DEFINITION SCIENCEThe word science comes from theLatin "scientia," meaningknowledge. According to WebstersNew Collegiate Dictionary, thedefinition of science is "knowledgeattained through study or practice,"
ASPECT OF SCIENCEThe word "science" brings to mind many differentpictures: a fat textbook, white lab coats andmicroscopes, an astronomer peering through atelescope, a naturalist in the rainforest, Einsteinsequations scribbled on a chalkboard, the launchof the space shuttle, bubbling beakers ….
CHARACTERISTICS OF SCIENCEScience is both a body of knowledge and aprocessScience is exciting.Science is usefulScience is ongoingScience is a global human endeavorDiscovery: The spark for scienceScience has limits
SCIENCE ASKS QUESTIONS ABOUTScience studies the natural world. Thisincludes the components of the physicaluniverse around us like atoms, plants,ecosystems, people, societies andgalaxies, as well as the natural forces atwork on those things
NATURAL WORLDFrom exotic ecosystems to urban smog — canbe the subject of scientific inquiry
SCIENCE CAN INVESTIGATE ALL SORTS OF QUESTIONSWhen did the oldest rocks on earthform?Through what chemical reactions dofungi get energy from the nutrients theyabsorb?What causes Jupiters red spot?How does smog move through theatmosphere?
SCIENTISTScientists strive to test their ideas withevidence from the natural world Science depends on interactions within thescientific community. Scientists often work collaboratively. Scientific ideas lead to ongoing research.Answering one scientific questionfrequently leads to additional questions tobe investigated.
RutherfordIn the early 1900s, ErnestRutherford studied (among other things)the organization of the atom — thefundamental particle of the natural world Madam Marie CurieNobel Prize in Chemistry to MarieSklodowska Curie, recognizing her discoveryof the elements, radium and polonium. Dr.Curie’s achievements continue to inspirestudents, especially women, to pursuecareers in chemistry
THE DIFFERENT FIELDS OF SCIENCENatural Sciences Magnetic Field LinesBiology PhysicsEarth Science Chemistry
ChemistryChemistry is the study of matter and thechanges that take place with that matter•Analytical chemistry•Biochemistry•Computational chemistry •Polymer chemistry•Inorganic chemistry •Physical chemistry•Materials science •Quantum chemistryOrganic chemistry •Spectroscopy•Electrochemistry •Stereochemistry Thermochemistry
International Year of Chemistry, abbreviated IYC 2011. The official slogan of the IYC 2011 is "Chemistry—our life, our future".
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE IYC 2011For the first time in the 100-year history of theInternational Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry(IUPAC), the worldwide chemistry community iscelebrated throughout 2011 the achievements ofchemistry and its contributions to the well-beingof humankind. At its 44th General Assembly inAugust 2007 in Torino, Italy, IUPAC unanimouslyapproved a resolution in favor of the proclamationof 2011 as the International Year of Chemistry (IYC2011: www.chemistry2011.org).
ACTIVITIES OF IYC,20111.Increase the public’s appreciation of chemistry inmeeting world needs: Chemistry, which is appropriatelycalled the Central Science, is both a philosophical inquiryand an applied scientific endeavor. Moleculartransformations are central to the production offoodstuffs, medicines, fuels, and metals, that is, virtuallyall manufactured and extracted products.2. Increase young people’s interest in chemistry3.Generate enthusiasm for the creative future ofchemistry4.Celebrate the 100th anniversary of the Mme. CurieNobel Prize and the 100th anniversary of the founding ofthe International Association of Chemical SocietieS
MEGA EVENTS OF IYC,2011An official launch with UNESCO in Paris onJanuary 27–28, 2011The 43rd IUPAC Congress and 46th GeneralAssembly in San Juan, Puerto Rico on July 30–August 7, 2011.A closing event in Brussels in November 30–December 1, 2011
AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRYModern agriculture depends quite heavilyon the advances that have been made inscience, and chemistry in particular, tomaximize the yield of crops and animalproducts.Fertilizers, pesticides, andantibiotics play ever increasing roles inthis field
POLLUTION IN SOIL IS ASSOCIATED WITHIndiscriminate use of fertilizersIndiscriminate use of pesticides,insecticides and herbicidesDumping of large quantities of solidwasteDeforestation and soil erosion
INDISCRIMINATE USE OF FERTILIZERSSoil nutrients are important for plantgrowth and development. Plants obtaincarbon( C), hydrogen(H) and oxygen(O)from air and water. But other necessarynutrients like nitrogen(N), phosphorus(P),potassium(K), calcium(Ca),magnesium(Mg), sulphur(S) and moremust be obtained from the soil
CONTAMINATION FROM FERTILIZERSFertilizers contaminate the soil withimpurities, which come from the rawmaterials used for their manufacture.Mixed fertilizers often contain ammoniumnitrate (NH4NO3), phosphorus as P2O5, andpotassium as K2O. For instance, As, Pb and Cdpresent in traces in rock phosphateMetals are not degradable,
The over use of NPK fertilizers reducequantity of vegetables and cropsThe carbohydrate quality of such crops alsogets degraded. Excess potassium content in soil decreasesVitamin C and carotene content invegetables and fruits.The vegetables and fruits grown on over-fertilized soil are more prone to attacks byinsects and disease.
