and It is important that the care team responsible for theto undergo immediate angiography and PCI; this study long-term care of the patient be provided with com-demonstrated that such a strategy is feasible and may be plete information about any cardiovascular abnor-beneficial. These reperfusion procedures should not be malities or risk factors for CAD identified during theperformed routinely on an emergency basis in postop- perioperative period.erative patients in whom MI is not related to an acutecoronary occlusion. Moreover, because of the require- X. CONCLUSIONSments for periprocedural anticoagulation and pos- Successful perioperative evaluation and manage-trevascularization antiplatelet therapy, the benefits ment of high-risk cardiac patients undergoing non-of revascularization must be weighed against the cardiac surgery requires careful teamwork andrisk of postoperative bleeding, individualizing the communication between surgeon, anesthesiologist,decision for referral. the patient’s primary caregiver, and the consultant. Therapy with aspirin, a beta blocker, and an In general, indications for further cardiac testing andangiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, particularly treatments are the same as in the nonoperative setting,for patients with low ejection fractions or anterior but their timing is dependent on several factors,infarctions, may be beneficial, whether or not the including the urgency of noncardiac surgery, patient-patients are rapidly taken to the catheterization labo- specific risk factors, and surgery-specific consider-ratory.79 An extensive evidence-based review of ations. The use of both noninvasive and invasivetherapy for acute MI can be found in the ACC/AHA preoperative testing should be limited to those cir-Guidelines for the Management of Patients With cumstances in which the results of such tests willAcute Myocardial Infarction.79 Similarly, the clearly affect patient management. Finally, for many“ACC/AHA Guidelines for Unstable Angina/ patients, noncardiac surgery represents their first op-Non–ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction” portunity to receive an appropriate assessment of bothrepresent an important template for management of short- and long-term cardiac risk. Thus, the consultantthis condition in the postoperative setting.5 best serves the patient by making recommendations In the approach to the long-term postoperative aimed at lowering the immediate perioperative car-management of noncardiac surgery patients, one diac risk, as well as assessing the need for subsequentshould first appreciate that the occurrence of an intra- postoperative risk stratification and interventions di-operative nonfatal MI carries a high risk for future rected at modifying coronary risk factors. Future re-cardiac events that are often dominated by cardiovas- search should be directed at determining the value ofcular death.80,81 Patients who sustain a perioperative routine prophylactic medical therapy versus moreMI should have evaluation of LV function performed extensive diagnostic testing and interventions.before hospital discharge, and standard postinfarctiontherapeutic medical therapy should be prescribed as STAFFdefined in the ACC/AHA acute MI guidelines.3 The American College of Cardiology FoundationACC/AHA guidelines for post-MI evaluation in these John C. Lewin, MD, Chief Executive Officertypes of patients should be followed as soon as Thomas E. Arend, Jr, Esq, Chief Operating Officerpossible after surgical recovery. Kristen N. Fobbs, MS, Senior Specialist, Clinical Policy and Documents Sue Keller, BSN, MPH, Senior Specialist, Evidence-B. Long-Term Management Based Medicine Although the occasion of noncardiac surgery brings Erin A. Barrett, Senior Specialist, Clinical Policy anda period of increased cardiovascular risk, physicians Documentsshould also use the opportunity to ensure appropriate Peg Christiansen, Librariancardiovascular medical therapy. In the recently re-leased ACC/AHA 2005 Guidelines for the Manage- American Heart Associationment of Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease,82 M. Cass Wheeler, Chief Executive Officertreatment with a statin to achieve a low-density li- Rose Marie Robertson, MD, FACC, FAHA, Chiefpoprotein level of less than 100 mg/dL, control of Science Officerblood pressure to less than 140/90 mm Hg, cigarette Kathryn A. Taubert, PhD, FAHA, Senior Scientist704 ACC/AHA 2007 Perioperative Guidelines ANESTHESIA & ANALGESIA
