• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Under ground railway
 

Under ground railway

on

  • 1,902 views

seminar

seminar

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,902
Views on SlideShare
1,902
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
2
Downloads
137
Comments
1

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft Word

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel

11 of 1 previous next

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Under ground railway Under ground railway Document Transcript

    • Seminar report on <UNDERGROUND RAILROAD> 1.INTRODUCTIONTunnel FIG: 1 A tunnel is an underground passageway, completely enclosed except for openings foregress, commonly at each end. A tunnel may be for foot or vehicular road traffic, for rail traffic, or for a canal. Sometunnels are aqueducts to supply water for consumption or for hydroelectric stations or are sewers. Other usesinclude routing power or telecommunication cables, some are to permit wildlife such as European badgers tocross highways. Secret tunnels have given entrance to or escape from an area, such as the Cu Chi Tunnels or thesmuggling tunnels in the Gaza Strip which connect it to Egypt. Some tunnels are not for transport at all butrather, are fortifications, for example Mittelwerk and Cheyenne Mountain. In the United Kingdom, a pedestrian tunnel or other underpass beneath a road is called aunderpass subway. In the United States that term now means an underground rapid transit system. The central part of a rapid transit network is usually built in tunnels. Rail station platformsmay be connected by pedestrian tunnels or by foot bridges.Railroads The work on a high-speed line (ligne à grande vitesse, or LGV) begins with earth moving.The trackbed is carved into the landscape, using scrapers, graders, bulldozers and other heavy machinery. Allfixed structures are built; these include bridges, flyovers, culverts, game tunnels, and the like. Drainage facilities,most notably the large ditches on either side of the trackbed, are constructed. Supply bases are established nearthe end of the high-speed tracks, where crews will form work trains to carry rail, sleepers and other supplies toD.Y.P.C.O.E., Akurdi, Pune 44 Department of Civil Engineering
    • Seminar report on <UNDERGROUND RAILROAD>`the work site. FIG: 2 Next, a layer of compact gravel is spread on the trackbed. This, after being compacted byrollers, provides an adequate surface for vehicles with tyres. TGV tracklaying then proceeds. The tracklayingprocess is not particularly specialized to high-speed lines; the same general technique is applicable to any trackthat uses continuous welded rail. The steps outlined below are used around the world in modern tracklaying.TGV track, however, answers to stringent requirements that dictate materials, dimensions and tolerances. 2D.Y.P.C.O.E, AKURDI.PUNE DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
    • Seminar report on <UNDERGROUND RAILROAD>` Chapter 1: 1.1 Construction FIG: 1.1 Cut-and-cover constructions of the Paris Métro in France Tunnels are dug in types of materials varying from soft clay to hard rock. The method oftunnel construction depends on such factors as the ground conditions, the ground water conditions, the lengthand diameter of the tunnel drive, the depth of the tunnel, the logistics of supporting the tunnel excavation, thefinal use and shape of the tunnel and appropriate risk management.There are three basic types of tunnel construction in common use: Cut and cover tunnels, constructed in a shallow trench and then covered over. Bored tunnels, constructed in situ, without removing the ground above. They are usually of circular or horseshoe cross-section. Immersed tube tunnels, sunk into a body of water and sit on, or are buried just under, its bed.1.1.1Usage limitations A tunnel is relatively long and narrow; in general the length is more (usually much more)than twice the diameter. Some hold a tunnel to be at least 0.160 kilometres (0.10 mi) long and call shorterpassageways by such terms as an "underpass" or a "chute". For example, the underpass beneath Yahata Stationin Kitakyushu, Japan is 0.130 km long (0.081 mi) and so might not be considered a tunnel.1.1.2 Geotechnical investigation A tunnel project must start with a comprehensive investigation of ground conditions bycollecting samples from boreholes and by other geophysical techniques. An informed choice can then be madeof machinery and methods for excavation and ground support, which will reduce the risk of encountering 3D.Y.P.C.O.E, AKURDI.PUNE DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
    • Seminar report on <UNDERGROUND RAILROAD>`unforeseen ground conditions. In planning the route the horizontal and vertical alignments will make use of thebest ground and water conditions. In some cases conventional desk and site studies yield insufficient information to assess suchfactors as the blocky nature of rocks, the exact location of fault zones, or the stand-up times of softer ground.This may be a particular concern in large diameter tunnels. To give more information a pilot tunnel, or drift,may be driven ahead of the main drive. This smaller diameter tunnel will be easier to support should unexpectedconditions be met, and will be incorporated in the final tunnel. Alternatively, horizontal boreholes maysometimes be drilled ahead of the advancing tunnel face. 4D.Y.P.C.O.E, AKURDI.PUNE DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
    • Seminar report on <UNDERGROUND RAILROAD>` Chapter 2: Techniques 2.1 Cut-and-cover Cut-and-cover is a simple method of construction for shallow tunnels where a trench isexcavated and roofed over with an overhead support system strong enough to carry the load of what is to bebuilt above the tunnel. Two basic forms of cut-and-cover tunnelling are available: Bottom-up method: A trench is excavated, with ground support as necessary, and the tunnel is constructed in it. The tunnel may be of in situ concrete, precast concrete, precast arches,or corrugated steel arches; in early days brickwork was used. The trench is then carefully back-filled and the surface is reinstated. Top-down method: Here side support walls and capping beams are constructed from ground level by such methods as slurry walling, or contiguous bored piling. Then a shallow excavation allows making the tunnel roof of precast beams or in situ concrete. The surface is then reinstated except for access openings. This allows early reinstatement of roadways, services and other surface features. Excavation then takes place under the permanent tunnel roof, and the base slab is constructed. Shallow tunnels are often of the cut-and-cover type (if under water, of the immersed-tubetype), while deep tunnels are excavated, often using a tunnelling shield. For intermediate levels, both methodsare possible. Large cut-and-cover boxes are often used for underground metro stations, such as CanaryWharf tube station in London. This construction form generally has two levels, which allows economicalarrangements for ticket hall, station platforms, passenger access and emergency egress, ventilation and smokecontrol, staff rooms, and equipment rooms. The interior of Canary Wharf station has been likened to anunderground cathedral, owing to the sheer size of the excavation. This contrasts with most traditional stationson London Underground, where bored tunnels were used for stations and passenger access.2.2 Clay-kicking Clay-kicking is a specialised method developed in the United Kingdom, of manuallydigging tunnels in strong clay-based soil structures. Unlike previous manual methods of using mattocks whichrelied on the soil structure to be hard, clay-kicking was relatively silent and hence did not harm soft clay basedstructures. 5D.Y.P.C.O.E, AKURDI.PUNE DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
    • Seminar report on <UNDERGROUND RAILROAD>` The clay-kicker lies on a plank at a 45degree angle away from the working face, and insertsa tool with a cup-like rounded end with his feet. Turning the tool with his hands, he extracts a section of soil,which is then placed on the waste extract. Regularly used in Victorian civil engineering, the methods found favour in the renewal ofthe United Kingdoms then ancient sewerage systems, by not having to remove all property or infrastructure tocreate an effective small tunnel system. During the First World War, the system was successfully deployed by theRoyal Engineer tunnelling companies to deploy large military mines beneath enemy German Empire lines. Themethod was virtually silent not susceptible to listening methods of detection.2.3 Boring machines Tunnel boring machine FIG: 2.1 A tunnel boring machine that was used at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, United States Tunnel boring machines (TBMs) and associated back-up systems are used to highlyautomate the entire tunneling process, reducing tunneling costs. Tunnel boring in certain predominantly urban applications, is viewed as quick and costeffective alternative to laying surface rails and roads. Expensive compulsory purchase of buildings and land withpotentially lengthy planning inquiries is eliminated. There are a variety of TBMs that can operate in a variety of conditions, from hard rock tosoft water-bearing ground. Some types of TBMs, bentonite slurry and earth-pressure balance machines, havepressurised compartments at the front end, allowing them to be used in difficult conditions below the watertable. This pressurizes the ground ahead of the TBM cutter head to balance the water pressure. The operatorswork in normal air pressure behind the pressurised compartment, but may occasionally have to enter that 6D.Y.P.C.O.E, AKURDI.PUNE DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
