• Save
 

algae(spirulina) by Sandipayan Dutta

on

  • 606 views

This presentation contain information regarding Algae as well as Spirulina(cyanobacteria).

This presentation contain information regarding Algae as well as Spirulina(cyanobacteria).

Statistics

Views

Total Views
606
Views on SlideShare
606
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
2
Downloads
0
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment
  • Brackish water: It is saltier than fresh water, but not as salty as seawater.  It may result from mixing of seawater with fresh water, as in estuaries, or it may occur in brackish fossil aquifers.Lichens  are composite organisms consisting of a fungus (the mycobiont) and a photosynthetic partner (thephotobiont or phycobiont) growing together in a symbiotic relationship. 
  • What is the project about?Define the goal of this projectIs it similar to projects in the past or is it a new effort?Define the scope of this projectIs it an independent project or is it related to other projects?* Note that this slide is not necessary for weekly status meetings

 algae(spirulina) by Sandipayan Dutta algae(spirulina) by Sandipayan Dutta Presentation Transcript

  • Seminar on Algae Designed by © Copyright. Sandipayan Dutta. 2013. All rights reserved.
  •  Algae (singular:Alga) belong to the Kingdom Protista  Algae are eukaryotes (cells have organelles)  Algae are mostly photosynthetic, like plants: – Have photosynthetic pigments – Many accessory pigments – blue, red, brown, gold  Require moist environments because they lack a waxy cuticle (cuticle prevents water loss in terrestrial plants) © Copyright. Sandipayan Dutta. 2013. All rights reserved.
  •  Can be microscopic or macroscopic: size ranges from bacteria size to 50 meters long!  Lack vascular (conducting) tissues – No xylem or phloem  No true roots, stems or leaves  Modes of reproduction: Both sexual and asexual.  Study of Algae known as “algology” or “phycology” derived from Greek word phykos, meaning seaweeds. © Copyright. Sandipayan Dutta. 2013. All rights reserved.
  • Eukaryotic Algae: Protists single celled, possess nuclear membrane, aquatic photoautotrophs Three domain system: Eubacteria Archaebacteria Monera E Protista U K Plantae A R Y Fungi © Copyright. Sandipayan Dutta. 2013. All rights reserved. A Animalia
  • © Copyright. Sandipayan Dutta. 2013. All rights reserved.
  • All algae are eukaryotic organisms, their contain chloroplast. There are many shape of chloroplast . Spherical, bowl-shaped, and belt-shaped. The main pigments ADDITIONAL PIGMENTS in algae is chlorophyll. Carotene Fucoxanthin (Brownish) Phycobilin Xantophylls (Golden) Phycocyanin (Bluish) Phycoerythrin (Reddish) © Copyright. Sandipayan Dutta. 2013. All rights reserved.
  • REPRODUCTION Asexual Binary Fission Fragmentation Sexual Spore Formation © Copyright. Sandipayan Dutta. 2013. All rights reserved.
  • REPRODUCTION Binary Fission occurs only in unicellular algae. Such as Chlorella and Euglena. A mother cell divided into two to form two identical daughter cells. © Copyright. Sandipayan Dutta. 2013. All rights reserved.
  • REPRODUCTION Fragmentation Fragmentation occurs only in multicellular filamentous and thallus algae. Such as Spirogyra, Laminaria and Sargassum © Copyright. Sandipayan Dutta. 2013. All rights reserved.
  • REPRODUCTION ZOOSPORE APLANOSPORE Red algae produce monospores (walled, nonflagellate, spherical cells) that are carried by water currents and upon germination produce a new organism. Some green algae produce nonmotile spores called aplanospores. Zoospores (motile)lack true cell walls and bear one or more flagella. These They are formed flagella allow through replication by simple zoospores to swim cell development separated by to a favourable an individual wall from the environment. © Copyright. Sandipayan Dutta. 2013. All rights reserved. parental cell .