    • Appendix I. Author Relationships With Industry: ACC/AHA Writing Committee to Revise the 2002 Guidelines on PerioperativeCardiovascular Evaluation for Noncardiac Surgery Scientific Committee Member Consultant Research Grant Advisory Board Speakers’ Bureau OtherJoshua A. Beckman Bristol-Myers Squibb Sanofi-Aventis Bristol-Myers Squibb*; None Merck & Co; Eli Lilly; Sanofi- Aventis*Kenneth A. Brown GE Healthcare None None None NoneHugh Calkins None None None None NoneElliott Chaikof None None None None NoneKirsten E. Fleischmann None None None None Pfizer (QI/CME Initiatives)Lee A. Fleisher None None None None NoneWilliam K. Freeman None None None None NoneJames B. Froehlich Pfizer None Sanofi-Aventis Sanofi-Aventis; None Otsuka; Pfizer; Merck & CoEdward K. Kasper Scios None None None NoneJudy R. Kersten Abbott Laboratories Abbott Laboratories* None Abbott Laboratories* NoneBarbara Riegel None None None None NoneJohn F. Robb None None None None NoneThis table represents the actual or potential relationships with industry that were reported as of May 11, 2007. This table was updated in conjunction with all meetings and conference callsof the writing committee. QI/CME indicates quality improvement/continuing medical education.*Significant relationship (greater than $10 000).Vol. 106, No. 3, March 2008 © 2007 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation and the American Heart Association, Inc. 705
    • 706 Appendix II. Peer Revieer Relationships With Industry: ACC/AHA 2007 Guidelines on Perioperative Cardiovascular Evaluation and Care for Noncardiac Surgery Institutional Ownership/ or Other Peer Consultant Fees/ Speakers’ Partnership/ Research Financial Expert Witness or Reviewer Representation Honoraria Bureau Principal Grant Salary Benefit Consultant Peter Alagona Official Reviewer: Board of None None None None None None None Trustees Joseph Alpert Official Reviewer: AHA Exeter Inc; Novartis; None None None None None None Reviewer Sanofi-Aventis Vincent Carr Official Reviewer: Board of None None None None None None None Governors Bruce Lytle Official Reviewer: ACCF/ None None Johnson & None None None None AHA Task Force on Johnson Practice Guidelines L. Kristin Newby Official Reviewer: AHA Biosite, Inc; Sanofi-Aventis/ None Millennium None None None Reviewer Inverness Medical Bristol-Myers Pharmaceuticals*; Roche Innovations Inc; Squibb Diagnostics*; Sanofi-ACC/AHA 2007 Perioperative Guidelines Procter & Gamble Aventis/Bristol-Myers Squibb*; Schering- Plough* Frank Sellke Official Reviewer: AHA None Bayer None Ikaria Pharmaceuticals* None None None Reviewer Pharmaceuticals Corp Susan Begelman Organizational Reviewer: Bristol-Myers Bristol-Meyers Nuvelo None Nuvelo* None None Society for Vascular Squibb*; Squibb*; Medicine and Biology GlaxoSmithKline*; GlaxoSmithKline*; Sanofi-Aventis* Sanofi-Aventis* John Butterworth Organizational Reviewer: Eli Lilly None None None None None Represented plaintiff in regard to epidural American Society of mass (2005); represented defendant in Anesthesiologists case of death after bilateral knee arthroplasty (2006); represented defendant in case of brain damage after shoulder surgery (2005); represented defendant in case of postoperative poly- neuropathy (2005); represented defendant in case of cardiac arrest before outpatient toe surgery (2006); represented plaintiff in case of stroke after central line placed in carotid artery (2006). Simon Body Organizational Reviewer: None None None None None None None Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists Myron Gerson Organizational Reviewer: None None None GE Healthcare* None None None American Society of Nuclear Cardiology Bengt Herweg Organizational Reviewer: None None None None None None None Heart Rhythm Society Charles Hogue Organizational Reviewer: None Bayer None None None None None Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists (continues)ANESTHESIA & ANALGESIA