    • Seminar report on <UNDERGROUND RAILROAD>`compartment to renew or repair the cutters. This requires special precautions, such as local ground treatment orhalting the TBM at a position free from water. Despite these difficulties, TBMs are now preferred to the oldermethod of tunneling in compressed air, with an air lock/decompression chamber some way back from theTBM, which required operators to work in high pressure and go through decompression procedures at the endof their shifts, much like divers. In February 2010, Aker Wirth delivered a TBM to Switzerland, for the expansion of LinthLimmern Power Plant in Switzerland. The borehole has a diameter of 8.03 metres (26.3 ft).[2] The TBM used fordigging the 57-kilometre (35 mi) Gotthard Base Tunnel, in Switzerland, has a diameter of about 9 metres (30 ft).A larger TBM was built to bore the Green Heart Tunnel (Dutch: Tunnel Groene Hart) as part of the HSL-Zuidin the Netherlands, with a diameter of 14.87 metres (48.8 ft).[3] This in turn was superseded by the Madrid M30ringroad, Spain, and the Chong Ming tunnels in Shanghai, China. All of these machines were built at least partlyby Herrenknecht.2.4 Shafts A shaft is sometimes necessary for a tunnel project. They are usually circular and gostraight down until they reach the level at which the tunnel is going to be built. A shaft normally has concretewalls and is built just like it is going to be permanent. Once they are built the Tunnel Boring Machines arelowered to the bottom and excavation can start. Shafts are the main entrance in and out of the tunnel until theproject is completed. Sometimes if a tunnel is going to be long there will be multiple shafts at various locationsso that entrance into the tunnel is closer to the unexcavated area.2.4.1 Other key factors Stand-up time is the amount of time a tunnel will support itself without any added structures. Knowing this time allows the engineers to determine how much can be excavated before support is needed. The longer the stand-up time is the faster the excavating will go. Generally certain configurations of rock and clay will have the greatest stand-up time, and sand and fine soils will have a much lower stand-up time. Groundwater control is very important in tunnel construction. If there is water leaking into the tunnel stand-up time will be greatly decreased. If there is water leaking into the shaft it will become unstable and will not be safe to work in. To stop this from happening there are a few common methods. One of the most effective is ground freezing. To do this pipes are inserted into the ground surrounding the shaft and are cooled until they freeze. This freezes the ground around each pipe until the whole shaft is 7D.Y.P.C.O.E, AKURDI.PUNE DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
    • Seminar report on <UNDERGROUND RAILROAD>` surrounded frozen soil, keeping water out. The most common method is to install pipes into the ground and to simply pump the water out. This works for tunnels and shafts. Tunnel shape is very important in determining stand-up time. The force from gravity is straight down on a tunnel, so if the tunnel is wider than it is high it will have a harder time supporting itself decreasing its stand-up time. If a tunnel is higher than it is wide the stand up time will increase making the project easier. The hardest shape to support itself is a square or rectangular tunnel. The forces have a harder time being redirected around the tunnel making it extremely hard to support itself. This of course all depends what the material of the ground is.2.5 Sprayed concrete techniques The New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM) was developed in the 1960s, and is the bestknown of a number of engineering solutions that use calculated and empirical real-time measurements toprovide optimised safe support to the tunnel lining. The main idea of this method is to use the geological stressof the surrounding rock mass to stabilize the tunnel itself, by allowing a measured relaxation and stressreassignment into the surrounding rock to prevent full loads becoming imposed on the introduced supportmeasures. Based on geotechnical measurements, an optimal cross section is computed. The excavation isimmediately protected by a layer of sprayed concrete, commonly referred to as shotcrete, after excavation. Othersupport measures could include steel arches, rockbolts and mesh. Technological developments in sprayedconcrete technology have resulted in steel and polypropylene fibres being added to the concrete mix to improvelining strength. This creates a natural load-bearing ring, which minimizes the rocks deformation. FIG: 2.2 Illowra Battery utility tunnel, Port Kembla. One of many bunkers south of Sydney. By special monitoring the NATM method is very flexible, even at surprising changes of thegeomechanical rock consistency during the tunneling work. The measured rock properties lead to appropriatetools for tunnel strengthening. In the last decades also soft ground excavations up to 10 kilometres (6.2 mi)became usual. 8D.Y.P.C.O.E, AKURDI.PUNE DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
    • Seminar report on <UNDERGROUND RAILROAD>`2.6 Pipe jacking Pipe Jacking, also known as pipejacking or pipe-jacking, is a method of tunnel constructionwhere hydraulic jacks are used to push specially made pipes through the ground behind a tunnel boring machineor shield. This technique is commonly used to create tunnels under existing structures, such as roads or railways.Tunnels constructed by pipe jacking are normally small diameter tunnels with a maximum size of around 2.4m.2.7 Box jacking Box jacking is similar to pipe jacking, but instead of jacking tubes, a box shaped tunnel is used.Jacked boxes can be a much larger span than a pipe jack with the span of some box jacks in excess of 20m. Acutting head is normally used at the front of the box being jacked and excavation is normally by excavator fromwithin the box.2.8 Underwater tunnels There are also several approaches to underwater tunnels, the two most common being boredtunnels or immersed tubes. Submerged floating tunnels are another approach that has not been constructed.Other2.8.1 Other tunneling methods include: Drilling and blasting Slurry-shield machine Wall-cover construction method.2.8.2 Costs and cost overruns of tunnels Tunnels are costly and generally more costly than bridges. Large cost overruns are commonin tunnel construction. 9D.Y.P.C.O.E, AKURDI.PUNE DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
    • Seminar report on <UNDERGROUND RAILROAD>`2.9 Choice of tunnels vs. bridges For water crossings, a tunnel is generally more costly to construct than a bridge.Navigational considerations may limit the use of high bridges or drawbridge spans intersecting with shippingchannels, necessitating a tunnel. Bridges usually require a larger footprint on each shore than tunnels. There are actually morecodes to follow with bridges than with tunnels. In areas with expensive real estate, such as Manhattan and urbanHong Kong, this is a strong factor in tunnels favor. Bostons Big Dig project replaced elevated roadways with atunnel system to increase traffic capacity, hide traffic, reclaim land, redecorate, and reunite the city with thewaterfront. The 1934 Queensway Road Tunnel under the River Mersey at Liverpool, was chosen over amassively high bridge for defence reasons. It was feared aircraft could destroy a bridge in times of war.Maintenance costs of a massive bridge to allow the worlds largest ships navigate under was considered higherthan a tunnel. Similar conclusions were met for the 1971 Kingsway Tunnel under the River Mersey. FIG: 2.3The Queens–Midtown Tunnel in New York City serves as an example of a water-crossing tunnel built instead ofa bridge. Examples of water-crossing tunnels built instead of bridges include the Holland Tunnel,Queens-Midtown Tunnel and Lincoln Tunnel between New Jersey and Manhattan in New York City, and theElizabeth River tunnels between Norfolk and Portsmouth, Virginia, the 1934 River Mersey road QueenswayTunnel and the Western Scheldt Tunnel, Zeeland, Netherlands. Other reasons for choosing a tunnel instead of a bridge include avoiding difficulties withtides, weather and shipping during construction (as in the 51.5-kilometre or 32.0 mi Channel Tunnel), aesthetic 10D.Y.P.C.O.E, AKURDI.PUNE DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
    • Seminar report on <UNDERGROUND RAILROAD>`reasons (preserving the above-ground view, landscape, and scenery), and also for weight capacity reasons (it maybe more feasible to build a tunnel than a sufficiently strong bridge). Some water crossings are a mixture ofbridges and tunnels, such as the Denmark to Sweden link and the Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel in the easternUnited States. There are particular hazards with tunnels, especially from vehicle fires when combustiongases can asphyxiate users, as happened at the Gotthard Road Tunnel in Switzerland in 2001. One of the worstrailway disasters ever, the Balvano train disaster, was caused by a train stalling in the Armi tunnel in Italy in 1944,killing 426 passengers. 11D.Y.P.C.O.E, AKURDI.PUNE DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
    • Seminar report on <UNDERGROUND RAILROAD>` Chapter 3: Variant tunnel types 3.1 Double-deck tunnel Some tunnels are double-deck, for example the two major segments of the San Francisco –Oakland Bay Bridge (completed in 1936) are linked by a double-deck tunnel, once the largest diameter tunnel inthe world. At construction this was a combination bidirectional rail and truck pathway on the lower deck withautomobiles above, now converted to one-way road vehicle traffic on each deck.A recent double-decker tunnel with both decks for motor vehicles is the Fuxing Road Tunnel in Shanghai,China. Cars travel on the two-lane upper deck and heavier vehicles on the single-lane lower.Multipurpose tunnel are tunnels that have more than one purpose. The SMART Tunnel in Malaysia is the firstmultipurpose tunnel in the world, as it is used both to control traffic and flood in Kuala Lumpur. 3.2 Artificial tunnels FIG: 3.1 The 19th century Dark Gate in Esztergom, Hungary. Overbridges can sometimes be built by covering a road or river or railway with brick or stillarches, and then levelling the surface with earth. In railway parlance, a surface-level track which has been built orcovered over is normally called a covered way.Snow sheds are a kind of artificial tunnel built to protect a railway from avalanches of snow. Similarly theStanwell Park, New South Wales steel tunnel, on the South Coast railway line, protects the line from rockfalls. 12D.Y.P.C.O.E, AKURDI.PUNE DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
