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Organ donation
 

Organ donation

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    Organ donation Organ donation Presentation Transcript

    • Sandipan Dhar
    • Who requires Organ Transplantation?For patients with end-stage kidneyfailure, the best treatment option wehave today is kidney transplantation.This would provide a better quality oflife for the patients and allow them tolead a normal, active life again.
    • Who requires Organ Transplantation?• For patients with liver failure or• Severe heart failure, organ transplant is the only way to save their• For a patient who becomes sight-less as a result of corneal diseases, trauma or ulcer in Cornea , a corneal transplant would enable him/ her to see again.
    • Risk of The Living DonorsLiving donor organ transplants are transplants in which a living person donates an organ (e.g. a kidney) or part of an organ (in the case of livers) to another person. The main concern in such transplants is that living donors face medical risks when donating their organs. For example, although donors in living donor kidney transplants have less than 0.1% chance of dying from the operation, donors in living donor liver transplants face a 1-3% chance of dying from the surgery, and a 25% chance of suffering a complication
    • Types of Transplant• Auto graft A transplant of tissue from one to oneself. (examples skin grafts, vein extraction for CABG, etc.)• Allograft A transplanted organ or tissue from a genetically non-identical member of the same species.• Isograft Organs or tissues are transplanted from one to a genetically identical other (identical twin).• Xenograft A transplant of organs or tissue from one species to another. Examples porcine heart valves.
    • Modified Animal Organ TransplantPigs would be ideal donors, as their organs areabout the same size as those of humans.A change to just one of the 100,000 pig genes (agene called alpha-gal) means that proteins on thesurface of the pigs organs are recognised ashuman by the human immune system, so theorgans are not attacked when transplantedIf such organs were to be transplantedinto human, they would of course needto function for many months or years
    • Safetyproblem is the transmission ofAnother potential questions infectious microbes from the pig organ to the human recipient. While most viruses can be eliminated from the donor animals by careful breeding and husbandry, a particular type of virus that is part of the pigs DNA has been cause for concern. The porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) does not cause any health problems in pigs, but might if it infected humans
    • Major Tissues TransplantedTissues, Cells, and Fluids• Islets of Langerhans (Pancreas Islet Cells) (Deceased-donor and Living- Donor)• Bone marrow/Adult stem cell (Living-Donor and Autograft)• Blood transfusion/Blood Parts Transfusion (Living-Donor and Autograft)• Blood vessels (Autograft and Deceased-Donor)• Heart valve (Deceased-Donor, Living-Donor and Xenograft[Pig])• Bone (Deceased-Donor, Living-Donor, and Autograft)• Skin (Deceased-Donor, Living-Donor, and Autograft)
    • History of successful transplants• 1954: First successful kidney transplant by Joseph Murray (Boston)• 1966: First successful pancreas transplant by Richard Lillehei and William Kelly (Minnesota)• 1967: First successful liver transplant by Thomas Starzl (Pittsburgh)• 1967: First successful heart transplant by Christiaan Barnard (South Africa)
    • …History of successful transplants• 1981: First successful heart/lung transplant by Bruce Reitz (Stanford)• 1983: First successful lung lobe transplant by Joel Cooper (Toronto)• 1986: First successful double-lung transplant (Ann Harrison) by Joel Cooper (Toronto)• 1987: First successful whole lung transplant by Joel Cooper (St. Louis)
    • …History of successful transplants• 1995: First successful laparoscopic live-donor nephrectomy by Lloyd Ratner and Louis Kavoussi (Baltimore)• 1998: First successful live-donor partial pancreas transplant by David Sutherland (Minnesota)• 1998: First successful hand transplant (France)• 2005: First successful partial face transplant (France)
    • Precious gift that offers life and hopeOrgan and tissue donation is aprecious gift that offers life andhope to those most in need. As thebridge between donation andtransplantation, providingcompassionate and sensitive supportfor donor families and increasingpublic awareness about donation ofDead Body at proper time & place.
    • Major Solid Organs and Tissues TransplantedThoracic Organs• Heart (Deceased-donor only)• Lung (Deceased-donor and Living-Donor)• En bloc Heart/Lung (Deceased-donor only)
    • …Major Solid Organs and Tissues TransplantedAbdominal Organs• Liver (Deceased-donor and Living-Donor)• Kidney (Deceased-donor and Living-Donor)• Pancreas (Deceased-donor and rarely Living-Donor)• Small bowel (Small Intestine) (Deceased-donor and Living- Donor)• Kidney-Pancreas (Sometimes simultaneous, sometimes in separate procedures) (Deceased-donor, Living-Donor, and combined deceased/living (e.g. kidney from living donor, pancreas from deceased donor)• Combined Liver-Kidney (Generally Deceased-donor only)• Combined Liver-Small Bowel (Deceased-donor only)
    • …Major Solid Organs and Tissues TransplantedOthers• Hand (Deceased-donor only)• Cornea (Deceased-donor only)• Skin graft (Living-deceased donor)• Face transplant (deceased donor)