  • REPRODUCTION © Copyright. Sandipayan Dutta. 2013. All rights reserved.
  • • Cyanophyta: Blue-green or cyanobacteria. • Prokaryotic. Marine, Fresh Water and terrestrial. • Pyrrophyta, Chrysophyta, Euglenophyta: Marine and Fresh Water phytoplankton – Photosynthetic Protists. • Diatoms • Dinoflagellates • Rhodophyta: Red algae. Mostly marine. • Phaeophyta: Brown algae. Mostly marine. • Chlorophyta: Green algae. Marine, FW and terrestrial. © Copyright. Sandipayan Dutta. 2013. All rights reserved.
  • Chlorophyta(green algae) • Morphology Unicellular to multicellular • Pigments Chlorophylls a & b. • Storage material Starch(α-1,4-glucan), sucrose. • Cell wall Cellulose • Habitats Fresh water, soil, few marine species. • Example: © Copyright. Sandipayan Dutta. 2013. All Chlamydomonas. rights reserved. Chlamydomonas at 1000x
  • Phaeophyta(brown algae) • Morphology Filamentous to leafy occasionally massive & plant like. • Pigments Chlorophylls a & c, xanthophylls. • Storage material Laminarin(ß-1,3-glucan), mannitol. • Cell wall Cellulose • Habitats marine species. • Example: laminaria. © Copyright. Sandipayan Dutta. 2013. All rights reserved.
  • Rhodophyta(red algae) • Morphology Unicellular, filamentous to leafy. • Pigments Chlorophylls a, d, phycocyanin, phycoerythrin. • Storage material Floridian starch(α-1,4-glucan & α-1,6-glucan) • Cell wall Cellulose • Habitats marine species. • Example: Polysiphonia © Copyright. Sandipayan Dutta. 2013. All rights reserved.
  • Euglenophyta(Euglenoids) • Morphology Unicellular , flagellated • Pigments Chlorophylls a & b. • Storage material Paramylon(ß-1,3-glucan) • Cell wall Absence of cell wall. • Habitats Fresh water, soil, few marine species. • Example: Euglena Chlamydomonas & Euglena viridis © Copyright. Sandipayan Dutta. 2013. All rights reserved.
  • • Morphology Unicellular • Pigments Chlorophylls a & c. • Storage material Chrysolaminarin & oils(lipids) • Cell wall Two overlapping components made up of silica. • Habitats Fresh water, soil, marine. • Example: © Copyright. Sandipayan Dutta. 2013. All rights reserved. Nitzschia
  • Dinoflagellata(Dianoflagellates) • Morphology Unicellular, Flagellated. • Pigments Chlorophylls a & c, xanthophylls (peridin) • Storage material Starch(α-1,4-glucan). • Cell wall Cellulose • Habitats marine species. • Example: © Copyright. Sandipayan Dutta. 2013. All rights reserved. Gonyaulax pfiesteria.
  • - In water the problem is that red and violet wavelengths do not penetrate the vertical column very well. So Chlorophylls do not work well at greater depths. Algae that inhabit greater depths do so with the help of accessory pigments, these algae take on a variety of colours. © Copyright. Sandipayan Dutta. 2013. All rights reserved.
  • Where do Algae live? • Algae most commonly found in aquatic habitat(fresh, marine or brackish water). • In which they may suspended(planktonic) • Or attached & living on the bottom of aquatic habitat(benthic). • Few live at the water-atmosphere interface(neustonic). • Some grow on moist soil or on bark & leaves of trees. • Some algae grow as endosymbionts withn plants. • Green algae & cyanobacteria coexist with fungi to form Lichens. Marine habitats: seaweeds, phytoplankton Freshwater habitats: streams, rivers, lakes and ponds © Copyright. Sandipayan Terrestrial habitats: Dutta. 2013. All rights stone walls, tree bark, leaves, reserved. in lichens, on snow
  • How do algae function? Photoautotrophs: 6C02 + 6H20  C6H1206 + O2 – use carbon, light, and water – produce chemical energy (carbohydrates) and produce O2 as a by-product. • Basic storage products: carbohydrates as starch or converted to fats as oil • Require nutrients: Nitrogen, Phosphorous and minerals. © Copyright. Sandipayan Dutta. 2013. All rights reserved.