    • Seminar report on <UNDERGROUND RAILROAD>`Common utility ducts are man-made tunnels created to carry two or more utility lines underground. Throughco-location of different utilities in one tunnel, organizations are able to reduce the costs of building andmaintaining utilities.3.3 Hazards Owing to the enclosed space of a tunnel, fires can have very serious effects on users. The maindangers are gas and smoke production, with low concentrations of carbon monoxide being highly toxic. Fireskilled 11 people in the Gotthard tunnel fire of 2001 for example, all of the victims succumbing to smoke and gasinhalation. Over 400 passengers died in the Balvano train disaster in Italy in 1944, when the locomotive halted ina long tunnel. Carbon monoxide poisoning was the main cause of the horrifying death rate.3.4 Examples of tunnelsIn history FIG: 3.2A short section remains of the 1836 Edge Hill to Lime Street tunnel in Liverpool. This is the oldest used railtunnel in the world. A tilting train passes through the tunnel. FIG: 3.3 13D.Y.P.C.O.E, AKURDI.PUNE DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
    • Seminar report on <UNDERGROUND RAILROAD>` The Worlds oldest underwater tunnel is rumored to be the Terelek kayatüneli under Kızıl River, a little south of the towns of Boyabat and Duragan in Turkey. Estimated to have beenbuilt more than 2000 years ago (possibly 5000), it is assumed to have had a defence purpose. The qanat or kareez of Persia is a water management system used to provide a reliable supply of water to human settlements or for irrigation in hot, arid and semi-arid climates. The oldest and largest known qanat is in the Iranian city of Gonabad, which after 2700 years, still provides drinking and agricultural water to nearly 40,000 people. Its main well depth is more than 360 m (1,180 ft), and its length is 45 km (28 mi). The Eupalinian aqueduct on the island of Samos (North Aegean, Greece). Built in 520 BC by the ancient Greek engineer Eupalinos of Megara. Eupalinos organised the work so that the tunnel was begun from both sides of mount Kastro. The two teams advanced simultaneously and met in the middle with excellent accuracy, something that was extremely difficult in that time. The aqueduct was of utmost defensive importance, since it ran underground, and it was not easily found by an enemy who could otherwise cut off the water supply to Pythagoreion, the ancient capital of Samos. The tunnels existence was recorded by Herodotus (as was the mole and harbour, and the third wonder of the island, the great temple to Hera, thought by many to be the largest in the Greek world). The precise location of the tunnel was only re-established in the 19th century by German archaeologists. The tunnel proper is 1,030 m long (3,380 ft) and visitors can still enter it Eupalinos tunnel. The Via Flaminia, an important Roman road, penetrated the Furlo pass in the Apennines through a tunnel which emperor Vespasian had ordered built in 76-77. A modern road, the SS 3 Flaminia, still uses this tunnel, which had a precursor dating back to the 3rd century BC; remnants of this earlier tunnel (one of the first road tunnels) are also still visible. Sapperton Canal Tunnel on the Thames and Severn Canal in England, dug through hills, which opened in 1789, was 3.5 km (2.2 mi) long and allowed boat transport of coal and other goods. Above it runs the Sapperton Long Tunnel which carries the "Golden Valley" railway line between Swindon and Gloucester. The 1796 Stoddart Tunnel in Chapel-en-le-Frith in Derbyshire is reputed to be the oldest rail tunnel in the world. Rail wagons were horse-drawn. The tunnel was created for the first true steam locomotive, from Penydarren to Abercynon. The Penydarren locomotive was built by Richard Trevithick. The locomotive made the historic journey from Penydarren to Abercynon in 1804. Part of this tunnel can still be seen at Pentrebach, Merthyr Tydfil, Wales. This is arguably the oldest railway tunnel in the world, for self-propelled steam engines on rails. 14D.Y.P.C.O.E, AKURDI.PUNE DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
    • Seminar report on <UNDERGROUND RAILROAD>` The Montgomery Bell Tunnel in Tennessee, a 88 m (289 ft), high water diversion tunnel, 4.50-×-2.45 m high (15-×-8.0 ft), to power a water wheel, was built by slave labour in 1819, being the first full-scale tunnel in North America. Crown Street Station, Liverpool, 1829. Built by George Stephenson, a single track tunnel 291 yd long (266 m) was bored from Edge Hill to Crown Street to serve the worlds first passenger railway station. The station was abandoned in 1836 being too far from Liverpool city centre, with the area converted for freight use. Closed down in 1972, the tunnel is disused. However it is the oldest rail tunnel running under streets in the world. [1] The 1.26 mile (2.03 km) 1829 Wapping Tunnel in Liverpool, England, was the first rail tunnel bored under a metropolis. Currently disused since 1972. Having two tracks, the tunnel runs from Edge Hill in the east of the city to the south end Liverpool docks being used only for freight. The tunnel is still in excellent condition and is being considered for reuse by Merseyrail rapid transit rail system, with maybe an underground station cut into the tunnel. The river portal is opposite the new Liverpool Arena being ideal for a serving station. If reused it will be the oldest used underground rail tunnel in the world and oldest part of any underground metro system. 1836, Lime St Station tunnel, Liverpool. A two track rail tunnel, 1.13 miles (1,811 m) long was bored under a metropolis from Edge Hill in the east of the city to Lime Street. In the 1880s the tunnel was converted to a deep cutting four tracks wide. The only occurrence of a tunnel being removed. A very short section of the original tunnel still exists at Edge Hill station making this the oldest rail tunnel in the world still in use, and the oldest in use under a street, albeit only one street and one building. Box Tunnel in England, which opened in 1841, was the longest railway tunnel in the world at the time of construction. It was dug and has a length of 2.9 km (1.8 mi). The 0.75 mile long 1842 Prince of Wales Tunnel, in Shildon near Darlington, England, is the oldest sizable tunnel in the world still in use under a settlement. The Thames Tunnel, built by Marc Isambard Brunel and his son Isambard Kingdom Brunel and opened in 1843, was the first underwater tunnel and the first to use a tunnelling shield. Originally used as a foot- tunnel, it was a part of the East London Line of the London Underground until 2007, being the oldest section of the system. From 2010 the tunnel becomes a part of the London Overground system. The 2.07 miles (3.34 km) Victoria Tunnel in Liverpool, opened in 1848, was bored under a metropolis. Initially used only for rail freight and later freight and passengers serving the Liverpool ship liner terminal, the tunnel runs from Edge Hill in the east of the city to the north end Liverpool docks. Used until 1972 it is still in excellent condition, being considered for reuse by the Merseyrail rapid transit rail system. Stations being cut into the tunnel are being considered. Also, reuse by a monorail system from the proposed Liverpool Waters redevelopment of Liverpools Central Docks has been proposed. 15D.Y.P.C.O.E, AKURDI.PUNE DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
    • Seminar report on <UNDERGROUND RAILROAD>` The oldest underground sections of the London Underground were built using the cut-and-cover method in the 1860s. The Metropolitan, Hammersmith & City, Circle and District lines were the first to prove the success of a metro or subway system. Dating from 1863, Baker Street station is the oldest underground station in the world. The 1882 Col de Tende Road Tunnel, at 3182 metres long, was one of the first long road tunnels under a pass, running between France and Italy. The Mersey Railway tunnel opened in 1886 running from Liverpool to Birkenhead under the River Mersey. The Mersey Railway was the worlds first deep-level underground railway. By 1892 the extensions on land from Birkenhead Park station to Liverpool Central Low level station gave a tunnel 3.12 miles (5029 m) in length. The under river section is 0.75 miles in length, being the longest underwater tunnel in world in January 1886. The rail Severn Tunnel was opened in late 1886, at 4 miles 624 yd (7,008 m) long, although only 2¼ miles (3.62 km) of the tunnel is actually under the river. The tunnel replaced the Mersey Railway tunnels longest under water record, which it held for less than a year. James Greathead, in constructing the City & South London Railway tunnel beneath the Thames, opened in 1890, brought together three key elements of tunnel construction under water: 1) shield method of excavation; 2) permanent cast iron tunnel lining; 3) construction in a compressed air environment to inhibit water flowing through soft ground material into the tunnel heading.[9] St. Clair Tunnel, also opened later in 1890, linked the elements of the Greathead tunnels on a larger scale.[9] The 1927 Holland Tunnel was the first underwater tunnel designed for automobiles. This fact required a novel ventilation system.Longest The Delaware Aqueduct in New York USA is the longest tunnel, of any type, in the world at 137 km (85 mi). It is drilled through solid rock. The Gotthard Base Tunnel is the longest rail tunnel in the world at 57 km (35 mi). It will be totally completed in 2017. The Seikan Tunnel in Japan was the longest rail tunnel in the world at 53.9 km (33.5 mi), of which 23.3 km (14.5 mi) is under the sea. The Channel Tunnel between France and the United Kingdom under the English Channel is the second-longest, with a total length of 50 km (31 mi), of which 39 km (24 mi) is under the sea. The Lötschberg Base Tunnel opened in June 2007 in Switzerland was the longest land rail tunnel, with a total of 34.5 km (21.4 mi). 16D.Y.P.C.O.E, AKURDI.PUNE DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