PESTICIDE USEPesticides are defined as the substance ormixture of substances used to prevent, destroy,repel, attract, sterilise, stupefy or mitigate anyinsects.Generally pesticides are used in three sectorsviz. agriculture, public health and consumeruse. The consumption of pesticide in India isabout 600 gms. / hectare, where as that ofdeveloped countries is touching 3000 gms. /hectare
INDISCRIMINATE USE OF PESTICIDES, INSECTICIDES AND HERBICIDESThe first widespread insecticide use began atthe end of World War II and included DDT(dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) andgammaxene. Insects soon became resistantto DDT and as the chemical did notdecompose readily, it persisted in theenvironment.
COND.Since it was soluble in fat rather than water, itbiomagnified up the food chain and disruptedcalcium metabolism in birds, causing eggshells tobe thin and fragile. As a result, large birds of preysuch as the brown pelican, ospreys, falcons andeagles became endangered. DDT has been nowbeen banned in most western countries. Ironicallymany of them including USA, still produce DDT forexport to other developing nations whose needsoutweigh the problems caused by it.
COND.The most important pesticides are DDT, BHC,chlorinated hydrocarbons, organophosphates,aldrin, malathion, dieldrin, furodan, etc.The remnants of such pesticides used onpests may get adsorbed by the soil particles,which then contaminate root crops grown inthat soil. The consumption of such cropscauses the pesticides remnants to enterhuman biological systems, affecting themadversely
CONTROL OF SOIL POLLUTIONThe following steps have been suggested tocontrol soil pollution. To help prevent soilerosion, we can limit construction in sensitivearea. In general we would need less fertilizerand fewer pesticides if we could all adopt thethree Rs: Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle. Thiswould give us less solid waste.Reducing chemical fertilizer and pesticide useReusing of materials
FUN AND INTERESTING CHEMISTRY FACTS• Fun chemistry face: liquid oxygen is blue.• Warwick Hillier, Australia National University, Canberra
CHEMISTRY IS A FASCINATING SCIENCE•Unlike many substances, water expands asit freezes.•The only elements that are liquid at roomtemperature are bromine and mercury.•However, you can melt gallium by holdinga lump in the warmth of your hand.
CHEMISTRY IS A FASCINATING SCIENCE• An ice cube takes up about 9% more volume than the water used to make it.• If you pour a handful of salt into a full glass of water, the water level will actually go down rather than overflowing the glass.• There is about 1/2 lb or 250 g of salt (NaCl) in the average adult human body
CHEMISTRY IS A FASCINATING SCIENCE• A pure element can take many forms. For example, diamond and graphite both are forms of pure carbon.• The chemical name for water (H2O) is dihydrogen monoxide.• The only letter that doesnt appear on the periodic table is J.
CHEMISTRY IS A FASCINATING SCIENCE• Lightning strikes produce O3, which is ozone, and strengthen the ozone layer of the atmosphere.• The only two non-silvery metals are gold and copper.• Although oxygen gas is colorless, the liquid and solid forms of oxygen are blUE
CHEMISTRY IS A FASCINATING SCIENCE• The human body contains enough carbon to provide lead (which is really graphite) for about 9,000 pencils.• Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe, while oxygen is the most abundant element in the earths atmosphere, crust, and oceans (about 49.5%).• The rarest naturally-occurring element in the earths crust may be astatine. The entire crust appears to contain about 28 g of the element
CHEMISTRY IS A FASCINATING SCIENCE• Hydrofluoric acid is so corrosive that it will dissolve glass. Although it is corrosive, hydrofluoric acid is considered to be a weak acid.• One bucket full of water contains more atoms than there are bucketfuls of water in the Atlantic ocean
CHEMISTRY IS A FASCINATING SCIENCE• Approximately 20% of the oxygen in the atmosphere was produced by the Amazon rainforest.• Helium balloons float because helium is lighter than air.• Bee stings are acidic while wasp stings are alkaline
CHEMISTRY IS A FASCINATING SCIENCE• Hot peppers get their heat from a molecule called capsaicin. While the molecule acts as an irritant to mammals, including humans, birds lack the receptor responsible for the effect and are immune to the burning sensation from exposure.• Dry ice is the solid form of carbon dioxide, CO2.• Liquid air has a bluish tint, similar to water
KETCHUP & BAKING SODA VOLCANO • The acetic acid in ketchup reacts with baking soda to produce an extra-special type of lava for a chemical volcano. This is a non- toxic volcano recipe that is sure to please! Volcano game
SOME PHOTOGRAPHSPiers Sellers performs a spacewalk outside theISS on July 13, 2006.NASA/Getty Images
SOME IMPORTANT PHOTOImage of the sun acquired by the Extreme Photo of Earth from theultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) at the Galileo spacecraft, Dec. 11,NASA Goddard Space Flight Center July 199015, 1999. NASA