  • • Primary producers, basis of food webs, “ ” • Pioneer Species: on rocky shores, mudflats, hot springs, lichen communities, 'snow algae' • O2 production and carbon fixation in aquatic habitats. • Rare autotrophic organisms in extreme habitats. © Copyright. Sandipayan Dutta. 2013. All rights reserved.
  • Why are ALGAE important? Ecological importance of algae a) Production of Oxygen as „by-product‟ of photosynthesis: • All aerobic heterotrophic organisms require O2, • e.g. fungi and animals need O2, to run cellular respiration to stay alive b) Production of biomass: autotrophic organisms - represent the base of the food chain/we particularly in aquatic environments. © Copyright. Sandipayan Dutta. 2013. All rights reserved.
  • 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Red tides, other algal blooms Hot springs Kelp forests Rocky shore ecology 2 Aquaculture 3 4 © Copyright. Sandipayan Dutta. 2013. All rights reserved. 1
  • Algal diversity • Algae ARE NOT a single phylogenetic grouping, but give rise to several independent evolutionary lines. Our focus is on “CHLOROPHYTA” as it is believed to give rise to the terrestrial plants. • Very diverse, very well adapted to certain environments, – Range from unicellular,  colonial  multicellular – e.g. marine, freshwater, terrestrial; – often extreme habitats CHLOROPHYTES share Similarities to true plants – Same two chlorophylls a and b, Store products of photosynthesis as starch, cell wall primarily made of2013. All © Copyright. Sandipayan Dutta. rights reserved. cellulose
  • Why make it a fuel? • Algae can be used to make biodiesel • Produces large amounts oil – When compared to terrestrial crops grown for the same purpose – Algae contain anywhere between 2% and 40% of lipids/oils by weight – Once harvested, this oil can be converted into fuels for transportation, aviation or heating • High growth rate and easy to grow – Warm Seasons • Amphora sp. • Tetraselmis suecica – Cold Seasons • Monoraphidium minutum – Use of diatoms and green algae © Copyright. Sandipayan Dutta. 2013. All rights reserved.
  • • Important characteristics of Algae – High % of total biomass is oil – Maintains a high % of oil even under stress – Compatible with the area climate Botryococcus braunii Converts 61% of its biomass into oil 86% of it is long chain hydrocarbons Drops to only 31% oil under stress Grows best between 22-25ºC (71-77 F) © Copyright. Sandipayan Dutta. 2013. All rights reserved.
  • Harvesting Biodiesel • Microalgae have much faster growth-rates than terrestrial crops • Algal-oil processes into biodiesel as easily as oil derived from landbased crops • Use microalgae – Less complex structure – Faster growing rate – High oil content • How to harvest – Open-pond systems • Can be difficult • Type of algae has to be hardy • Can be less hardy and grow slower – Use Bioreactor Tubes – Use existing infrastructures • Provides the raw materials for the system, such as CO2 and nutrients • Changes those wastes into resources. © Copyright. Sandipayan Dutta. 2013. All rights reserved.
  • How to get oil • Expeller/Press – Algae is dried – Oil content can be "pressed" out with an oil press – Extracts 70-75% of the oils out of algae • Hexane Solvent Method – Uses chemicals (such as hexane and methanol) – Can be harmful and explosive – Cold press & hexane solvent = extract 95% of oil • Supercritical Fluid Extraction – CO2 is liquefied under pressure and heated to the point that it has the properties of both a liquid and gas – This liquefied fluid then acts as the solvent in extracting the oil – Can Extract almost 100% of the oils – Expensive equipment © Copyright. Sandipayan Dutta. 2013. All rights reserved.
  • Oil Yield Gallons of Oil per Acre per Year – Corn . . . . . . . 15 – Soybeans . . . .48 – Safflower. . . . . 83 – Sunflower . . . 102 – Rapeseed. . . 127 – Oil Palm . . . . 635 – Micro Algae . .1850 [based on actual biomass yields] – Micro Algae . .5000-15000 [theoretical laboratory yield] © Copyright. Sandipayan Dutta. 2013. All rights reserved.