    • Seminar report on <UNDERGROUND RAILROAD>` The Lærdal Tunnel in Norway from Lærdal to Aurland is the worlds longest road tunnel, intended for cars and similar vehicles, at 24.5 km (15.2 mi). The Zhongnanshan Tunnel in Peoples Republic of China opened in January 2007 is the worlds second longest highway tunnel and the longest road tunnel in Asia, at 18 km (11 mi). The longest canal tunnel is the Rove Tunnel in France, over 7.12 km (4.42 mi) long.Notable The Lincoln Tunnel between New Jersey and New York is one of the busiest vehicular tunnels in the United States, at 120,000 vehicles/day. The Central Artery Tunnel in Boston carries approximately 200,000 vehicles/day. The Fredhälls Tunnel in Stockholm, Sweden, and the New Elbe Tunnel in Hamburg, Germany, both with around 150,000 vehicles a day, two of the most trafficked tunnels in the world. Gerrards Cross tunnel in Britain is notable in that it is being built over a railway cutting that was dug in the early part of the 20th Century. Thus, arguably, making it the tunnel longest in construction by the cut and cover method. When complete a branch of the Tesco supermarket chain will occupy the space above the railway tunnel. Williamsons tunnels in Liverpool, built by a wealthy eccentric are probably the largest underground folly in the world. New York City Water Tunnel No. 3[2], started in 1970, has an expected completion date of 2020. The Chicago Deep Tunnel Project is a network of 175 km (109 mi) of tunnels designed to reduce flooding in the Chicago area. Started in the mid 1970s, the project is due to be completed in 2019. Moffat Tunnel in Colorado straddles the Continental Divide. The tunnel is 6.2 mi (10.0 km) long and at 9,239 ft (2,816 m) above sea level is the highest railroad tunnel in the United States. The Fenghuoshan tunnel on Qinghai-Tibet railway is the worlds highest railway tunnel, about 4,905 m (16,093 ft) above sea level. The La Linea Tunnel in Colombia, will be (2013) the longest, 8.58 km (5.33 mi), mountain tunnel in South America. It crosses beneath a mountain at 2,500 m (8,202.1 ft) above sea level with six lanes and it has a parallel emergency tunnel. The tunnel is subject to serious groundwater pressure. The tunnel, which is currently under construction, will link Bogotá and its urban area with the coffee-growing region and with the main port on the Colombian Pacific coast. The Honningsvåg Tunnel (4.443 km (2.76 mi) long) on European route E69 in Norway is the worlds northernmost road tunnel, except for mines (which exist on Svalbard). The Eiksund Tunnel [3] on national road Rv 653 in Norway is the worlds deepest subsea road tunnel (7,776 m long, with deepest point at -287 metres below the sea level, opened in feb. 2008) 17D.Y.P.C.O.E, AKURDI.PUNE DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
    • Seminar report on <UNDERGROUND RAILROAD>`Other uses Excavation techniques, as well as the construction of underground bunkers and otherhabitable areas, are often associated with military use during armed conflict, or civilian responses to threat ofattack. The use of tunnels for mining is called drift mining. One of the strangest uses of a tunnel was for thestorage of chemical weapons.3.5 Natural tunnels Lava tubes are partially empty, cave-like conduits underground, formed during volcanic eruptions by flowing and cooling lava. Natural Tunnel State Park (Virginia, USA) features an 850-foot (259 m) natural tunnel, really a limestone cave, that has been used as a railroad tunnel since 1890. Punarjani Guha Kerala, India. Hindus believe that crawling through the tunnel (which they believe was created by a Hindu god) from one end to the other will wash away all of one’s sins and thus attain rebirth, although only men are permitted to crawl through the cave. Small "snow tunnels" are created by voles, chipmunks and other rodents for protection and access to food sources. For more information regarding tunnels built by animals, see Burrow3.6 Temporary way During construction of a tunnel it is often convenient to install a temporary railway particularlyto remove spoil. This temporary railway is often narrow gauge so that it can be double track, which facilitatesthe operation of empty and loaded trains at the same time. The temporary way is replaced by the permanent wayat completion, thus explaining the term Perway.3.7 Enlargement The vehicles using a tunnel can outgrow it, requiring replacement or enlargement. The originalsingle line Gib Tunnel near Mittagong was replaced with a double line tunnel, with the original tunnel used forgrowing mushrooms.[citation needed] The Rhyndaston Tunnel was enlarged using a borrowed Tunnel Boring Machineso as to be able to take ISO containers. The 1836 Lime Street two track 1 mile tunnel from Edge Hill to Lime Street in Liverpool wastotally removed, apart from a short 50 metre section at Edge Hill. Four tracks were required. The tunnel wasconverted into a very deep 4 track open cutting. However, short larger 4 track tunnels were left in some parts of 18D.Y.P.C.O.E, AKURDI.PUNE DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
    • Seminar report on <UNDERGROUND RAILROAD>`the run. Train services were not interrupted as the work progressed. Photos of the work in progress: There areother occurrences of tunnels being replaced by open cuts, for example, the Auburn Tunnel.3.8 Location Most of the tunnels listed below are located in the Western Ghats, the only mountain range inthe country that has good railway connectivity. There are longer tunnels that are under construction in theHimalayas in Jammu and Kashmir, as part of the USBRL Project.`Name Zonal Year of(number Length Between stations State Coordinates Railway commissioningon route) 17°6′9″NKarbude 6,506 metres Konkan 73°24′59″E / Ukshi Bhoke Maharashtra 1997(T-35) (21,345 ft) Railway 17.1025°N 73.41639°E 17°53′37″NNathuwadi 4,389 metres Diwan Konkan Karanjadi Maharashtra 1997 73°23′14″E /(T-6) (14,400 ft) Khavati Railway 17.89361°N 73.38722°E 16°58′48″NTike (T- 4,077 metres Konkan Ratnagiri Nivasar Maharashtra 1997 73°23′42″E /39) (13,376 ft) Railway 16.98°N 73.395°E 16°53′43″NBerdewadi 4,000 metres Konkan Adavali Vilawade Maharashtra 1997 73°36′22″E /(T-49) (13,000 ft) Railway 16.89528°N 73.60611°E 19D.Y.P.C.O.E, AKURDI.PUNE DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
    • Seminar report on <UNDERGROUND RAILROAD>` 17°27′35″NSavarde 3,429 metres Konkan Kamathe Savarde Maharashtra 1997 73°31′19″E /(T-17) (11,250 ft) Railway 17.45972°N 73.52194°ESangar (T- 2,445 metres Jammu and Northern Sangar Manwal 20054) (8,022 ft) Kashmir RailwayMonkey 2,156 metres CentralHill (T- Karjat Khandala Maharashtra 1982 (7,073 ft) Railway25C)Aravali (T- 2,100 metres Konkan Aravali Sangameshwar Maharashtra 199721) (6,900 ft) RailwayChiplun 2,033 metres Konkan Chiplun Kamathe Maharashtra 1997 17°29′45″N(T-16) (6,670 ft) Railway 73°31′50″E TABLE: 1 20D.Y.P.C.O.E, AKURDI.PUNE DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
    • Seminar report on <UNDERGROUND RAILROAD>` Chapter 4: 4.1 Railroad Construction4.1.1 LGV construction is the process by which the land on which TGV trains are to run is prepared fortheir use, involving carving the trackbed and laying the track. It is similar to the building of standard railwaylines, but there are differences. In particular, construction process is more precise in order for the track to besuitable for regular use at 300 km/h (186 mph). The quality of construction was put to the test in particularduring the TGV world speed record runs on the LGV Atlantique; the track was used at over 500 km/h(310 mph) without suffering significant damage. This contrasts with previous French world rail speed recordattempts which resulted in severe deformation of the track.4.1.2 Preparing the trackbed The work on a high-speed line (ligne à grande vitesse, or LGV) begins with earthmoving. The trackbed is carved into the landscape, using scrapers, graders, bulldozers and other heavymachinery. All fixed structures are built; these include bridges, flyovers, culverts, game tunnels, and the like.Drainage facilities, most notably the large ditches on either side of the trackbed, are constructed. Supply basesare established near the end of the high-speed tracks, where crews will form work trains to carry rail, sleepersand other supplies to the work site. Next, a layer of compact gravel is spread on the trackbed. This, after being compactedby rollers, provides an adequate surface for vehicles with tyres. TGV tracklaying then proceeds. The tracklayingprocess is not particularly specialized to high-speed lines; the same general technique is applicable to any trackthat uses continuous welded rail. The steps outlined below are used around the world in modern tracklaying.TGV track, however, answers to stringent requirements that dictate materials, dimensions and tolerances.4.1.3 Laying the track To begin laying track, a gantry crane that rides on rubber tires is used to lay down panelsof prefabricated track. These are laid roughly in the location where one of the tracks will be built (all LGVs havetwo tracks). Each panel is 18 metres (60 feet) long, and rests on wooden sleepers. No ballast is used at this stage,since the panel track is temporary. Once the panel track is laid, a work train (pulled by diesel locomotives) can bring in thesections of continuous welded rail that will be used for the permanent way of this first track. The rail comes 21D.Y.P.C.O.E, AKURDI.PUNE DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