    • Appendix II. Continued Institutional Ownership/ or Other Peer Consultant Fees/ Speakers’ Partnership/ Research Financial Expert Witness or Reviewer Representation Honoraria Bureau Principal Grant Salary Benefit Consultant Scott Kinlay Organizational Reviewer: Merck & Co; Merck & Co; None Pfizer* None None None Society for Vascular Merck/Schering- Merck/Schering-Vol. 106, No. 3, March 2008 Medicine and Biology Plough; Pfizer* Plough; Pfizer* Luis Molina Organizational Reviewer: None None None None None None None Heart Rhythm Society Anton Sidawy Organizational Reviewer: None None None None None None None American College of Surgeons Mark Turco Organizational Reviewer: None None None None None None None Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions Barry Uretsky Organizational Reviewer: None None None None None None None Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions Neil Weissman Organizational Reviewer: None None None None None None None American Society of Echocardiography Mazen Abu-Fadel Content Reviewer: ACCF None None None None None None None Cardiac Catheterization Committee Barbara Bentz Content Reviewer: ACCF None None None None None None None Clinical Electrophysiology Committee Blase Carabello Content Reviewer: AHA None None None None None None None Council on Clinical Cardiology Leadership Committee Michael Chen Content Reviewer: ACCF None None None None None None None Peripheral Vascular Disease Committee Leslie Cho Content Reviewer: ACCF None Sanofi-Aventis/ None None None None None Peripheral Vascular Bristol-Myers Disease Committee Squibb Ronald Dalman Content Reviewer: AHA None None None None None None None Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia Leadership Committee Leonard Dreifus Content Reviewer: ACCF Merck & Co; Wyeth None None None None None None Clinical Pharmaceuticals Electrophysiology Committee (continues)© 2007 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation and the American Heart Association, Inc. 707
    • Appendix II. Continued 708 Institutional Ownership/ or Other Peer Consultant Fees/ Speakers’ Partnership/ Research Financial Expert Witness or Reviewer Representation Honoraria Bureau Principal Grant Salary Benefit Consultant N.A. Mark Estes III Content Reviewer: AHA None Boston Scientific/ None None None None None Council on Clinical Guidant; Cardiology Leadership Medtronic; St. Committee Jude Medical Paul Fedak Content Reviewer: AHA None None None None None None None Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia Leadership Committee W. Gregory Content Reviewer: ACCF None None MRI Cardiac Bracco Diagnostics, Inc* None None None Hundley Cardiovascular Imaging Services, Inc Committee Bradley Knight Content Reviewer: ACCF Boston Scientific; Boston Scientific None Boston Scientific; None None None Clinical CardioOptics, Inc; Medtronic; St. Jude Electrophysiology Medtronic Medical Committee; AHAACC/AHA 2007 Perioperative Guidelines Council on Clinical Cardiology Electrocardi- ography and Arrhythmias Committee; AHA Council on Clinical Cardiology Leadership Committee Smadar Kort Content Reviewer: ACCF None Bristol-Myers None Philips None None None Echocardiography Squibb Committee Harlan Krumholz Content Reviewer: ACC/ None None None None None None None AHA Task Force on Practice Guidelines Fred Kushner Content Reviewer: ACC/ None CV Therapeutics; None None None Pfizer; None AHA Task Force on Novartis Sanofi- Practice Guidelines Aventis Jerrold Levy Content Reviewer: AHA Alexion PDL BioPharma None Abbott Laboratories; Defense work; all revenues go to charitable Council on Pharmaceuticals, Alexion trust with Fidelity Cardiovascular Surgery Inc; Dianon Pharmaceuticals, Inc; and Anesthesia Systems The Medicines Co; Leadership Committee Novo Nordisk Walter Mashman Content Reviewer: ACCF None None None None None None None Echocardiography Committee M. Sean McMurtry Content Reviewer: AHA None None None None None None None Council on Cardiopulmo- nary, Perioperative, and Critical Care C. Noel Bairey Merz Content Reviewer: AHA Bayer*; CV Merck & Co; Pfizer Boston Scientific*; None None None None Council on Clinical Therapeutics; Eli Lilly*; Cardiology Leadership Fuijisara; Merck Johnson & Committee & Co; Kos Johnson*; Pharmaceuticals, Medtronic* Inc; Sanofi- Aventis Debabrata Content Reviewer: ACCF None None None None None None None Mukherjee Cardiac Catheterization Committee (continues)ANESTHESIA & ANALGESIA