  • Other Uses • Hydrogen – Algae can be grown to produce hydrogen • Discovered first in 1939 by Hans Gaffrom • Late 1990’s it was found that if sulfur deprived, algae will produce hydrogen • Biomass – Algae can be grown to produce biomass • Burned to produce heat and electricity • Can still produce greenhouse gases Biomass Yield Metric Tons per Hectare per Year Algae.....51.1 [USA average, 1978] Sugarcane.....79.2 [Brazilian average, 2005] Sorghum.....70 [India average, 2005] Cassava.....65 [Nigeria average, 1985] Oil palm.....50 [Global average, 2005] © Copyright. Sandipayan Dutta. 2013. All rights reserved.
  • Blue green algae © Copyright. Sandipayan Dutta. 2013. All rights reserved.
  • It is blue green algae. It is a simple, one-celled form of algae, that thrives in warm, alkaline fresh derived The name “Spirulina” waswater bodies. form latin word for „helix‟ or „spiral‟. Commercially produced from two species of cyanobacteria : Arthospira platensis & Arthospira maxicana. There are more than 39 species but for its composition stability and balance of nutrients, Arthospira spirulina platensis is the species most used in developing © Copyright. Sandipayan Dutta. 2013. All rights countriesreserved. cultures.
  • A German scientist, Dr. discovered the existence of a spiral shaped algae & named it Spirulina. Dr. Clement of France in 1962 found that the Ganimou/Kanembu people living around lake Chades in Africa had stronger bodies than Other civilized people at that time, despite poor living conditions & limited resources. Ganimou people eat blue green algae found floating on the lakes surfa This algae was Spirulina. © Copyright. Sandipayan Dutta. 2013. All rights reserved.
  • Domain :Bacteria Kingdom : Archaeplastida Division : Cyanobacteria Class : Cyanophyceae Order : Oscillatoriales Family : Pseudanabaenaceae Subfamily : Spirulinoideae © Copyright. Sandipayan Dutta. 2013. All rights reserved.
  • Characteristics of Spirulina • Occurrence: Phytoplankton, freshwater/brakish water • Thallus: Trichome, gelatinous substance • Plant body: Unicellular, long, spiral, twisted, without mucilaginous sheath. • Active rotational movement present. • Cell wall is multi-layered but lacks cellulose. • Outer sheath composed of polysaccharide. • Pseudo vacuole present leads to buoyancy. • Reserved food is glycogen. • Reproduction by fragmentation/cell division, true sexual reproduction absent. © Copyright. Sandipayan Dutta. 2013. All rights reserved.
  • © Copyright. Sandipayan Dutta. 2013. All rights reserved.
  • © Copyright. Sandipayan Dutta. 2013. All rights reserved.
  • Spirulina offers remarkable health benefits for multiple reasons. It is reach in iron & protein and also ß-carotene that can overcome eye problems caused by vitamin A deficiency. The protein & vitamin B-complex makes a major nutritional improvement. It is excellence source for essential fatty acid, Gamma linoleic acid(GLA), excepts for mother m Which helps to regulate the entire hormone system. Spirulina also increases breast milk by stimulating lactiferou glands. © Copyright. Sandipayan Dutta. 2013. All rights reserved.
  • The Health Benefits of Spirulina Includes: Boost the Immune System  Obesity Cure  Improve Digestion  Reduce fatigue  Build Endurance  Natural Detoxifier  Boost Energy Levels  Control Appetite  Spirulina maintains a healthy heart  Support the Liver and Kidneys  Reduce Inflammation  Anti-AllergiesCopyright. Sandipayan Dutta. 2013. All © rights reserved.  Skin Care Natural Supplement
  •  Spirulina is one of the ancient natural anti-aging products.  It increases antioxidant protection, which fights the aging process.  Maybe it‟s a bit weird to believe that microalgae would slow down your normal aging process, © Copyright. Sandipayan Dutta. 2013. All rights reserved.
  • Spirulina is used as slimming agent in USA. The phenylalanine present in spirulina is said to signal the brain to stop hunger pangs leading to reduction in food uptake. Spirulina is used in balms & anti-wrinkle creams. It helps skin metabolism, Cell regeneration and skin secretion. Spirulina is used in Japan as a safe bio-lipstic & eyeliner. © Copyright. Sandipayan Dutta. 2013. All rights reserved.
  • Aqueous extracts of Spirulina inhibit the replication of the HIV1 virus in human T-cells of the immune system, mononuclear blood cells and langerhans cells of the pancreas. Japanese scientists discovered an anti-viral compound in Spirulina called Calcium Spirulina. Calcium Spirulina was found to be active against numerous viruses, including influenza, herpes & HIV. © Copyright. Sandipayan Dutta. 2013. All rights reserved.
  • © Copyright. Sandipayan Dutta. 2013. All rights reserved.
  • © Copyright. Sandipayan Dutta. 2013. All rights reserved.
  • © Copyright. Sandipayan Dutta. 2013. All rights reserved.
  • Heavy Metals According to the Medline Plus, some spirulina preparations may contain heavy meta such as lead, cadmium, arsenic and mercury. According to a study published in the May 2007 issue of the "International Journal of Physical Sciences," The term"heavy metal" describes any metallic element characterized by its high den and toxicity even at very low concentrations. PHENYLKETONURIA (Phenylketonuria describes a medical condition characterized by the deficiency in t enzyme that metabolizes phenylalanine) As mentioned by the University of Maryland Medical center, if you have problems w their phenylalanine metabolism, you must avoid taking foods containing this amino Spirulina contains rich amounts of amino acids, including phenylalanine; therefore, it should be avoided by patients with phenylketonuria. © Copyright. Sandipayan Dutta. 2013. All rights reserved.
  • DISADVANTAGES OF SPIRULINA contd.. Drug Interaction Spirulina may negatively interactive with your medications taken to suppress the immune-system, such as seen with cancer patients. Medline Plus reports that this can lead to the decreased effectiveness of the said medications. Therefore, patients who are taking immunosuppressant should never take spirulina supplements. WORSENING OF AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE Autoimmune disease refers to the over-activity of the immune system resulting in the destruction of normal tissues within the body. Avoid taking spirulina, since it can further stimulate the immune system and make the condition much worse, according to the University of Maryland Medical Center. 2013. All © Copyright. Sandipayan Dutta. rights reserved.
  • 70% to 80% of all the oxygen we breathe comes from marine algae! Add on the algae oxygen in freshwater and you get a total of about 90% OF ALL THE WORLDS, OXYGEN IS MADE BY ALGAE! Not only do algae provide much of the Earth's oxygen, they also are the base for almost all marine life, including seaweed. Can algae harm us and other species? All living things, including humans produce waste products, which can be dangerous if they are in large concentrations. . High levels of blue green algae produce enough waste products, which can cause considerable health problems if they are drunk by humans and other animals © Copyright. Sandipayan Dutta. 2013. All rights reserved.
  • 1. www.nationalalgaeassociation.com 2. www.seaweed.ie/algae/ 3. www.algaebase.org 4. www.allaboutalgae.com 5. www.google.com 6. www.youtube.com 7. BROCK Biology of organisms 8. http://www.sciencedirect.com 9. Pelczar,Chan,Krieg microbiology 10.Prescott,Harley,klein microbiology 11. http://www.iimsam.org/ 12. http://www.livestrong.com 13.A text book of basic & applied microbiology © Copyright. Sandipayan Dutta. 2013. All rights reserved.
  • Acknowledgeme nt My special thanks to © Copyright. Sandipayan Dutta. 2013. All rights reserved.
  • © Copyright. Sandipayan Dutta. 2013. All rights reserved.