    • Seminar report on <UNDERGROUND RAILROAD>`from the factory in lengths varying from 200 m (660 ft) to 400 m (1310 ft). Such long pieces of rail are just laidacross several flatcars; they are very flexible, so this does not pose a problem. A special crane unloads the railsections and places them on each side of the temporary track, approximately 3.5 m (12 ft) apart. This operationis usually carried out at night, for thermal reasons. The rail itself is standard UIC section, 60 kg/m (40 lb/ft),with a tensile strength of 800 newtons per square millimetre or megapascals (116,000 psi). For the next step, a gantry crane is used again. This time, however, the crane rides onthe two rails that were just laid alongside the temporary track. A train of flatcars, half loaded with LGV sleepers,arrives at the site. It is pushed by a special diesel locomotive, which is low enough to fit underneath the gantrycranes. The cranes remove the panels of temporary track, and stack them onto the empty half of the sleepertrain. Next, they pick up sets of 30 LGV sleepers, pre-arranged with the proper spacing (60 cm, or 24 in), using aspecial fixture. The sleepers are laid on the gravel bed where the panel track was. The sleeper train leaves theworksite loaded with sections of panel track. The sleepers, sometimes known as bi-bloc sleepers, are U41 twin block reinforcedconcrete, 2.4 m (7 ft 10 in.) wide, and weigh 245 kg (540 lb) each. They are equipped with hardware for NablaRNTC spring fasteners, and a 9 mm (3/8 in.) rubber pad. (Rubber pads are always used under the rail onconcrete sleepers, to avoid cracking). Next, a rail threader is used to lift the rails onto their final position on thesleepers. This machine rides on the rails just like the gantry cranes, but can also support itself directly on asleeper. By doing this, it can lift the rails, and shift them inwards over the ends of the sleepers, to the propergauge (standard gauge). It then lowers them onto the rubber sleeper cushions, and workers use a pneumaticallyoperated machine to bolt down the Nabla clips with a predetermined torque. The rails are canted inward at aslope of 1 in 20.4.4.4 Joining track sections The sections of rail are welded together using thermite. Conventional welding (using sometype of flame) does not work well on large metal pieces such as rails, since the heat is conducted away tooquickly. Thermite is better suited to this job. It is a mix of aluminium powder and rust (iron oxide) powder,which reacts to produce iron, aluminum oxide, and a great deal of heat, making it ideal to weld rail. Before the rail is joined, its length must be adjusted very accurately. This ensures that thethermal stresses in the rail after it is joined into one continuous piece do not exceed certain limits, resulting inlateral kinks (in hot weather) or fractures (in cold weather). The joining operation is performed by analuminothermic welding machine which is equipped with a rail saw, a weld shear and a grinder. When the 22D.Y.P.C.O.E, AKURDI.PUNE DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
    • Seminar report on <UNDERGROUND RAILROAD>`thermite welding process is complete, the weld is ground to the profile of the rail, resulting in a seamless joinbetween rail sections. Stress in the rail due to temperature variations is absorbed without longitudinal strain,except near bridges where an expansion joint is sometimes used.4.4.5 Adding ballast The next step consists of stuffing a deep bed of ballast underneath the new track. Theballast arrives in a train of hopper cars pulled by diesel locomotives. Handling this train is challenging, since theballast must be spread evenly. If the train stops, ballast can pile over the rails and derail it. A first layer of ballast is dumped directly onto the track, and a tamping-lining-levellingmachine, riding on the rails, forces the stones underneath the sleepers. Each pass of this machine can raise thelevel of the track by 8 cm (3 in), so several passes of ballasting and of the machine are needed to build up a layerof ballast at least 32 cm (1 ft) thick under the sleepers. The ballast is also piled on each side of the track forlateral stability. The machine performs the initial alignment of the track. Next, a ballast regulator distributes theballast evenly. Finally, a dynamic vibrator machine shakes the track to perform the final tamping, effectivelysimulating the passing of 2500 axles.4.4.6 Finishing construction Now that the first track is almost complete, work begins on the adjacent track. This time,however, it is not necessary to lay a temporary track. Trains running on the first track bring the sleepers, andthen the rail, which is unloaded directly onto the sleepers by dispensing arms that swing out to the properalignment. The Nabla fasteners are secured, and the ballast is stuffed under the track as before. The two tracks are now essentially complete, but the work on the line is not finished. Thecatenary masts need to be erected, and the wire strung on them. Catenary installation is not complicated; it willsuffice to give a brief summary of specifications. The steel masts are I-beams, placed in a concrete foundationup to 63 m (206 ft) apart. The supports are mounted on glass insulators. The carrier wire is bronze, 65 mm²cross section, 14 kN (3100 lbf) tension. The stitch wire is bronze, 15 m (49.21 ft) long, 35 mm² cross-section.The droppers are 5 mm stranded copper cable. The contact wire is hard drawn copper, 120 mm², flat section onthe contact side, 14 kN tension. The maximum depth of the catenary (distance between carrier and contactwires) is 1.4 m (4.59 ft). The contact wire can rise a maximum of 240 mm (9.44 inches) but the normal verticaldisplacement does not exceed 120 mm (4.72 inches). 23D.Y.P.C.O.E, AKURDI.PUNE DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
    • Seminar report on <UNDERGROUND RAILROAD>`Now that the catenary is complete, the track is given final alignment adjustments down to millimeter tolerances.The ballast is then blown to remove smaller gravel fragments and dust, which might be kicked up by trains. Thisstep is especially important on high-speed tracks, since the blast of a passing train is strong. Finally, TGV trainsare tested on the line at gradually increasing speeds. The track is qualified at speeds slightly higher than will beused in everyday operations (typically 350 km/h, or 210 mph), before being opened to commercial service.4.5 Stations and linesThe London Undergrounds 11 lines are divided into two classes: the subsurface routes and the deep-tuberoutes. The Circle, District, Hammersmith & City, and Metropolitan lines make up the subsurface class. TheBakerloo, Central, Jubilee, Northern, Piccadilly, Victoria and Waterloo & City lines make up the deep-tuberoutes.There was a twelfth line, a fifth subsurface route, the East London line, until 2007, when it closed for rebuildingwork. It reopened as part of London Overground in April 2010.[38] The Underground serves 270 stations by rail. Fourteen Underground stations are outsideGreater London, of which five (Amersham, Chalfont & Latimer, Chesham, and Chorleywood on theMetropolitan Line, and Epping on the Central Line) are beyond the M25 London Orbital motorway. Of the 32London boroughs, six (Bexley, Bromley, Croydon, Kingston, Lewisham and Sutton) are not served by theUnderground network, while Hackney has Old Street and Manor House only just inside its boundaries. FIG: 4.1 24D.Y.P.C.O.E, AKURDI.PUNE DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
    • Seminar report on <UNDERGROUND RAILROAD>` Zone 1 (central zone) of the Underground (and DLR) network in a geographically moreaccurate layout than the usual Tube map, using the same style. FIG: 4.2 Underground trains come in two sizes, larger subsurface trains and smaller tube trains. AMetropolitan line A Stock train (left) passes a Piccadilly line 1973 Stock train (right) in the siding at RaynersLane Lines on the Underground can be classified into two types: subsurface and deep-level. Thesubsurface lines were dug by the cut-and-cover method, with the tracks running about 5 m (16 ft 5 in) below thesurface. The deep-level or tube lines, bored using a tunnelling shield, run about 20 m (65 ft 7 in) below thesurface (although this varies considerably), with each track in a separate tunnel. These tunnels can have adiameter as small as 3.56 m (11 ft 8 in), and the loading gauge is thus considerably smaller than on thesubsurface lines. Lines of both types usually emerge on to the surface outside the central area. While the tube lines are for the most part self-contained with a few exceptions, thesubsurface lines are part of an interconnected network: each shares track with at least two other lines. Thesubsurface arrangement is similar to the New York City Subway, which also runs separate "lines" over sharedtracks. 25D.Y.P.C.O.E, AKURDI.PUNE DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
    • Seminar report on <UNDERGROUND RAILROAD>` Rolling stock and electrification4.6 London Underground rolling stock FIG: 4.3 1996 Stock trains at Stratford Market Depot The Underground uses rolling stock built between 1960 and the present. Stock on subsurfacelines is identified by a letter (such as A Stock, used on the Metropolitan line), while tube stock is identified bythe year in which it was designed (for example, 1996 Stock, used on the Jubilee line). All lines are worked by asingle type of stock except the District line, which uses both C and D Stock. Two types of stock are currentlybeing developed — 2009 Stock for the Victoria line and S stock for the subsurface lines, with the Metropolitanline A Stock due to be replaced first. Rollout of both began in 2009. In addition to the electric multiple unitsdescribed above, there is engineering stock, such as ballast trains and brake vans, identified by a 1–3 letter prefixthen a number. The Underground is one of the few networks in the world that uses a four-rail system. Theadditional rail carries the electrical return that on third-rail and overhead networks is provided by the runningrails. The reason for this is that the return current, if allowed to flow through the running rails, would also tendto flow through the cast-iron tunnel segments. These were never designed to carry electrical currents and wouldsuffer from galvanic corrosion if significant currents were allowed to flow through the joints. On theUnderground, a top-contact third rail is beside the track, energised at +420 V DC and a top-contact fourth rail iscentrally between the running rails, at −210 V DC, which combine to provide a traction voltage of 630 V DC.In cases where the lines are shared with mainline trains which use a three-rail system (usually above ground andnot within cast iron tunnel segments), the third rail is set at +630 V and the fourth rail at 0 V DC.[40] 26D.Y.P.C.O.E, AKURDI.PUNE DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