    • Vol. 106, No. 3, March 2008 Appendix II. Continued Institutional Ownership/ or Other Peer Consultant Fees/ Speakers’ Partnership/ Research Financial Expert Witness or Reviewer Representation Honoraria Bureau Principal Grant Salary Benefit Consultant Rick Nishimura Content Reviewer: ACC/ None None None None None None None AHA Task Force on Practice Guidelines Don Poldermans Content Reviewer: Merck/Novartis None None None None None None Individual Reviewer Robert Safford AHA: Council on Clinical None None None None None None None Cardiology Leadership Committee Jay Silverstein Content Reviewer: ACCF None None None None None None None Cardiovascular Imaging Committee Kim Williams Content Reviewer: ACCF CV Therapeutics*; Astellas Healthcare*; None Bristol-Myers Squibb*; CV None None None Cardiovascular Clinical GE Healthcare*; GE Healthcare* Therapeutics*; GE Imaging Committee King Healthcare*; Molecular Pharmaceuticals, Insight Pharmaceuticals, Inc* Inc* Stuart Winston Content Reviewer: AHA Boston Scientific/ None None Biotronik; Boston None None None Clinical Guidant Scientific/Guidant; Electrophysiology Medtronic Committee Janet Wyman Content Reviewer: ACCF None None None None None None None Cardiac Catheterization Committee This table represents the relationships of peer reviewers with industry that were disclosed at the time of peer review of this guideline. It does not necessarily reflect relationships with industry at the time of publication. Names are listed in alphabetical order within each category of review. Participation in the peer review process does not imply endorsement of this document. ACC indicates American College of Cardiology; ACCF, American College of Cardiology Foundation; and AHA, American Heart Association. *Significant relationship (greater than $10 000). †Spousal relationship.© 2007 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation and the American Heart Association, Inc. 709
    • Appendix III. Abbreviations List and the Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death). J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;48:e247– e346.Abbreviation Definition 8. Lee TH, Marcantonio ER, Mangione CM, et al. Derivation and prospective validation of a simple index for prediction of ACC American College of Cardiology cardiac risk of major noncardiac surgery. Circulation. 1999;100: ACS American College of Surgeons 1043–9. ADA American Diabetes Association 9. Campeau L. Letter: Grading of angina pectoris. Circulation. AHA American Heart Association 1976;54:522–3. CAD coronary artery disease 10. Hlatky MA, Boineau RE, Higginbotham MB, et al. A brief CARP Coronary Artery Revascularization self-administered questionnaire to determine functional capac- ity (the Duke Activity Status Index). Am J Cardiol. 1989;64:651– 4. Prophylaxis 11. Fletcher GF, Balady G, Froelicher VF, Hartley LH, Haskell WL, DECREASE Dutch Echocardiographic Cardiac Risk Pollock L. Exercise standards: a statement for healthcare profes- Evaluation Applying Stress Echocardiogra- sionals from the American Heart Association. Circulation. phy 1995;91:580 – 615. ECG electrocardiogram 12. Roger VL, Ballard DJ, Hallett JW Jr, Osmundson PJ, Puetz PA, ICD implantable cardioverter-defibrillator Gersh BJ. Influence of coronary artery disease on morbidity and LV left ventricle/left ventricular mortality after abdominal aortic aneurysmectomy: a MET metabolic equivalent population-based study, 1971–1987. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1989;14: MI myocardial infarction 1245–52. PCI percutaneous coronary intervention 13. Hertzer NR. Basic data concerning associated coronary disease in peripheral vascular patients. Ann Vasc Surg. 1987;1:616 –20. SCAI Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and 14. Gersh BJ, Rihal CS, Rooke TW, Ballard DJ. Evaluation and Interventions management of patients with both peripheral vascular and coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1991;18:203–14. 15. 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