    • Seminar report on <UNDERGROUND RAILROAD>` Planned improvements and expansions4.7 The Crossrail line will provide a new east-west link and will be integrated with the tubenetwork, but will not be part of it. Each line is being upgraded to improve capacity and reliability, with new computerisedsignalling, automatic train operation (ATO), track replacement, station refurbishment and, where needed, newrolling stock. A trial of mobile phone coverage on the Waterloo & City line determined that coverage would beappropriate for the entire network, with aims to have the service installed in time for the 2012 Olympics. Mayorof London Boris Johnson revealed the plans would be funded through investment from the five main UKmobile networks; Vodafone, Orange, T-Mobile, 3 and O2. In summer, temperatures on parts of the Underground can become very uncomfortabledue to its deep and poorly ventilated tube tunnels; temperatures as high as 47 °C (117 °F) were reported in the2006 European heat wave. A trial programme for a groundwater cooling system in Victoria station took place in2006 and 2007; it aimed to determine whether such a system would be feasible and effective if in widespread usefor cooling the Underground. Posters may be observed on the Underground network advising passengers tocarry a bottle of water to help keep cool. The new S Stock trains will have air conditioning. Although not part of London Underground, the Crossrail scheme will provide a new routeacross central London by 2018, integrated with the tube network but not part of it. The long proposed Chelsea-Hackney Line, which would not be built until after Crossrail, may become part of the London Underground. Itwould give the network a new Northeast to South cross-London line to provide more interchanges with otherlines and relieve overcrowding on other lines. However, it is still on the drawing-board and may be either part ofthe London Underground network or the National Rail network. The Croxley Rail Link proposal envisagesdiverting the Metropolitan line Watford branch to Watford Junction station along a disused railway track. Theproject awaits funding from the Department for Transport and remains at the proposal stage. Boris Johnson has suggested extending the Bakerloo Line to Lewisham, Catford and Hayesas South London lacks Underground lines (instead having a suburban rail network). Proposals have also been made to reorganise the sub-surface lines and split the Northernline and extend the Charing Cross branch to Battersea, although both of these are dependent upon otherupgrades being completed first. The plan to extend the Northern line to Battersea has been given planningpermission by the London Borough of Wandsworth and could be open by 2015. In early 2011 the LondonMayor also suggested extended the Northern Line to better accommodate workers in Greater London. Mr 27D.Y.P.C.O.E, AKURDI.PUNE DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
    • Seminar report on <UNDERGROUND RAILROAD>`Johnson said that following recent office developments in Vauxhall and Battersea, the council are now thinkingabout extending the Northern Line west from Kennington - such an extension would create two new stopsalong the Northern Line.4.8 HistoryHistory of the London UndergroundRailway construction in the United Kingdom began in the early 19th century. By 1854 six railway terminals hadbeen built just outside the centre of London: London Bridge, Euston, Paddington, London Kings Cross,Bishopsgate and Waterloo. At this point, only Fenchurch Street station was located in the actual City of London.Traffic congestion in the city and the surrounding areas had increased significantly in this period, partly due tothe need for rail travellers to complete their journeys into the city centre by road. The idea of building anunderground railway to link the City of London with the mainline terminals had first been proposed in the1830s, but it was not until the 1850s that the idea was taken seriously as a solution to traffic congestion.The first underground railways FIG: 4.4 Construction of the Metropolitan Railway near Kings Cross station, 1861 In 1855 an Act of Parliament was passed approving the construction of an undergroundrailway between Paddington Station and Farringdon Street via Kings Cross which was to be called theMetropolitan Railway. The Great Western Railway (GWR) gave financial backing to the project when it wasagreed that a junction would be built linking the underground railway with their mainline terminus atPaddington. GWR also agreed to design special trains for the new subterranean railway. A shortage of funds delayed construction for several years. The fact that this project gotunder way at all was largely due to the lobbying of Charles Pearson, who was Solicitor to the City of London 28D.Y.P.C.O.E, AKURDI.PUNE DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
    • Seminar report on <UNDERGROUND RAILROAD>`Corporation at the time. Pearson had supported the idea of an underground railway in London for several years.He advocated plans for the demolition of the unhygienic slums which would be replaced by newaccommodation for their inhabitants in the suburbs, with the new railway providing transportation to theirplaces of work in the city centre. Although he was never directly involved in the running of the MetropolitanRailway, he is widely credited as being one of the first true visionaries behind the concept of undergroundrailways. And in 1859 it was Pearson who persuaded the City of London Corporation to help fund the scheme.Work finally began in February 1860, under the guidance of chief engineer John Fowler. Pearson died before thework was completed. The Metropolitan Railway opened on 10 January 1863. Within a few months of opening itwas carrying over 26,001 passengers a day. The Hammersmith and City Railway was opened on 13 June 1864between Hammersmith and Paddington. Services were initially operated by GWR between Hammersmith andFarringdon Street. By April 1865 the Metropolitan had taken over the service. On 23 December 1865 theMetropolitans eastern extension to Moorgate Street opened. Later in the decade other branches were opened toSwiss Cottage, South Kensington and Addison Road, Kensington (now known as Kensington Olympia). Therailway had initially been dual gauge, allowing for the use of GWRs signature broad gauge rolling stock and themore widely used standard gauge stock. Disagreements with GWR had forced the Metropolitan to switch tostandard gauge in 1863 after GWR withdrew all its stock from the railway. These differences were later patchedup, however broad gauge was totally withdrawn from the railway in March 1869. On 24 December 1868, the Metropolitan District Railway began operating servicesbetween South Kensington and Westminster using Metropolitan Railway trains and carriages. The company,which soon became known as "the District", was first incorporated in 1864 to complete an Inner Circle railwayaround London in conjunction with the Metropolitan. This was part of a plan to build both an Inner Circle lineand Outer Circle line around London. A fierce rivalry soon developed between the District and the Metropolitan. This severelydelayed the completion of the Inner Circle project as the two companies competed to build far more financiallylucrative railways in the suburbs of London. The London and North Western Railway (LNWR) began runningtheir Outer Circle service from Broad Street via Willesden Junction, Addison Road and Earls Court to MansionHouse in 1872. The Inner Circle was not completed until 1884, with the Metropolitan and the District jointlyrunning services. In the meantime, the District had finished its route between West Brompton and Blackfriars in1870, with an interchange with the Metropolitan at South Kensington. In 1877, it began running its own servicesfrom Hammersmith to Richmond, on a line originally opened by the London & South Western Railway (LSWR)in 1869. The District then opened a new line from Turnham Green to Ealing in 1879 and extended its West 29D.Y.P.C.O.E, AKURDI.PUNE DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
    • Seminar report on <UNDERGROUND RAILROAD>`Brompton branch to Fulham in 1880. Over the same decade the Metropolitan was extended to Harrow-on-the-Hill station in the north-west. The early tunnels were dug mainly using cut-and-cover construction methods. Thiscaused widespread disruption and required the demolition of several properties on the surface. The first trainswere steam-hauled, which required effective ventilation to the surface. Ventilation shafts at various points on theroute allowed the engines to expel steam and bring fresh air into the tunnels. One such vent is at LeinsterGardens, W2. In order to preserve the visual characteristics in what is still a well-to-do street, a five-foot-thick(1.5 m) concrete façade was constructed to resemble a genuine house frontage. On 7 December 1869 the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway (LB&SCR) startedoperating a service between Wapping and New Cross Gate on the East London Railway (ELR) using theThames Tunnel designed by Marc Brunel, who designed the revolutionary tunnelling shield method which madeits construction not only possible, but safer, and completed by his son Isambard Kingdom Brunel. This hadopened in 1843 as a pedestrian tunnel, but in 1865 it was purchased by the ELR (a consortium of six railwaycompanies: the Great Eastern Railway (GER); London, Brighton and South Coast Railway (LB&SCR); London,Chatham and Dover Railway (LCDR); South Eastern Railway (SER); Metropolitan Railway; and theMetropolitan District Railway) and converted into a railway tunnel. In 1884 the District and the Metropolitanbegan to operate services on the line. By the end of the 1880s, underground railways reached Chesham on the Metropolitan,Hounslow, Wimbledon and Whitechapel on the District and New Cross on the East London Railway. By theend of the 19th century, the Metropolitan had extended its lines far outside of London to Aylesbury, VerneyJunction and Brill, creating new suburbs along the route, later publicised by the company as Metro-land. Rightup until the 1930s the company maintained ambitions to be considered as a main line rather than an urbanrailway, ambitions that are still continued somewhat today. 30D.Y.P.C.O.E, AKURDI.PUNE DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
    • Seminar report on <UNDERGROUND RAILROAD>` First tube lines4.9 FIG: 4.5The nickname "the Tube" comes from the circular tube-like tunnels through which the trains travel. NorthernLine train leaving a tunnel mouth just north of Hendon Central station. Following advances in the use of tunnelling shields, electric traction and deep-leveltunnel designs, later railways were built even further underground. This caused much less disruption at groundlevel and it was therefore cheaper and preferable to the cut-and-cover construction method. The City & South London Railway (C&SLR, now part of the Northern Line) opened in1890, between Stockwell and the now closed original terminus at King William Street. It was the first "deep-level" electrically operated railway in the world. By 1900 it had been extended at both ends, to ClaphamCommon in the south and Moorgate Street (via a diversion) in the north. The second such railway, the Waterlooand City Railway (W&CR), opened in 1898. It was built and run by the London and South Western Railway. On 30 July 1900, the Central London Railway (now known as the Central Line) wasopened, operating services from Bank to Shepherds Bush. It was nicknamed the "Twopenny Tube" for its flatfare and cylindrical tunnels; the "tube" nickname was eventually transferred to the Underground system as awhole. An interchange with the C&SLR and the W&CR was provided at Bank. Construction had also begun inAugust 1898 on the Baker Street & Waterloo Railway, however work came to a halt after 18 months when fundsran out.4.10 Integration In the early 20th century the presence of six independent operators running differentUnderground lines caused passengers substantial inconvenience; in many places passengers had to walk somedistance above ground to change between lines. The costs associated with running such a system were also 31D.Y.P.C.O.E, AKURDI.PUNE DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
    • Seminar report on <UNDERGROUND RAILROAD>`heavy, and as a result many companies looked to financiers who could give them the money they needed toexpand into the lucrative suburbs as well as electrify the earlier steam operated lines. The most prominent ofthese was Charles Yerkes, an American tycoon who secured the right to build the Charing Cross, Euston andHampstead Railway (CCE&HR) on 1 October 1900, today also part of the Northern Line. In March 1901, heeffectively took control of the District and this enabled him to form the Metropolitan District Electric TractionCompany (MDET) on 15 July. Through this he acquired the Great Northern and Strand Railway and theBrompton and Piccadilly Circus Railway in September 1901, the construction of which had already beenauthorised by Parliament, together with the moribund Baker Street & Waterloo Railway in March 1902. TheGN&SR and the B&PCR evolved into the present-day Piccadilly Line. On 9 April the MDET evolved into theUnderground Electric Railways Company of London (UERL). The UERL also owned three tramway companiesand went on to buy the London General Omnibus Company, creating an organisation colloquially known as"the Combine" which went on to dominate underground railway construction in London until the 1930s. FIG: 4.6 The Circle Line and District Line platforms at Embankment station With the financial backing of Yerkes, the District opened its South Harrow branch in1903 and completed its link to the Metropolitans Uxbridge branch at Rayners Lane in 1904—although servicesto Uxbridge on the District did not begin until 1910 due to yet another disagreement with the Metropolitan.Today, District Line services to Uxbridge have been replaced by the Piccadilly Line. By the end of 1905, allDistrict Railway and Inner Circle services were run by electric trains. The Baker Street & Waterloo Railway opened in 1906, soon branding itself the Bakerlooand, by 1907, it had been extended to Edgware Road in the north and Elephant & Castle in the south. Thenewly named Great Northern, Piccadilly and Brompton Railway, combining the two projects acquired byMDET in September 1901, also opened in 1906. With tunnels at an impressive depth of 200 feet (61 m) belowthe surface, it ran from Finsbury Park to Hammersmith; a single station branch to Strand (later renamed 32D.Y.P.C.O.E, AKURDI.PUNE DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
    • Seminar report on <UNDERGROUND RAILROAD>`Aldwych) was added in 1907. In the same year the CCE&HR opened from Charing Cross to Camden Town,with two northward branches, one to Golders Green and one to Highgate (now Archway). Independent ventures did continue in the early part of the 20th century. Theindependent Great Northern & City Railway opened in 1904 between Finsbury Park and Moorgate. It was theonly tube line of sufficient diameter to be capable of handling main line stock, and it was originally intended tobe part of a main line railway. However money soon ran out and the route remained separate from the main linenetwork until the 1970s. The C&SLR was also extended northwards to Euston by 1907. In early 1908, in an effort to increase passenger numbers, the underground railwayoperators agreed to promote their services jointly as "the Underground", publishing new adverts and creating afree publicity map of the network for the purpose. The map featured a key labelling the Bakerloo Railway, theCentral London Railway, the City & South London Railway, the District Railway, the Great Northern & CityRailway, the Hampstead Railway (the shortened name of the CCE&HR), the Metropolitan Railway and thePiccadilly Railway. Other railways appeared on the map but with much less prominence; these included theWaterloo & City Railway and part of the ELR, which were both owned by main line railway companies at thetime. As part of the process, "The Underground" name appeared on stations for the first time and electricticket-issuing machines were also introduced. This was followed in 1913 by the first appearance of the famouscircle and horizontal bar symbol, known as "the roundel", designed by Edward Johnston. In January 1933 theUERL experimented with a new diagrammatic map of the Underground, designed by Harry Beck and firstissued in pocket-size form. It was an immediate success with the public and is now commonly regarded as adesign classic; an updated version is still in use today. Meanwhile, on 1 January 1913 the UERL absorbed two other independent tube lines, theC&SLR and the Central London Railway. As the Combine expanded, only the Metropolitan stayed away fromthis process of integration, retaining its ambition to be considered as a main line railway. Proposals were putforward for a merger between the two companies in 1913 but the plan was rejected by the Metropolitan. In thesame year the company asserted its independence by buying out the cash strapped Great Northern and CityRailway, a predecessor to the Piccadilly Line. It also sought a character of its own. The Metropolitan SurplusLands Committee had been formed in 1887 to develop accommodation alongside the railway and in 1919Metropolitan Railway Country Estates Ltd. was founded to capitalise on the post-World War One demand forhousing. This ensured that the Metropolitan would retain an independent image until the creation of LondonTransport in 1933. 33D.Y.P.C.O.E, AKURDI.PUNE DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
    • Seminar report on <UNDERGROUND RAILROAD>` The Metropolitan also sought to electrify its lines. The District and the Metropolitan hadagreed to use the low voltage DC system for the Inner Circle, comprising two electric rails to power the trains,back in 1901. At the start of 1905 electric trains began to work the Uxbridge branch and from 1 November 1906electric locomotives took trains as far as Wembley Park where steam trains took over. This changeover pointwas moved to Harrow-on-the-Hill on 19 July 1908. The Hammersmith & City branch had also been upgradedto electric working on 5 November 1906. The electrification of the ELR followed on 31 March 1913, the sameyear as the opening of its extension to Whitechapel and Shoreditch. Following the Grouping Act of 1921, whichmerged all the cash strapped main line railways into four companies (thus obliterating the original consortiumthat had built the ELR), the Metropolitan agreed to run passenger services on the line. The Bakerloo Line extension to Queens Park was completed in 1915, and the serviceextended to Watford Junction via the London and North Western Railway tracks in 1917. The extension of theCentral Lines branch to Ealing Broadway was delayed by the war until 1920. The major development of the 1920s was the integration of the CCE&HR and the C&SLRand extensions to form what was to become the Northern line. This necessitated enlargement of the older partsof the C&SLR, which had been built on a modest scale. The integration required temporary closures during1922—24. The Golders Green branch was extended to Edgware in 1924, and the southern end was extendedfrom Clapham Common to Morden in 1926 with new stations designed by Charles Holden.[21] ThroughHoldens work as consulting architect, designing new stations during the 1920s and 1930s, LondonUnderground was modernised and every aspect of design carefully integrated. The Watford branch of the Metropolitan opened in 1925 and in the same yearelectrification was extended to Rickmansworth. The last major work completed by the Metropolitan was thebranch to Stanmore which opened in 1932 and which is now part of the Jubilee Line. By 1933 the Combine had completed the Cockfosters branch of the Piccadilly Line, withthrough services running (via realigned tracks between Hammersmith and Acton Town) to Hounslow West andUxbridge. The extension of the Piccadilly line was heavily promoted by London Underground. 34D.Y.P.C.O.E, AKURDI.PUNE DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
    • Seminar report on <UNDERGROUND RAILROAD>CASE` STUDYLondon Transport In 1933 the Combine, the Metropolitan and all the municipal and independent bus andtram undertakings were merged into the London Passenger Transport Board (LPTB), a self-supporting andunsubsidised public corporation which came into being on 1 July 1933. The LPTB soon became known asLondon Transport (LT). Shortly after it was created, LT began the process of integrating the undergroundrailways of London into one network. All the separate railways were renamed as "lines" within the system: thefirst LT version of Becks map featured the District Line, the Bakerloo Line, the Piccadilly Line, the Edgware,Highgate and Morden Line, the Metropolitan Line, the Metropolitan Line (Great Northern & City Section), theEast London Line, and the Central London Line. The shorter names Central Line and Northern Line wereadopted for two lines in 1937. The Waterloo & City line was not originally included in this map as it was stillowned by a main line railway and not part of LT, but was added in a less prominent style, also in 1937. FIG: 4.7 Londoners sheltering from The Blitz in a tube station LT announced a scheme for the expansion and modernisation of the network entitled theNew Works Programme, which had followed the announcement of improvement proposals for theMetropolitan Line. This consisted of plans to extend some lines, to take over the operation of others from main-line railway companies, and to electrify the entire network. During the 1930s and 1940s, several sections ofmain-line railways were converted into surface lines of the Underground system. The oldest part of todaysUnderground network is the Central line between Leyton and Loughton, which opened as a railway seven yearsbefore the Underground itself. 35D.Y.P.C.O.E, AKURDI.PUNE DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
    • Seminar report on <UNDERGROUND RAILROAD>` LT also sought to abandon routes which made a significant financial loss. Soon after theLPTB started operating, services to Verney Junction and Brill on the Metropolitan Railway were stopped. Therenamed Metropolitan Line terminus was moved to Aylesbury. The outbreak of World War II delayed all the expansion schemes. From mid-1940, the Blitzled to the use of many Underground stations as shelters during air raids and overnight. The Underground helpedover 200,000 children escape to the countryside and sheltered another 177,500 people. The authorities initiallytried to discourage and prevent people from sleeping in the tube, but later supplied 22,000 bunks, latrines, andcatering facilities. After a time there were even special stations with libraries and classrooms for night classes.Later in the war, eight London deep-level shelters were constructed under stations, ostensibly to be used asshelters (each deep-level shelter could hold 8,000 people) though plans were in place to convert them for a newexpress line parallel to the Northern line after the war. Some stations (now mostly disused) were converted intogovernment offices: for example, Down Street was used for the headquarters of the Railway ExecutiveCommittee and was also used for meetings of the War Cabinet before the Cabinet War Rooms were completed;Brompton Road was used as a control room for anti-aircraft guns and the remains of the surface building arestill used by Londons University Royal Naval Unit (URNU) and University London Air Squadron (ULAS). After the war one of the last acts of the LPTB was to give the go-ahead for the completionof the postponed Central Line extensions. The western extension to West Ruislip was completed in 1948, andthe eastern extension to Epping in 1949; the single-line branch from Epping to Ongar was taken over andelectrified in 1957.GLC Control On 1 January 1970, the Greater London Council (GLC) took over responsibility forLondon Transport, again under the formal title London Transport Executive. This period is perhaps the mostcontroversial in Londons transport history, characterised by staff shortages and a severe lack of funding fromcentral government. In 1980 the Labour-led GLC began the Fares Fair project, which increased local taxationin order to lower ticket prices. The campaign was initially successful and usage of the Tube significantlyincreased. But serious objections to the policy came from the London Borough of Bromley, an area of Londonwhich has no Underground stations. The Council resented the subsidy as it would be of little benefit to itsresidents. The council took the GLC to the Law Lords who ruled that the policy was illegal based on theirinterpretation of the Transport (London) Act 1969. They ruled that the Act stipulated that London Transportmust plan, as far as was possible, to break even. In line with this judgement, Fares Fair was therefore reversed,leading to a 100% increase in fares in 1982 and a subsequent decline in passenger numbers. The scandal 36D.Y.P.C.O.E, AKURDI.PUNE DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
    • Seminar report on <UNDERGROUND RAILROAD>`prompted Margaret Thatchers Conservative Government to remove London Transport from the GLCs controlin 1984, a development that turned out to be a prelude to the abolition of the GLC in 1986. However the period saw the first real postwar investment in the network with the openingof the carefully planned Victoria line, which was built on a diagonal northeast-southwest alignment beneathcentral London, incorporating centralised signalling control and automatically driven trains. It opened in stagesbetween 1968 and 1971. The Piccadilly line was extended to Heathrow Airport in 1977, and the Jubilee Line wasopened in 1979, taking over the Stanmore branch of the Bakerloo line, with new tunnels between Baker Streetand Charing Cross. There was also one important legacy from the Fares Fair scheme: the introduction of ticketzones, which remain in use today.London Regional Transport In 1984 Margaret Thatchers Conservative Government removed London Transport fromthe GLCs control, replacing it with London Regional Transport (LRT) on 19 June 1984 – a statutorycorporation for which the Secretary of State for Transport was directly responsible. The Government planned tomodernise the system while slashing its subsidy from taxpayers and ratepayers. As part of this strategy LondonUnderground Limited was set up on 1 April 1985 as a wholly owned subsidiary of LRT to run the network. The prognosis for LRT was good. Oliver Green, the then Curator of the London TransportMuseum, wrote in 1987: In its first annual report, London Underground Ltd was able to announce that morepassengers had used the system than ever before. In 1985–86 the Underground carried 762 million passengers –well above its previous record total of 720 million in 1948. At the same time costs have been significantlyreduced with a new system of train overhaul and the introduction of more driver-only operation. Work is well inhand on the conversion of station booking offices to take the new Underground Ticketing System (UTS)...andprototype trials for the next generation of tube trains (1990) stock started in late 1986. As the LondonUnderground celebrates its 125th anniversary in 1988, the future looks promising. However, cost-cutting did not come without critics. At 19:30 on 18 November 1987, amassive fire swept through the Kings Cross St Pancras tube station, the busiest station on the network, killing31 people. It later turned out that the fire had started in an escalator shaft to the Piccadilly Line, which wasburnt out along with the top level (entrances and ticket hall) of the deep-level tube station. The escalator onwhich the fire started had been built just before World War II. The steps and sides of the escalator were partlymade of wood, meaning that they burned quickly and easily. Although smoking was banned on the subsurface 37D.Y.P.C.O.E, AKURDI.PUNE DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
    • Seminar report on <UNDERGROUND RAILROAD>sections of the London Underground in February 1985 as a consequence of the Oxford Circus fire, the fire was`most probably caused by a commuter discarding a burning match, which fell down the side of the escalator ontothe running track (Fennell 1988, p. 111). The running track had not been cleaned in some time and was coveredin grease and fibrous detritus. The Member of Parliament for the area, Frank Dobson, informed the House ofCommons that the number of transportation employees at the station, which handled 200,000 passengers everyday at the time, had been cut from 16 to ten, and the cleaning staff from 14 to two. The tragic event led to theabolition of all wooden escalators at all Underground stations and pledges of greater investment. 38D.Y.P.C.O.E, AKURDI.PUNE DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
    • Seminar report on <UNDERGROUND RAILROAD>`ConclusionReferences 39D.Y.P.C.O.E, AKURDI.PUNE DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING