Sandie Barrie Blackley, MA/CCC
CKO Lexercise.com
The Language & Learning Clinic, PLLC
Language-Literacy Evaluation & Treat...
Language-Literacy Evaluation & Treatment
in a Digital Age
9:00-10:00 AM
 
Phonology to Orthography and
Beyond
10:00-10:30 ...
Language-Literacy Evaluation & Treatment
in a Digital Age
1:30-3:00 PM Language-Literacy Intervention:
Is there an app for...
Scarborough, 2001
Components
Observable
Components Not
Observable
§  Decoding
§  letter–sound knowledge
§  based on phoneme awareness
§  Listening Comprehension
§  vocabulary
§  sent...
Dyslexia Non-specified
Mixed
Specific
Comprehension
Deficit
Poor Good
Good
Poor
Based on Figure 4.1 Catts & Kamhi (2005)
W...
Connecticut Longitudinal Study
•  Yale University School of Medicine (Sally Shaywitz, MD)
•  a 20 year study- beginning in...
Print Based Neural Networks
Prevalence of two main types of language-learning disorders
0%
2%
4%
6%
8%
10%
12%
14%
16%
18%
20%
SLI DYSLEXIA
U.S. Natio...
The hallmark of dyslexia is difficulty
processing speech sounds:
Ø  genetically transmitted
Ø  neurobiological
Ø  occur...
A dyslexic baby ?!?
Singh, L., Steven Reznick, J. and Xuehua, L. (2012),
These neurobiological differences can be detected...
For more on the neuroscience of
language processing disorders watch
this lecture on YouTube:
Neurobiology of Learning Diso...
We now know that many of “below basic” students
have neurobiological language processing deficits.
How can we identify
tho...
The Iceberg of Dyslexia
What & How?
Receptive
Listening Comprehension
Reading Comprehension
Expressive
Oral Expression
Written Expression
Berninger & Abbott (...
Components
Observable
Components Not
Observable
Slide 30
Morris, R.A. et al. (2010)
Multi-component approach
LEVEL OF LANGUAGE
phonology
orthography
morphology
syntax
semantics
pragmatics
discourse structure
writing
PART OF LANGUAG...
A Processing-Based Evaluation (~90 minutes)
Phonologic Awareness
§ Comprehensive Test of Phonological Awareness (CTOPP)
S...
A Processing-Based Evaluation (~90 minutes)
Phonologic Memory
§ Comprehensive Test of Phonological Awareness (CTOPP)
Subt...
A Processing-Based Evaluation (~90 minutes)
Rapid Naming
Comprehensive Test of Phonological Awareness (CTOPP)
Subtest IV. ...
A Processing-Based Evaluation (~90 minutes)
Word Reading
•  Test of Word Reading Efficiency (TOWRE)
•  Sight Words Subtest...
A Processing-Based Evaluation (~90 minutes)
Word Reading
•  San Diego Quick Assessment (SDQA)
Pre-primer through Grade 11
A Processing-Based Evaluation (~90 minutes)
Word Reading (for orthographic pattern error analysis)
•  Lexercise Z-Screener...
A Processing-Based Evaluation (~90 minutes)
Phonologic Awareness
§ Comprehensive Test of Phonological Awareness (CTOPP)
2...
A Processing-Based Evaluation (~90 minutes)
Vocabulary and Listening Comprehension
•  An expressive vocabulary test (and p...
Case Study
Ginny
Ginny
• age 8
• 3rd grade
• home schooled
• average intelligence (GAI = 106)
• average receptive vocabulary
• low average ...
CTOPP
Phonological awareness: 5th %ile
Phonological memory: 4th %ile
Rapid Naming: 12th %ile
a double deficit
TOWRE
SightWord Efficiency- 42nd % ile
Phonemic Decoding Efficiency- 3rd % ile
The Lexercise Z-Screener
Word Ginny Read:
zab zag
zaf zāf
zas sag
zap zab
zik ik
zip zap
zep zeep
zek zeek
zen zing
zep za...
SDQA Word Accuracy
PrimerWords 100% Independent
1st GradeWords 90% Independent
2nd GradeWords 80% Instructional
3rd GradeW...
Ginny’s writing sample
Abost a elefleng
They are Being mend to the
elefleng. Look they are Thewing
ros and packing them. T...
A CWS is two adjacent writing units (i.e., word-word or
word-punctuation) that are acceptable within the
context of what i...
They are Being mend to the
elefleng. Look they are Thewing
ros and packing them. That mene!
Elefleng have lone nos. They
h...
Discourse Level
§  Poor narrative structure
(setting, characters, problem, rising action….)
§  Limited productivity impa...
Break + JOIN RANKS discussion
JOIN RANKS….
JOIN RANKS
What do Ginny’s spelling errors reveal about
her phonological processing ?
Gunny wrote Intended word observations
They They
are are
Being being
mend mean
to to
the the
elefleng elephants
Look Look
...
RANKS Report (Jacks report)
Report Writing
•  Diagnosis is the first step to the efficient, effective
treatment.
•  Without diagnosis treatment can not be focused.
T...
•  Academic achievement
•  Health & wellness
•  Mental & emotional health
•  Employment
•  Family stability & parenting
Pr...
Dyslexia is by far the most prevalent
communication disorder
Worldwide, 15- 20% of people have dyslexia
http://explore1in5...
(1923- 2006)
Pat Lindamood, MS/CCC
Read the Interview with Pat Lindamood at Childrenofthecode.org
History of the Controversy
(Lindamood, P. et al., 1997)
1830s- Alphabetic
Students were taught to say the names of the let...
1940s & forward - Multisensory Phonics (Remedial)
Students use senses: visual-auditory-tactile-kinesthetic
1960s & forward...
Patricia Lindamood’s insight:
It’s not about the general education teaching method(s).
20-30% of people have neuro-biologi...
Dyslexia is the term used to describe the
difficulties of children whose reading
problems are associated with basic
decodi...
While for many years, the accepted view
was that dyslexia is a learning disorder
defined according to the discrepancy
betw...
“…..there is now evidence that many children
show the characteristics of dyslexia either
in its pure form or where there a...
Dyslexia is known to compromise
reading throughout the life span…
Dyslexia is known to compromise reading
throughout the l...
Dyslexia is a language-based learning
disability that does not arise from a
physical limitation or a developmental
disabil...
The hallmark of dyslexia is difficulty
processing speech sounds:
Ø  genetically transmitted
Ø  neurobiological
Ø  occur...
Two Eligibility Models for Public School
“Learning Disability” Services
1.  Discrepancy Formula Model
2.  Response-to-Inte...
Two Eligibility Models for Public School
Learning Disability (LD) Services
1.  Discrepancy Formula Model
2.  Response-to-I...
Two Eligibility Models for Public School
Learning Disability (LD) Services
1.  Discrepancy Formula Model
2.  Response-to-I...
In 2008 Aaron, Joshi, & Quatroche
suggested a 3rd way…..
to identify a reading disability:
The Componential Model of Readi...
the 3rd way
CMR: 1st Component
Cognitive – 2 factors
•  Word recognition
•  Listening Comprehension
CMR: 2nd Component
Psychological (examples)
•  Motivation & interest
•  Teacher expectation
•  Gender differences
•  Emoti...
CMR: 3rd Component
Ecological (examples):
•  Teacher knowledge
•  Home environment
•  School environment
•  ELL
Dyslexia is caused by neurobiological differences
in cognitive processing (Component 1).
When it occurs in combination wit...
Grades K-1: Mississippi Dyslexia Screener
(print materials & record online, , administer face-to-face)
Ages 6 & up: Lexerc...
Where?
schools
homes
clinics
online !
Who is qualified to make a diagnosis
of dyslexia?
See this Lexercise Forums article
with links to the Nat’l Ctr. For Learn...
A clinical professional
(SLP, Psychologist & Clinical Educator)
1.  thorough
2.  uses a variety of tools
3.  valid (measures what it says it
measures)
4.  reliable (consistent results )
...
Problems repeating nonsense words….
From Phonology to Orthography
and Beyond
Say…
wudoip vudoip
Say…
nigong nigone
Bishop,...
…and
playing
Tendo
I like
amunials…
.
Weak phonological awareness / memory
Ginny
“phonological attunement”
(Shriberg et al., 2005; Preston, J.L., 2012)
“a speech-based diagnostic marker”
of cognitive-lin...
Audiologists’ term for this is an
auditory processing disorder
SLPs, teachers & psychologists
should call it a
language pr...
The Three Blind Men & The Elephant
LANGUAGE PROCESSING:
•  awareness of what is heard (sound awareness )
•  memory for sounds and images
•  association (e.g....
Phonological awareness & memory
(cognitive-linguistic)
processing deficits….
LEVEL OF LANGUAGE
phonology
orthography
morphology
syntax
semantics
pragmatics
discourse structure
PART OF LANGUAGE STUDIE...
“Our teaching of written language can
only be as good as our study of it.”
--Gina Cooke
LEX Linguist Educator Exchange (pe...
crash course
Our alphabet
§  a symbol system;
§  a limited set of printed or written symbols;
§  contains the “raw material” of orth...
Thanks to Real Spelling
We pronounce phonemes.
We announce graphemes. <ck>
/k/
Our alphabet
Our alphabet does represent some aspects of
pronunciation, but it cannot represent speech per
se. (That’s why...
Our alphabet
§  lower and upper case forms;
§  reliably identified by their names without having
to commit to their mean...
Our alphabet
§  morphological elements may have varying
pronunciations (e.g., tapped, tabbed, ridded);
§  graphemes repr...
Our alphabet
§  orthographic conventions (e.g., the <e> in
<lapse> signals that this is not the plural word,
<laps>);
§ ...
There is wide-spread confusion about
sounds and letters.
Underline the vowel:
<quick>
Dimensions of structural word analysis:
§ morphological
§ phonological
§ orthographic
Morphology
is a primary organizing concept
for spelling.
Graphemes are contained within and do
not cross morpheme boundari...
Phonological weakness occurs at the
lowest level of the language system and
in turn impairs decoding and spelling.
Direct ...
Spelling problems often belie difficulty
accessing and manipulating the sound
structure (phonemes) of language…
The first step in mature spelling is identifying
& spelling a word’s base element(s).
< interrupted >
<interrupted> - a 4t...
inter- rupt -ed
prefix base suffix
Word analysis matrix
Word matrix method following Real Spelling
The Structured Word Inquiry Method
“English spelling is a highly ordered system for
representing meaning that can be inves...
base affix
free bound
prefix
connector
vowel
suffix
morpheme
(“element”)
Contrast two types of structural analysis:
Phonological – Orthographic
&
Morpho – Phonological - Orthographic
 
Phonological – Orthographic
Analysis….
 
1.  Divide the word into syllables.
2.  Divide each syllable into phonemes.
3.  D...
Morpho - Phono – Ortho Analysis  
1.  Identify any prefix or prefixes
2.  Identify any suffix or suffixes
3.  Identify the...
To analyze the word <orthography>
where would you begin?
orthography 
1.  Identify any prefix or prefixes
2.  Identify any suffix or suffixes
3.  Identify the base(s)
4.  Divide t...
prefix base suffix
-- Real Spelling
<orthography>
orthography
 
Step 1. Identify any prefix or prefixes
or-
or- can be used as a suffix but not as a prefix
NO!
orthography
 
Step 2. Identify any suffix or suffixes
-y
YES! <-y> is a suffix
It forms nouns , especially with combining ...
orthography
 
Step 3. Identify the base.
<orthography> has two bases (Greek combining forms):
orth(o) + graph
Origin of <ortho> or (before a vowel, < orth-> )
Online Etymology Dictionary:
a comb. element in forming scientific and te...
Origin of <graph>
World English Dictionary:
— n combining form
1.  an instrument that writes or records: telegraph
2.  a w...
Origin of
orthography
Dictionary.com:
1425–75; late Middle English ortografye < Latin orthographia correct
writing, orthog...
Step 4. Divide the word in to syllables
<orthography>
orth o graph y
Step 5. Divide each syllable in to phonemes.
 /ɔrˈθ/ /ɒ/ /grəәf/ /i/
NOTE!
Orthographic phonology ….
….requires a different perspective
than the one you take when you
transcribe speech.
In orthographic analysis some units (e.g., vowel
glides and r-controlled vowels) are identified as single
unit/
  / ˈθ/ /ɒ...
  /ɔr ˈθ/ /ɒ/ /g r əә f/ /i/
__ __ __ __ __ __ __ __
or th o g r a ph y
Step 6. Decide which grapheme represents each phon...
orthography
prefix(es) base(s) suffix(es)
orth(o)graph y
Word matrix method following Real Spelling
orthography
 
World English Dictionary:
1.  a writing system
2.  spelling
§  spelling considered to be correct;
§  the p...
As illustrated by the example of
<orthography>
English spelling is not strictly phonetic.
It is morphological & phonologic...
The relationship between phonemes and graphemes
in English is governed by reliable
morpho-phonetic patterns.
Check out the...
…to kids with processing problems!!!???
And I’m supposed to teach this...
YOU CAN….and it starts with knowing
the structure of printed English.
This requires extreme clarity with regard to
terms and definitions.
See “Terms” in the Appendix for explicit
definitions.
What is a base element?
A word’s base(s) conveys the word’s basic meaning. (e.g.,
the base <graph> in the word <graphic>)....
What is an affix?
An affix is a morpheme that is attached to a base word to
form a new word.
English has two kinds of affi...
What is a vowel?
A vowel is an open phoneme that is the nucleus of every
syllable and is classified by tongue position and...
What is a consonant?
A consonant is a phoneme that is not a vowel and is
formed with obstruction of the flow of air with t...
What is a consonant blend?
A consonant blend is adjacent consonants within a
syllable, before or after a vowel sound.
What is a consonant cluster?
A consonant cluster is adjacent consonants within a
syllable, before or after a vowel sound; ...
What is a syllable?
A syllable is a unit of speech that contains one and only
one vowel sound.
A syllable is organized aro...
The 6 syllable types in English
predict vowel sound-letter patterns
1.  closed sick, hut
2. r-controlled sir, hurt
3. open...
Schwa happens….
…and it’s all about stress!
Schwa is a non-distinct vowel found in unstressed
syllables in English.
Schwa
only occurs in unstressed syllables
be before
defect (noun) defect (verb)
conduct (noun) conduct (verb)
More example...
§  Pair-Share
1.  Use the Elkonin Boxes form.
2.  Count the syllables in your first name.
3.  Count the phonemes in each ...
§  example: Sandie
s a n d ie
Elkonin Box
Pair-Share: Syllable Types
Then tell your partner the syllable the type of
the last syllable of your first name.
The 6 syllable types in English
closed sick, hut
r-controlled sir, hurt
open hi, Hugo
silent -e site, huge
vowel digraph s...
Intervention
Who?
What?
When?
Where?
Why?
How?
a language processing approach to
intervention
a.k.a.
Multi-lingual Approach
Multi-component Approach
Structured Language ...
The Orton-Gillingham (O-G) Approach
It s old It s new
…and it will help you!
--The Academy of Orton-Gillingham Practitioners and Educators
“Orton-Gillingham is an instructional approach intended
prim...
--The Academy of Orton-Gillingham Practitioners and Educators
“Orton-Gillingham is an instructional approach intended
prim...
§  Professional education O-G training
courses typically require between 60 and
90 course hours.(See Appendix.)
§  Today...
A few Orton-Gillingham
published grandchildren:
² Wilson Reading
² Language! Curriculum
² Slingerland
² Lindamood-Bell...
--The Academy of Orton-Gillingham Practitioners and Educators
“Orton-Gillingham is an instructional approach intended
prim...
Scarborough, 2001
A language processing evaluation:
What is an intervention approach?
1.  It is designed to support the client’s processing
weaknesses, establish accuracy and...
The Orton-Gillingham (O-G) Approach is an intervention
approach that includes:
WHAT to teach
& in what order
HOW to teach
The Orton-Gillingham (O-G) Approach is an intervention
approach that includes:
WHAT to teach
& in what order
HOW to teach
How to Teach
Systematic: a: methodical in
procedure or plan <a
systematic approach>
b : marked by thoroughness
and regular...
The Orton-Gillingham (O-G) Approach is an intervention
approach that includes:
WHAT to teach
& in what order
HOW to teach
A scope & sequence: a guide to what to teach
Scope: The elements that are taught
Sequence: The order of teaching them
§  explicitly define the essential linguistic
structures for reading and spelling
§  sequence them systematically
A scop...
The structure of an O-G Session
Birsh, J.R. (Ed.3), 2011
ü Lasts 30 - 60 minutes
ü Includes a rapid rotation of ~6 -8 ex...
The domains of language
1.  Sounds & Letters
2.  Word Reading & Spelling
3.  Word Parts (morphology)
4.  Vocabulary
5.  Se...
The structure of an O-G Session
Birsh, J.R. (Ed.3), 2011
ü Review the language structure(s) practiced in
the previous ses...
The anatomy of an O-G Session
Birsh, J.R. (Ed.3), 2011
ü Practice words in reading & spelling.
ü  Practice real & nonsen...
The anatomy of an O-G Session
Birsh, J.R. (Ed.3), 2011
ü Practice meanings of new words.
ü Practice language structures ...
A Structured Language
Scope & Sequence:
§  phoneme-grapheme pairs
§  syllable structures (e.g. the 6 syllable types)
§ ...
What does the child need to know
to decode & spell the word “epic” ?
WORD P-G
pairs
syllable
type
affix(es)
epic (ep-ic) <...
Meaning
prefix base suffix
epi-
epos= word,
story, poem
-ic
Possible relatives:
<epoch, epigraph, episodic>
WORD P-G
pairs
syllable
type
affix(es)
speech
What does the child need to know
to decode the word “speech” ?
WORD P-G
pairs
syllable
type
affix(es)
speech <s> = /s/
<p> = /p/
consonant blend
<ee> = /i/
<ch> = /ʧ/
consonant digraph
...
•  Middle English speche
•  Old English- spǣc, variant of sprǣc
•  German- sprache
prefix base suffix
speech
prefix base suffix
pow -er -ful
powerful ?
prefix base suffix
power -ful
powerful
“power” -
1250–1300; Middle English pouer ( e ), poer ( e )
Anglo-French poueir, poer
“pow” -
Americanism-1880-18...
Address all 5 critical language-literacy areas…everyday
--The National Reading Panel (2000)
But here’s the challenge:
How do you set up enough practice?
(e.g., 100s of response challenges daily)
Instructional Routines
face -to- face
&
online
Phonological Awareness / Memory
Say the sounds in “sink”.
Say “sink” without /s/.
face–to-face
Phonological Awareness / Memory
Isolator Game
Where is the /ŋ/ in “sink”?
online
Word Reading & Spelling
White Board Spelling:
(How many sounds in
“sink”? Write the
graphemes.)
Flash Word Reading
(Right ...
MatchStar Games –
Word Reading
online
Morphology- Word analysis
link
PAST TENSE SUFFIX: <-ed> = /t/
ed
sink
Plural SUFFIX: <s> = /z/
s
linked
sinks
face–to-face
The word The category The details
Vocabulary
Define
mink
face–to-face
Google Images: mink
Descriptor Game-
Definition à Fast Word Reading
online
Sentences
1)  The dog sank his long fangs into	
  the	
  rat.	
  
2) Put the pan in the sink, said Mom.
3) Peg has on a pi...
Sentences 1 Point:
for each
correctly
spelled word*
1 Point:
for beginning
sentence with a
capital
1 Point:
for ending
sen...
Listening and Reading
On Saturday, October 1, hundreds of people
gathered at Greeley Square, in New York City,
to join the...
Pragmatics
http://www.timeforkids.com/news/percy-jackson-
back/15166
face-to-face… or…online
Discourse
Describe a process
Introduction: Tell the purpose
Step 1: Describe the first step. Tell why it is important.
Ste...
Writing
•  Transcription (“handwriting” or typing )
•  Spelling
•  Grammar
•  Sentence conventions
•  Formulation & organi...
Handwritten sample by a 9 year old:
2 correct writing sequences
it wus inan in^the ish
tha wer thcing a spre
at a elatfit ard stap it^.
(It was in the ice age...
Handwritten sample after 3 months of therapy:
The same sample typed (without help) on an iPad:
This object is an electronic. It is a computer and you
play games on it. ...
54 correct writing sequences
^This^object^is^ an electronic. ^It^ is^ a^
computer ^and ^you^ play^ games^ ^on^ it^.^
This^...
Think 1st about the learning goal
& the science of learning.
Then think about the teaching &
learning methods.
Before you can choose the best tool
you MUST know ….
Is it a nail or a screw ?
JOIN
RANKS
Develop an intervention plan for Ginny…..
•  List intervention goals
•  Describe direct services (frequency,
duration)
•  Describe daily review & reinforcement
prac...
SUMMARY
•  3rd grade
•  Average IQ & average receptive vocabulary
•  Persistent misarticulation- all allophones of /r/
•  ...
Hearts Report
•  Intervention goals
•  Direct services (frequency, duration)
•  Daily review & reinforcement practice
•  A...
§  Structured language approach
§  1 (45 min.) session each week (Ginny & mom)
§  Lexercise online exercises- 5 days a ...
Lexercise online exercises –
12 min. a day, 5 days a week
Isolator
MatchStar
Progress Summary
§  # clinic sessions: 18
§  period of therapy: June – January (7 mos. )
§  Lexercise Levels covered: 1...
Session #4 (July)-Lexercise Level 6
Session #18 (January)-Lexercise Level 24
Progress Summary
•  7 months
•  18 sessions + ~100 days of online exercises
•  reading Level 24 words >90% accuracy
•  spe...
Discussion
Questions
Comments
Thank you!
Sandie@lexercise.com
References
Birsh, J.R., Editor (2011). Multisensory Teaching of Basic
Language Skills, 3rd Edition. Baltimore: Paul H. Bro...
References
Eide, F. (2012). Neurobiology of Learning Disorders - Dyslexia
ADHD Dyscalculia Dysgraphia. Lecture at American...
References
Joshi, R. M. and Aaron, P.G. (2012). Componential Model of
Reading (CMR): Validation Studies. Journal of Learni...
References
Morris, R.D., Lovett, M.W., Wolf, M., Sevcki, R.A., Steinbach, K.A.,
Frijters, J.C., Shapiro, M.B. (2010). Mult...
References
Shaywitz , S.E., Shaywitz , B.A., Pugh, K.R., Fulbright, R.K.,
Constable, R.T., Mencl, W.E., Shankweiler, D.E.,...
References
Snowling, M.J. (2009). Changing concepts of dyslexia: nature,
treatment and comorbidity. Journal of Child Psych...
References
Summer, E. Connelly, V. and Barnett, A.L. (2013). Children with
dyslexia are slow writers because they pause mo...
Appendix A-
Web-based Resources
§ Lex (blog): http://linguisteducatorexchange.wordpress.com/
Gina Cooke’s Linguist Teache...
Appendix B
School & Class Blogs
§ Grade 3- Mrs.McGrath (blog):
http://mcgrathi.ism-online.org/
Llana McGrath- 3rd grade- ...
Fletcher, J.M., Lyon, G. R., Fuchs, L.S., Barnes, M.A. (2007).
Learning Disabilities: From Identification to Intervention ...
1. Increases time on task. ✔
2. Scope & sequence is explicit, organized & cumulative. ✔
3. Teaches self-regulation. ✔
4. C...
For In-Depth Professional Education
On the Lexercise Forums- search:
Lexercise Professional Education Courses
Courses Hour...
Dyslexia is characterized by difficulties
with accurate and / or fluent word
recognition and by poor spelling and
decoding...
Secondary consequences may include
problems in reading comprehension and
reduced reading experience that can
impede growth...
§  Studies show that individuals with
dyslexia process information in a different
area of the brain than do non-dyslexics...
Terms
Phonemes- speech sounds; used to express
meaning (e.g., /k/)
Graphemes- the choice of graphemes that
represent phone...
Terms (continued)
§  syllable (and syllable types)
§  semivowel
§  glide
§  consonant cluster (vs. blend)
§  allophon...
Terms (continued)
§  grapheme
§  digraph (e.g., <sh>, <-ck>)
§  trigraph (e.g. <eau>)
§  stress
§  schwa
§  voiced &...
ĭ
ē
ā
ĕ
ă
ī
ŏ
ŭ
oo
oo
ō
aw
er
ar
or
əә
vowels: phonic symbols
o
oy/oi
ow/ou
Appendix G-1 The English vowel system
ĭ
ē
ā
ĕ
ă
ī
ŏ
ŭ
oo
oo
ō
aw
er
ar
or
əә
“short” or lax vowels,
closed syllables
bit
bet
bat
bot
butow,ou
oy/oi
Appendix G-2...
ur, ir, er
ar
or
her, sir, fur
car
port
r-controlled vowels
Appendix G-3 The English vowel system
ĭ
ē
ā
ĕ
ă
ī
ŏ
ŭ
oo
oo
ō
aw
əә
oy/oi
ou/ow
er
ar
or
“long” / tense vowels,
open syllables
he
baby
bivalve
go
ruby
Appendix ...
ē
ā
ī
ō
Pete
make
time
vote
oo
tube
“long” / tense vowels,
silent –e syllables
Appendix G-5 The English vowel system
ē
ā
ī
ō
see
eat
chief
weird
key
rain
play
eight
vein
they
great
straight
pie
right
boat
show
toe
moult
oo
moo
chew
blue
su...
əә
about
lesson
elect
definition
circus
schwa vowel in an unaccented syllable
Appendix G-7 The English vowel system
oy / oi
ou / ow
əә
boy boil
out cow
diphthong* vowels,
vowel digraph syllables
Appendix G-8 The English vowel system
Language-Literacy Evaluation and Treatment in a Digital Age-pdf-p pt.pptx
Language-Literacy Evaluation and Treatment in a Digital Age-pdf-p pt.pptx
Language-Literacy Evaluation and Treatment in a Digital Age-pdf-p pt.pptx
Language-Literacy Evaluation and Treatment in a Digital Age-pdf-p pt.pptx
Language-Literacy Evaluation and Treatment in a Digital Age-pdf-p pt.pptx
Language-Literacy Evaluation and Treatment in a Digital Age-pdf-p pt.pptx
Language-Literacy Evaluation and Treatment in a Digital Age-pdf-p pt.pptx
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This presentation supported a day-long workshop for the Exceptional Children's Division, North Carolina Department of Public Instruction, Summer Study Institute. The workshop was designed for Speech-Language Pathologists and other literacy specialists.

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Language-Literacy Evaluation and Treatment in a Digital Age-pdf-p pt.pptx

  1. 1. Sandie Barrie Blackley, MA/CCC CKO Lexercise.com The Language & Learning Clinic, PLLC Language-Literacy Evaluation & Treatment in a Digital Age NC Department of Public Instruction 2013 Summer Study Institute July 24, 2013
  2. 2. Language-Literacy Evaluation & Treatment in a Digital Age 9:00-10:00 AM   Phonology to Orthography and Beyond 10:00-10:30 AM A Language-Literacy Evaluation Battery 10:30 – 11:00 AM Break + JOIN RANKS discussion 11:00 – 12:15 AM Structured Language Intervention: Linguistically Informed & Multisensory (a.k.a., O-G) 12:15 – 1:30 PM LUNCH
  3. 3. Language-Literacy Evaluation & Treatment in a Digital Age 1:30-3:00 PM Language-Literacy Intervention: Is there an app for that? 3:00 – 3:30 PM Break + JOIN RANKS discussion 3:30-4:00 PM Progress Monitoring 4:00-4:30 PM Discussion, Questions, Comments
  4. 4. Scarborough, 2001
  5. 5. Components Observable Components Not Observable
  6. 6. §  Decoding §  letter–sound knowledge §  based on phoneme awareness §  Listening Comprehension §  vocabulary §  sentence (syntax) processing (Snowling & Hulme, 2011) Best Predictors
  7. 7. Dyslexia Non-specified Mixed Specific Comprehension Deficit Poor Good Good Poor Based on Figure 4.1 Catts & Kamhi (2005) WORD RECOGNITION LISTENINGCOMPREHENSION Specific Language Impairment (SLI)
  8. 8. Connecticut Longitudinal Study •  Yale University School of Medicine (Sally Shaywitz, MD) •  a 20 year study- beginning in 1983 •  445 children tracked beginning in kindergarten •  dyslexia is a specific, diagnosable neurological condition •  The American Medical Association recognizes dyslexia •  1 in 5 people have some degree of dyslexia •  dyslexia is one of the most common neurological conditions Yale Center for Dyslexia & Creativity: http://dyslexia.yale.edu/aboutcenter.html
  9. 9. Print Based Neural Networks
  10. 10. Prevalence of two main types of language-learning disorders 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 16% 18% 20% SLI DYSLEXIA U.S. National Institutes of Health Connecticut Longitudinal Study (Shaywitz, S.)
  11. 11. The hallmark of dyslexia is difficulty processing speech sounds: Ø  genetically transmitted Ø  neurobiological Ø  occurs in people of all ages, races and backgrounds and all levels of intelligence Ø  persistent (not developmental, not outgrown) Ø  improves with explicit instruction & practice Ø  causes difficulty with word reading & spelling
  12. 12. A dyslexic baby ?!? Singh, L., Steven Reznick, J. and Xuehua, L. (2012), These neurobiological differences can be detected pre-lingual babies.(e.g., Infant word segmentation abilities at 7 months are highly correlated with productive vocabulary size at 24 months.)
  13. 13. For more on the neuroscience of language processing disorders watch this lecture on YouTube: Neurobiology of Learning Disorders - Dyslexia ADHD Dyscalculia Dysgraphia, by Dr. Fernette Eide at the 2012 Conference of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
  14. 14. We now know that many of “below basic” students have neurobiological language processing deficits. How can we identify those with dyslexia & those with SLI? Reading Scores
  15. 15. The Iceberg of Dyslexia
  16. 16. What & How?
  17. 17. Receptive Listening Comprehension Reading Comprehension Expressive Oral Expression Written Expression Berninger & Abbott (2010)
  18. 18. Components Observable Components Not Observable Slide 30 Morris, R.A. et al. (2010) Multi-component approach
  19. 19. LEVEL OF LANGUAGE phonology orthography morphology syntax semantics pragmatics discourse structure writing PART OF LANGUAGE STUDIED speech sounds spelling patterns units of meaning in words phrase & sentence structure phrase & sentence meaning word choice and use in context organization of connected sentences transcription + all the above adapted from Moats (2010), Table 1.1 The language system (from below word level to above word level) a.k.a…. Multi-linguistic approach
  20. 20. A Processing-Based Evaluation (~90 minutes) Phonologic Awareness § Comprehensive Test of Phonological Awareness (CTOPP) Subtest I. Elision •  Say “time” without saying /m/ •  Say “winter” without saying /t/ Subtest II. Blending Words (stimuli on a CD) •  What word do these sounds make… •  num-ber •  n-ap •  s-t-a-m-p
  21. 21. A Processing-Based Evaluation (~90 minutes) Phonologic Memory § Comprehensive Test of Phonological Awareness (CTOPP) Subtest III. Memory for Digits •  1-6 ….. •  5-3-1-8 Subtest V. Nonword Repetition •  jup…. •  nigong… •  voesutoov
  22. 22. A Processing-Based Evaluation (~90 minutes) Rapid Naming Comprehensive Test of Phonological Awareness (CTOPP) Subtest IV. Rapid Digit Naming Subtest V. Rapid Letter Naming (colors & objects used for 5 year olds)
  23. 23. A Processing-Based Evaluation (~90 minutes) Word Reading •  Test of Word Reading Efficiency (TOWRE) •  Sight Words Subtest •  Phonemic Decoding (nonsense words) Subtest
  24. 24. A Processing-Based Evaluation (~90 minutes) Word Reading •  San Diego Quick Assessment (SDQA) Pre-primer through Grade 11
  25. 25. A Processing-Based Evaluation (~90 minutes) Word Reading (for orthographic pattern error analysis) •  Lexercise Z-Screener (This version with error-itemized report is free for Lexercise Clinician Partners)
  26. 26. A Processing-Based Evaluation (~90 minutes) Phonologic Awareness § Comprehensive Test of Phonological Awareness (CTOPP) 20” Phonologic Memory § Comprehensive Test of Phonological Awareness (CTOPP) Rapid Naming Comprehensive Test of Phonological Awareness (CTOPP) Word Reading •  Test of Word Reading Efficiency (TOWRE) •  San Diego Quick Assessment (SDQA) •  Z-Screener (Lexercise) 2” 3 5”
  27. 27. A Processing-Based Evaluation (~90 minutes) Vocabulary and Listening Comprehension •  An expressive vocabulary test (and perhaps also a receptive vocabulary test) •  A Listening comprehension test (e.g., TAPS or CELF subtests ) 15” 15” 15” Morphology, Orthography, Syntax, Pragmatics §  A writing sample with descriptive analyses 15 Total Administration Time 90 minutes continued
  28. 28. Case Study Ginny
  29. 29. Ginny • age 8 • 3rd grade • home schooled • average intelligence (GAI = 106) • average receptive vocabulary • low average working memory (SS: 86 ) • history of speech & language delay • persistent difficulty articulating /r/
  30. 30. CTOPP Phonological awareness: 5th %ile Phonological memory: 4th %ile Rapid Naming: 12th %ile a double deficit
  31. 31. TOWRE SightWord Efficiency- 42nd % ile Phonemic Decoding Efficiency- 3rd % ile
  32. 32. The Lexercise Z-Screener Word Ginny Read: zab zag zaf zāf zas sag zap zab zik ik zip zap zep zeep zek zeek zen zing zep zap The Lexercise Clinician’s version of the Z-Screener had error itemization and is free for Lexercise Clinicians
  33. 33. SDQA Word Accuracy PrimerWords 100% Independent 1st GradeWords 90% Independent 2nd GradeWords 80% Instructional 3rd GradeWords 60% Frustration The Lexercise Clinician’s version of the SDQA had error itemization and is free for Lexercise Clinicians
  34. 34. Ginny’s writing sample Abost a elefleng They are Being mend to the elefleng. Look they are Thewing ros and packing them. That mene! Elefleng have lone nos. They have 4 legs. The End About a Elephant They are being mean to the elephants. Look they are throwing rocks and poking them. That s mean! Elephants have long noses.They have four legs. The End She wrote: She read:
  35. 35. A CWS is two adjacent writing units (i.e., word-word or word-punctuation) that are acceptable within the context of what is written. CWS takes into account: §  spelling §  grammar & syntax §  punctuation §  capitalization §  semantics Correct Writing Sequences (CWS)
  36. 36. They are Being mend to the elefleng. Look they are Thewing ros and packing them. That mene! Elefleng have lone nos. They have 4 legs. Ginny’s Correct Writing Sequences = 9 (Average for 3rd grade: 19 – 31) Correct Writing Sequences
  37. 37. Discourse Level §  Poor narrative structure (setting, characters, problem, rising action….) §  Limited productivity impacts discourse structure §  Limited productivity is often caused by lexical access and spelling problems (Summer, et al., 2013)
  38. 38. Break + JOIN RANKS discussion
  39. 39. JOIN RANKS….
  40. 40. JOIN RANKS What do Ginny’s spelling errors reveal about her phonological processing ?
  41. 41. Gunny wrote Intended word observations They They are are Being being mend mean to to the the elefleng elephants Look Look they they are are Thewing throwing ros rocks
  42. 42. RANKS Report (Jacks report)
  43. 43. Report Writing
  44. 44. •  Diagnosis is the first step to the efficient, effective treatment. •  Without diagnosis treatment can not be focused. The International Dyslexia Association’s Knowledge & Practice Standards lists what providers need to know and be able to do.
  45. 45. •  Academic achievement •  Health & wellness •  Mental & emotional health •  Employment •  Family stability & parenting Prosperity & happiness !
  46. 46. Dyslexia is by far the most prevalent communication disorder Worldwide, 15- 20% of people have dyslexia http://explore1in5.org/
  47. 47. (1923- 2006) Pat Lindamood, MS/CCC Read the Interview with Pat Lindamood at Childrenofthecode.org
  48. 48. History of the Controversy (Lindamood, P. et al., 1997) 1830s- Alphabetic Students were taught to say the names of the letters & pronounce the word. 1836 and forward - Phonics Students were taught to say sound for each letters & pronounce the word (McGruffy’s Readers) 1930s and forward- Look-and-Say Students were taught using a sight word (Dick and Jane Readers) 1960s and forward - Language Experience Students told stories and watched as the teacher wrote them. “””“Again [and again], some children learned to read and others didn’t.”
  49. 49. 1940s & forward - Multisensory Phonics (Remedial) Students use senses: visual-auditory-tactile-kinesthetic 1960s & forward – Structural Linguistics Bloomfield & Barnhart- Let’s Read Students taught syllable units of increasing complexity 1960s & forward – Whole Language (Chomsky; Goodman) Students taught to focus on meaning and strategies 1970s & forward – Balanced Literacy Students taught using a mix of all methods “””“Again [and again], some children learned to read and others didn’t.” History of the Controversy (Lindamood, P. et al., 1997)
  50. 50. Patricia Lindamood’s insight: It’s not about the general education teaching method(s). 20-30% of people have neuro-biological processing differences. To solve the problem we must begin by understanding the individual’s language processing patterns. Only then can we sensibly select a treatment method.
  51. 51. Dyslexia is the term used to describe the difficulties of children whose reading problems are associated with basic decoding (and recoding, that is spelling) skills. (Snowling & Hulme, 2011)
  52. 52. While for many years, the accepted view was that dyslexia is a learning disorder defined according to the discrepancy between an individual's general cognitive ability and their measured reading attainment …… Snowling & Hulme, 2011) …this definition is no longer in use. (Snowling, 2009;
  53. 53. “…..there is now evidence that many children show the characteristics of dyslexia either in its pure form or where there are co- occurring difficulties (usually referred to as co-morbidities). (Snowling & Hulme, 2011)
  54. 54. Dyslexia is known to compromise reading throughout the life span… Dyslexia is known to compromise reading throughout the life span with problems of reading fluency and spelling typically persisting even after reading accuracy has developed to acceptable levels. (Snowling & Hulme, 2011)
  55. 55. Dyslexia is a language-based learning disability that does not arise from a physical limitation or a developmental disability. --International Dyslexia Association (IDA)
  56. 56. The hallmark of dyslexia is difficulty processing speech sounds: Ø  genetically transmitted Ø  neurobiological Ø  occurs in people of all ages, races and backgrounds and all levels of intelligence Ø  persistent (not developmental, not outgrown) Ø  improves with explicit instruction and practice Ø  causes difficulty with reading & spelling words
  57. 57. Two Eligibility Models for Public School “Learning Disability” Services 1.  Discrepancy Formula Model 2.  Response-to-Intervention Model <5% are eligible
  58. 58. Two Eligibility Models for Public School Learning Disability (LD) Services 1.  Discrepancy Formula Model 2.  Response-to-Intervention Model A child in Alabama with an IQ of 115 and a reading achievement Scaled Score of 100 is eligible for LD services. If he moves to California, Missouri, South Dakota, Tennessee, Vermont or Wyoming he is no longer eligible. Ruth Colker (2013)
  59. 59. Two Eligibility Models for Public School Learning Disability (LD) Services 1.  Discrepancy Formula Model 2.  Response-to-Intervention Model "No one really knows what a learning disability is.” The Learning Disability Mess Prof. Ruth Colker Ohio State Univ. http://support.lexercise.com/entries/ 20697306-The-Learning-Disability-Mess/edit
  60. 60. In 2008 Aaron, Joshi, & Quatroche suggested a 3rd way….. to identify a reading disability: The Componential Model of Reading (CMR) Validity studies reviewed: Joshi, R. M. and Aaron, P.G. (2012)
  61. 61. the 3rd way
  62. 62. CMR: 1st Component Cognitive – 2 factors •  Word recognition •  Listening Comprehension
  63. 63. CMR: 2nd Component Psychological (examples) •  Motivation & interest •  Teacher expectation •  Gender differences •  Emotional & mental health
  64. 64. CMR: 3rd Component Ecological (examples): •  Teacher knowledge •  Home environment •  School environment •  ELL
  65. 65. Dyslexia is caused by neurobiological differences in cognitive processing (Component 1). When it occurs in combination with other components its impact can be magnified. See Double Jeopardy (Hernandez, D. J., 2012)
  66. 66. Grades K-1: Mississippi Dyslexia Screener (print materials & record online, , administer face-to-face) Ages 6 & up: Lexercise Online Screener (administer & record online, immediate report) 2 Free Dyslexia Screeners Lexercise.com
  67. 67. Where? schools homes clinics online !
  68. 68. Who is qualified to make a diagnosis of dyslexia? See this Lexercise Forums article with links to the Nat’l Ctr. For Learning Disabilities and IDA’s Knowledge & Practice Standards
  69. 69. A clinical professional (SLP, Psychologist & Clinical Educator)
  70. 70. 1.  thorough 2.  uses a variety of tools 3.  valid (measures what it says it measures) 4.  reliable (consistent results ) 5.  tailored to the individual client A meaningful, useful assessment adheres to these five principles Shipley & McAfee, 2004
  71. 71. Problems repeating nonsense words…. From Phonology to Orthography and Beyond Say… wudoip vudoip Say… nigong nigone Bishop, Adams, & Norbury,2004; SLI Consortium, 2002
  72. 72. …and playing Tendo I like amunials… . Weak phonological awareness / memory Ginny
  73. 73. “phonological attunement” (Shriberg et al., 2005; Preston, J.L., 2012) “a speech-based diagnostic marker” of cognitive-linguistic processing
  74. 74. Audiologists’ term for this is an auditory processing disorder SLPs, teachers & psychologists should call it a language processing disorder
  75. 75. The Three Blind Men & The Elephant
  76. 76. LANGUAGE PROCESSING: •  awareness of what is heard (sound awareness ) •  memory for sounds and images •  association (e.g., speech sounds with letter symbols) •  labeling (rapid lexical access, “word finding”) •  abstract pattern recognition
  77. 77. Phonological awareness & memory (cognitive-linguistic) processing deficits….
  78. 78. LEVEL OF LANGUAGE phonology orthography morphology syntax semantics pragmatics discourse structure PART OF LANGUAGE STUDIED speech sounds spelling patterns units of meaning in words phrase & sentence structure phrase & sentence meaning word choice and use in context organization of connected sentences adapted from Moats (2010), Table 1.1 The language system (from below word level to above word level) Multi-linguistic approach
  79. 79. “Our teaching of written language can only be as good as our study of it.” --Gina Cooke LEX Linguist Educator Exchange (personal communication) Making Sense of Spelling - Gina’s TED-ED Talk http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=0mbuwZK0lr8#!
  80. 80. crash course
  81. 81. Our alphabet §  a symbol system; §  a limited set of printed or written symbols; §  contains the “raw material” of orthography but is not itself orthography; §  used in a linear, horizontal sequence; §  a set of symbols called letters with “names” ( not pronounced as sounds)
  82. 82. Thanks to Real Spelling We pronounce phonemes. We announce graphemes. <ck> /k/
  83. 83. Our alphabet Our alphabet does represent some aspects of pronunciation, but it cannot represent speech per se. (That’s why we need the International Phonetic Alphabet.)
  84. 84. Our alphabet §  lower and upper case forms; §  reliably identified by their names without having to commit to their meaning or function; §  often part of a grapheme that represents a phoneme; §  may have functions that are not related to pronunciation but are still components of orthographic units (e.g., <sign> & <signal> )
  85. 85. Our alphabet §  morphological elements may have varying pronunciations (e.g., tapped, tabbed, ridded); §  graphemes represent phonemes; §  etymological markers signal connections to meaning (e.g., <know> relates to <knowledge>) §  structural connectors (e.g., 2nd <o> in <oceanography>) that may or may not be pronounced;
  86. 86. Our alphabet §  orthographic conventions (e.g., the <e> in <lapse> signals that this is not the plural word, <laps>); §  lexical markers distinguish lexical function words (e.g., the <e> in <one> to distinguish it from <on>)
  87. 87. There is wide-spread confusion about sounds and letters. Underline the vowel: <quick>
  88. 88. Dimensions of structural word analysis: § morphological § phonological § orthographic
  89. 89. Morphology is a primary organizing concept for spelling. Graphemes are contained within and do not cross morpheme boundaries. -- Real Spelling
  90. 90. Phonological weakness occurs at the lowest level of the language system and in turn impairs decoding and spelling. Direct intervention may be needed to improve phonological awareness and memory. See Chapter 1 in Birsh (2011)
  91. 91. Spelling problems often belie difficulty accessing and manipulating the sound structure (phonemes) of language…
  92. 92. The first step in mature spelling is identifying & spelling a word’s base element(s). < interrupted > <interrupted> - a 4th grade word on the SDQA
  93. 93. inter- rupt -ed prefix base suffix Word analysis matrix Word matrix method following Real Spelling
  94. 94. The Structured Word Inquiry Method “English spelling is a highly ordered system for representing meaning that can be investigated and understood through scientific inquiry.” --WordWorksKingston
  95. 95. base affix free bound prefix connector vowel suffix morpheme (“element”)
  96. 96. Contrast two types of structural analysis: Phonological – Orthographic & Morpho – Phonological - Orthographic  
  97. 97. Phonological – Orthographic Analysis….   1.  Divide the word into syllables. 2.  Divide each syllable into phonemes. 3.  Decide which grapheme represents each phoneme. Phono Ortho
  98. 98. Morpho - Phono – Ortho Analysis   1.  Identify any prefix or prefixes 2.  Identify any suffix or suffixes 3.  Identify the base 4.  Divide the word into syllables 5.  Divide each syllable into phonemes 6.  Decide which grapheme represents each phoneme. (See: English phoneme-grapheme pairs) Morpho Phono Ortho
  99. 99. To analyze the word <orthography> where would you begin?
  100. 100. orthography  1.  Identify any prefix or prefixes 2.  Identify any suffix or suffixes 3.  Identify the base(s) 4.  Divide the word into syllables 5.  Divide each syllable into phonemes 6.  Decide which grapheme represents each phoneme. (English phoneme-grapheme pairs) Morpho Phono Ortho
  101. 101. prefix base suffix -- Real Spelling <orthography>
  102. 102. orthography   Step 1. Identify any prefix or prefixes or- or- can be used as a suffix but not as a prefix NO!
  103. 103. orthography   Step 2. Identify any suffix or suffixes -y YES! <-y> is a suffix It forms nouns , especially with combining forms from Greek, Latin or French origin indicating state, condition, or quality
  104. 104. orthography   Step 3. Identify the base. <orthography> has two bases (Greek combining forms): orth(o) + graph
  105. 105. Origin of <ortho> or (before a vowel, < orth-> ) Online Etymology Dictionary: a comb. element in forming scientific and technical words, from Gk. ortho-, stem of orthos "straight, true, correct, regular," from PIE *eredh- "high" (cf. Skt. urdhvah "high, lofty, steep," L. arduus "high, steep," O.Ir. ard "high"). Online Etymology Dictionary
  106. 106. Origin of <graph> World English Dictionary: — n combining form 1.  an instrument that writes or records: telegraph 2.  a writing, record, or drawing: autograph ; lithograph [via Latin from Greek -graphos, from graphein to write]
  107. 107. Origin of orthography Dictionary.com: 1425–75; late Middle English ortografye < Latin orthographia correct writing, orthogonal projection < Greek orthographía. See ortho-, -graphy Online Etymology Dictionary: "correct or proper spelling," c.1450, from M.Fr. orthographie (O.Fr. ortografie, 13c.), from L. orthographia, from Gk. orthos "correct" (see ortho-) + root of graphein "to write."
  108. 108. Step 4. Divide the word in to syllables <orthography> orth o graph y
  109. 109. Step 5. Divide each syllable in to phonemes.  /ɔrˈθ/ /ɒ/ /grəәf/ /i/
  110. 110. NOTE! Orthographic phonology …. ….requires a different perspective than the one you take when you transcribe speech.
  111. 111. In orthographic analysis some units (e.g., vowel glides and r-controlled vowels) are identified as single unit/   / ˈθ/ /ɒ/ /grəәf/ /i/ For example: Is the highlighted unit in the first syllable one or two units? __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __
  112. 112.   /ɔr ˈθ/ /ɒ/ /g r əә f/ /i/ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ or th o g r a ph y Step 6. Decide which grapheme represents each phoneme. (….with reference to the morphological bases!) Note this phoneme-grapheme pair. Note that r-controlled vowels are considered to be one unit. connecting vowel
  113. 113. orthography prefix(es) base(s) suffix(es) orth(o)graph y Word matrix method following Real Spelling
  114. 114. orthography   World English Dictionary: 1.  a writing system 2.  spelling §  spelling considered to be correct; §  the principles underlying spelling 3.  the study of spelling 4.  orthographic projection
  115. 115. As illustrated by the example of <orthography> English spelling is not strictly phonetic. It is morphological & phonological.
  116. 116. The relationship between phonemes and graphemes in English is governed by reliable morpho-phonetic patterns. Check out these 3 Lexercise Live Broadcast Recordings about word structure & morphology: Gina Cooke, Melvyn Ramsden & Pete Bowers http://www.lexercise.com/category/previous-broadcasts/
  117. 117. …to kids with processing problems!!!??? And I’m supposed to teach this...
  118. 118. YOU CAN….and it starts with knowing the structure of printed English.
  119. 119. This requires extreme clarity with regard to terms and definitions. See “Terms” in the Appendix for explicit definitions.
  120. 120. What is a base element? A word’s base(s) conveys the word’s basic meaning. (e.g., the base <graph> in the word <graphic>). There can be twin bases that both contribute equally to meaning (e.g., phono + graph = phonograph). In contrast, the term “root” connotes the etymology (history) of the word’s base element.
  121. 121. What is an affix? An affix is a morpheme that is attached to a base word to form a new word. English has two kinds of affixes: •  A prefix is attached before the base element •  A suffix is attached after the base element
  122. 122. What is a vowel? A vowel is an open phoneme that is the nucleus of every syllable and is classified by tongue position and height, such as high/low or front/mid/back; Linguists identify 15- 20 vowel phonemes in English.
  123. 123. What is a consonant? A consonant is a phoneme that is not a vowel and is formed with obstruction of the flow of air with the teeth, lips, or tongue; also called a closed sound in some instructional programs; Most linguists identify 40 or more consonants in English.
  124. 124. What is a consonant blend? A consonant blend is adjacent consonants within a syllable, before or after a vowel sound.
  125. 125. What is a consonant cluster? A consonant cluster is adjacent consonants within a syllable, before or after a vowel sound; the equivalent of a consonant blend.
  126. 126. What is a syllable? A syllable is a unit of speech that contains one and only one vowel sound. A syllable is organized around an energy peak (i.e., a vowel). It may or may not have consonants before or after the vowel.
  127. 127. The 6 syllable types in English predict vowel sound-letter patterns 1.  closed sick, hut 2. r-controlled sir, hurt 3. open hi, Hugo 4. silent -e site, huge 5. vowel digraph seem, seam, heat 6. consonant +le saddle, ladle
  128. 128. Schwa happens…. …and it’s all about stress! Schwa is a non-distinct vowel found in unstressed syllables in English.
  129. 129. Schwa only occurs in unstressed syllables be before defect (noun) defect (verb) conduct (noun) conduct (verb) More examples from Peter Ladefoged
  130. 130. §  Pair-Share 1.  Use the Elkonin Boxes form. 2.  Count the syllables in your first name. 3.  Count the phonemes in each syllable. 4.  Specify the graphemes in the Elkonin Boxes. 5.  Tell your partner the last phoneme in your first name. (e.g., Pronounce it , don’t announce it.)
  131. 131. §  example: Sandie s a n d ie
  132. 132. Elkonin Box
  133. 133. Pair-Share: Syllable Types Then tell your partner the syllable the type of the last syllable of your first name.
  134. 134. The 6 syllable types in English closed sick, hut r-controlled sir, hurt open hi, Hugo silent -e site, huge vowel digraph seem, seam, heat consonant +le saddle, ladle
  135. 135. Intervention Who? What? When? Where? Why? How?
  136. 136. a language processing approach to intervention a.k.a. Multi-lingual Approach Multi-component Approach Structured Language Approach Orton-Gillingham Approach
  137. 137. The Orton-Gillingham (O-G) Approach It s old It s new …and it will help you!
  138. 138. --The Academy of Orton-Gillingham Practitioners and Educators “Orton-Gillingham is an instructional approach intended primarily for use with persons who have difficulty with reading, spelling, and writing of the sort associated with dyslexia. It is most properly understood and practiced as an approach, not a method, program, system or technique. In the hands of a well-trained and experienced instructor, it is a powerful tool of exceptional breadth, depth, and flexibility.”
  139. 139. --The Academy of Orton-Gillingham Practitioners and Educators “Orton-Gillingham is an instructional approach intended primarily for use with persons who have difficulty with reading, spelling, and writing of the sort associated with dyslexia. It is most properly understood and practiced as an approach, not a method, program, system or technique. In the hands of a well-trained and experienced instructor, it is a powerful tool of exceptional breadth, depth, and flexibility.”
  140. 140. §  Professional education O-G training courses typically require between 60 and 90 course hours.(See Appendix.) §  Today’s session is not O-G training. It’s an overview.
  141. 141. A few Orton-Gillingham published grandchildren: ² Wilson Reading ² Language! Curriculum ² Slingerland ² Lindamood-Bell LiPS ² Sonday ² Lexercise ² etc…. See the International Dyslexia Assoc.’s Matrix of Multisensory Structured Language Programs Another term for the O-G Approach is “structured language” Research is proving that the teacher’s knowledge about the structure of English is a much more Important variable than what program is used.
  142. 142. --The Academy of Orton-Gillingham Practitioners and Educators “Orton-Gillingham is an instructional approach intended primarily for use with persons who have difficulty with reading, spelling, and writing of the sort associated with dyslexia. It is most properly understood and practiced as an approach, not a method, program, system or technique. In the hands of a well-trained and experienced instructor, it is a powerful tool of exceptional breadth, depth, and flexibility.”
  143. 143. Scarborough, 2001 A language processing evaluation:
  144. 144. What is an intervention approach? 1.  It is designed to support the client’s processing weaknesses, establish accuracy and build automaticity. (i.e., It is a therapeutic approach.) 2.  It has an appropriate scope & sequence. (i.e., appropriate to the client’s needs) 3.  It has organized instructional routines. 4.  It is designed to include intensive practice.
  145. 145. The Orton-Gillingham (O-G) Approach is an intervention approach that includes: WHAT to teach & in what order HOW to teach
  146. 146. The Orton-Gillingham (O-G) Approach is an intervention approach that includes: WHAT to teach & in what order HOW to teach
  147. 147. How to Teach Systematic: a: methodical in procedure or plan <a systematic approach> b : marked by thoroughness and regularity Intensive: highly concentrated; providing for a lot of practice each day. Multisensory: relating to or involving several physiological senses The activity requires an interaction of senses: Auditory- Visual-Tactile-Kinesthetic Explicit: fully revealed or expressed without vagueness, implication, or ambiguity; leaving no question as to meaning or intent. The linguistic target is: clearly defined, clearly described and isolated for practice. Use of sensory-cognitive information requires executive function. Consider the use of Socratic questioning here.
  148. 148. The Orton-Gillingham (O-G) Approach is an intervention approach that includes: WHAT to teach & in what order HOW to teach
  149. 149. A scope & sequence: a guide to what to teach Scope: The elements that are taught Sequence: The order of teaching them
  150. 150. §  explicitly define the essential linguistic structures for reading and spelling §  sequence them systematically A scope & sequence for reading & spelling intervention should:
  151. 151. The structure of an O-G Session Birsh, J.R. (Ed.3), 2011 ü Lasts 30 - 60 minutes ü Includes a rapid rotation of ~6 -8 exercises, each lasting between 1 minute - 10 minutes; ü Covers all domains of language in each session.
  152. 152. The domains of language 1.  Sounds & Letters 2.  Word Reading & Spelling 3.  Word Parts (morphology) 4.  Vocabulary 5.  Sentences (syntax) 6.  Listening & Reading 7.  Speaking & Writing
  153. 153. The structure of an O-G Session Birsh, J.R. (Ed.3), 2011 ü Review the language structure(s) practiced in the previous session ü Raise awareness of the current Level’s structures & patterns (e.g., <-x> = /k/+/s/ ) ü Explicitly defines each new structure / pattern
  154. 154. The anatomy of an O-G Session Birsh, J.R. (Ed.3), 2011 ü Practice words in reading & spelling. ü  Practice real & nonsense words that feature the new language structure(s). ü Practice real & nonsense words that mix the new structure(s) with those previously learned.
  155. 155. The anatomy of an O-G Session Birsh, J.R. (Ed.3), 2011 ü Practice meanings of new words. ü Practice language structures in sentences (read, write, identify, formulate) ü Practice new language structure(s) in reading and writing text.
  156. 156. A Structured Language Scope & Sequence: §  phoneme-grapheme pairs §  syllable structures (e.g. the 6 syllable types) §  morphemes (8 inflectional, many derivational)
  157. 157. What does the child need to know to decode & spell the word “epic” ? WORD P-G pairs syllable type affix(es) epic (ep-ic) <e>= /Ɛ/ <p>=/p/ <i>= /i/ <c>=/k/ closed closed none
  158. 158. Meaning prefix base suffix epi- epos= word, story, poem -ic Possible relatives: <epoch, epigraph, episodic>
  159. 159. WORD P-G pairs syllable type affix(es) speech What does the child need to know to decode the word “speech” ?
  160. 160. WORD P-G pairs syllable type affix(es) speech <s> = /s/ <p> = /p/ consonant blend <ee> = /i/ <ch> = /ʧ/ consonant digraph <ee> vowel digraph none
  161. 161. •  Middle English speche •  Old English- spǣc, variant of sprǣc •  German- sprache prefix base suffix speech
  162. 162. prefix base suffix pow -er -ful powerful ? prefix base suffix power -ful
  163. 163. powerful “power” - 1250–1300; Middle English pouer ( e ), poer ( e ) Anglo-French poueir, poer “pow” - Americanism-1880-1885, an echoic interjection Structured Word Inquiry Method See recordings of previous Live Broadcasts by Pete Bower’s & Gina Cooke http://www.lexercise.com/blog/
  164. 164. Address all 5 critical language-literacy areas…everyday --The National Reading Panel (2000)
  165. 165. But here’s the challenge: How do you set up enough practice? (e.g., 100s of response challenges daily)
  166. 166. Instructional Routines face -to- face & online
  167. 167. Phonological Awareness / Memory Say the sounds in “sink”. Say “sink” without /s/. face–to-face
  168. 168. Phonological Awareness / Memory Isolator Game Where is the /ŋ/ in “sink”? online
  169. 169. Word Reading & Spelling White Board Spelling: (How many sounds in “sink”? Write the graphemes.) Flash Word Reading (Right on the 1st try) s i n k sing sink bang bank face–to-face
  170. 170. MatchStar Games – Word Reading online
  171. 171. Morphology- Word analysis link PAST TENSE SUFFIX: <-ed> = /t/ ed sink Plural SUFFIX: <s> = /z/ s linked sinks face–to-face
  172. 172. The word The category The details Vocabulary Define mink face–to-face
  173. 173. Google Images: mink
  174. 174. Descriptor Game- Definition à Fast Word Reading online
  175. 175. Sentences 1)  The dog sank his long fangs into  the  rat.   2) Put the pan in the sink, said Mom. 3) Peg has on a pink tank top. 4) Hank winked at Kim. 5) The bunk beds are such a mess. 6) The king is getting rich. 7) The quill pen has red ink. face–to-face
  176. 176. Sentences 1 Point: for each correctly spelled word* 1 Point: for beginning sentence with a capital 1 Point: for ending sentence punctuation 5 BONUS Points for no errors TOTALS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. TOTAL POINTS *Capitalization of proper nouns is considered a spelling issue.
  177. 177. Listening and Reading On Saturday, October 1, hundreds of people gathered at Greeley Square, in New York City, to join the celebration of author Rick Riordan’s newest book from the best-selling Heroes of Olympus series, The Son of Neptune. The crowd was filled with Rick Riordan fans dressed as demigods, monsters and other characters from his books. Those who didn’t dress up stopped by the wrap-your-own-toga station. A toga is a type of Greek clothing. …… face-to-face… or…online
  178. 178. Pragmatics http://www.timeforkids.com/news/percy-jackson- back/15166 face-to-face… or…online
  179. 179. Discourse Describe a process Introduction: Tell the purpose Step 1: Describe the first step. Tell why it is important. Step 2: Describe the first step. Tell why it is important. Step 3: Describe the first step. Tell why it is important. Step [N] [….number of steps] Conclusion: Evaluate the process & why it is important face-to-face… or…online
  180. 180. Writing •  Transcription (“handwriting” or typing ) •  Spelling •  Grammar •  Sentence conventions •  Formulation & organization •  Ideas •  Proofreading
  181. 181. Handwritten sample by a 9 year old:
  182. 182. 2 correct writing sequences it wus inan in^the ish tha wer thcing a spre at a elatfit ard stap it^. (It was in the ice age. They were throwing a spear at an elephant and stabbing it. )
  183. 183. Handwritten sample after 3 months of therapy:
  184. 184. The same sample typed (without help) on an iPad: This object is an electronic. It is a computer and you play games on it. This is a toy shaped like a rectangle. It is made of metal and it has an on-off button and a touch screen. You find it at the Apple store. It is an iPad.
  185. 185. 54 correct writing sequences ^This^object^is^ an electronic. ^It^ is^ a^ computer ^and ^you^ play^ games^ ^on^ it^.^ This^ is^ a^ toy^ shaped ^like^ a^ rectangle^.^ It^ is^ made^ of ^metal^ and ^it^ has^ an^ on-off^ button^ and^ a^ touch^ screen^.^ You^ find^ it^ at^ the^ Apple^ store^.^ It^ is^ an^ iPad^.
  186. 186. Think 1st about the learning goal & the science of learning. Then think about the teaching & learning methods.
  187. 187. Before you can choose the best tool you MUST know …. Is it a nail or a screw ?
  188. 188. JOIN RANKS Develop an intervention plan for Ginny…..
  189. 189. •  List intervention goals •  Describe direct services (frequency, duration) •  Describe daily review & reinforcement practice •  Describe any assistive technology •  Other
  190. 190. SUMMARY •  3rd grade •  Average IQ & average receptive vocabulary •  Persistent misarticulation- all allophones of /r/ •  “Double deficit” (i.e., significant processing deficits) •  phonemic awareness & memory deficits •  rapid naming deficit •  Sight word reading- average range, decoding -impaired range •  Reading 3rd grade text in the frustration range •  Dislikes reading and does no discretionary reading •  Spelling reflects phonemic impairment •  Limited productivity in writing products •  Weak sentence and paragraph structure in writing products
  191. 191. Hearts Report •  Intervention goals •  Direct services (frequency, duration) •  Daily review & reinforcement practice •  Assistive technology •  Other
  192. 192. §  Structured language approach §  1 (45 min.) session each week (Ginny & mom) §  Lexercise online exercises- 5 days a week (~15 /day) §  Assistive technologies: §  AudioBooks- Learning Ally (LearningAlly.org) §  Type writing products- GingerSoftware (GingerSoftware.com)
  193. 193. Lexercise online exercises – 12 min. a day, 5 days a week Isolator MatchStar
  194. 194. Progress Summary §  # clinic sessions: 18 §  period of therapy: June – January (7 mos. ) §  Lexercise Levels covered: 1 – 24
  195. 195. Session #4 (July)-Lexercise Level 6
  196. 196. Session #18 (January)-Lexercise Level 24
  197. 197. Progress Summary •  7 months •  18 sessions + ~100 days of online exercises •  reading Level 24 words >90% accuracy •  spelling Level 24 words >80% accuracy •  reading 3rd grade text at 95% accuracy •  reading for pleasure •  /r/ >90% accuracy in text reading •  fewer behavior problems; less resistance to school work •  more confident, happier
  198. 198. Discussion Questions Comments
  199. 199. Thank you! Sandie@lexercise.com
  200. 200. References Birsh, J.R., Editor (2011). Multisensory Teaching of Basic Language Skills, 3rd Edition. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. Breznitz, Z., Rubinsten, O., Molfese, V.J. and Molfese, D. L., Eds. (2012). Reading, Writing, Mathematics and the Developing Brain: Listening to Many Voices. Springer Science+ Business Media. Carroll, J.M., Bowyer-Crane, C., Duff, F.J., Hulme, C. and Snowling, M. J. (2011). Developing Language and Literacy: Effective Intervention in the Early Years. Wiley-Blackwell, p. 33/ Crowe, E.C., Connor, C. M., Petscher, Y. (2009). Examining the Core: Relations among reading curricula, poverty, and first through third grade reading achievement. Journal of School Psychology, Vol. 47(3), 187–214
  201. 201. References Eide, F. (2012). Neurobiology of Learning Disorders - Dyslexia ADHD Dyscalculia Dysgraphia. Lecture at American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Conference. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CNTNypAG4S0 Fletcher, J.M., Lyon, G. R., Fuchs, L.S., Barnes, M.A. (2007). Learning Disabilities: From Identification to Intervention, New York: The Guilford Press. Hernandez, D. J. (2012). Double Jeopardy: How third-grade reading skills and poverty influence high school graduation. Baltimore: The Annie E. Casey Foundation. Retrieved March 24, 2013: http://www.aecf.org/KnowledgeCenter/Publications.aspx?pubguid= {8E2B6F93-75C6-4AA6-8C6E-CE88945980A9} International Dyslexia Association Conference (October, 2012) – Neuroscience in the 21st Century: Where are we going? Web Conference: http://www.webable.tv/Events/63rdIDA.aspx?VID=/webable/ 121024_IAD_W3_0945.flv#anchor
  202. 202. References Joshi, R. M. and Aaron, P.G. (2012). Componential Model of Reading (CMR): Validation Studies. Journal of Learning Disabilities 45(5) 387–390. Lindamood, P., Bell, N., & Lindamood, P. (1997). Sensory- Cognitive Factors in the Controversy over Reading Instruction. The Journal of Developmental and Learning Disorders. Vol. 1 (1), pp. 143-182. Moats, L. C. (2010). Speech to Print, Ed. 2.Baltimore: Paul H Brookes Publishers. Moats, L.C. , Dakin, K.E. and Joshi, R. M. (2012). Expert Perspectives on Intervention for Reading: A Collection of Best- Practice Articles from the International Dyslexia Association. Baltimore: The International Dyslexia Association.
  203. 203. References Morris, R.D., Lovett, M.W., Wolf, M., Sevcki, R.A., Steinbach, K.A., Frijters, J.C., Shapiro, M.B. (2010). Multiple-Component Remediation for Developmental Reading Disabilities: IQ, Socioeconomic Status, and Race as Factors in Remedial Outcome.J. Learning Disabilities. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20445204?dopt=Abstract National Institutes of Health, Statistics on Voice, Speech, and Language: http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/statistics/vsl.asp Preston, J.L.(2012). Functional Brain Activation Differences in School Age Children With Speech Sound Errors: Speech and Print Processing. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. Vol.55. 1068-1082 Rose, J. (2009). Identifying and teaching children and young people with dyslexia and literacy difficulties. Retrieved from http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/wholeschool/sen/
  204. 204. References Shaywitz , S.E., Shaywitz , B.A., Pugh, K.R., Fulbright, R.K., Constable, R.T., Mencl, W.E., Shankweiler, D.E., Liberman, A.M., Skudlarski, P. Fletcher, J.M., Katz, L., Marchione, K.E., Lacadie, C., Gatenby, C. and Gore, J.C. (1998). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 95 (5). Shaywitz, S.E. (2003). Overcoming Dyslexia: A New and Complete Science-Based Program for Reading Problems at Any Level. Toronto: Random House. Shriberg et al. (2005). Toward Diagnostic and Phenotype Markers for Genetically Transmitted Speech Delay. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research Vol. 48 834–852. http://www.waisman.wisc.edu/phonology/pubs/PUB3.pdf Singh, L., Steven Reznick, J. and Xuehua, L. (2012), Infant word segmentation and childhood vocabulary development: a longitudinal analysis. Developmental Science, 15: 482–495.
  205. 205. References Snowling, M.J. (2009). Changing concepts of dyslexia: nature, treatment and comorbidity. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, Virtual Issue. Retrieved from: http://www.wiley.com/bw/vi.asp?ref=0021--9630&site=1#436 Snowling, M.J. and Hume, C. (2011). Evidence-based interventions for reading and language difficulties: Creating a virtuous circle. British Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 81 (1), pp.1–23. Retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.2044-8279.2010.02014.x/ full Snowling, M.J. and Hume, C. (2012). Annual Research Review: The nature and classification of reading disorders- a commentary on proposals for DSM-5. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 53:5, pp 593–607, Retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/store/10.1111/j. 1469-7610.2011.02495.x/asset/j.1469-7610.2011.02495.x.pdf? v=1&t=h7bqjshr&s=b9c418ddc9f8a74e9c34c3a262c1e20a3609d442
  206. 206. References Summer, E. Connelly, V. and Barnett, A.L. (2013). Children with dyslexia are slow writers because they pause more often and not because they are slow at handwriting execution. Reading and Writing, 26(6), pp. 991-1008. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11145-012-9403-6?no- access=true
  207. 207. Appendix A- Web-based Resources § Lex (blog): http://linguisteducatorexchange.wordpress.com/ Gina Cooke’s Linguist Teacher Exchange § Lexercise (website): http://www.lexercise.com/ (Online services for struggling readers, Professional Forum, Public Blog, Two Free Online Screeners, Digital Games for daily practice, Clinical Partners Program ) § Real Spelling & Real Script (website): http://www.realspelling.fr/Welcome_to_Real_Spelling/Choose- New.html (Melvyn Ramsden’s website) § Real Spellers (wiki): http://www.realspellers.org/ § Word Works Literacy Centre (blog): http://www.wordworkskingston.com/WordWorks/Home.html Pete Bowers website
  208. 208. Appendix B School & Class Blogs § Grade 3- Mrs.McGrath (blog): http://mcgrathi.ism-online.org/ Llana McGrath- 3rd grade- Manila International School § Grade 4- Sarah Pickles (blog): http://tpackedpickles.weebly.com/index.html Sarah Pickles- 4th grade- Lincoln Community School-Ghana § Grade 5-Mr. Allen (blog): http://blogs.zis.ch/dallen/category/languagespellingword-study/ Dan Allen -5th grade- Zurich International School § Grade 7-Ms. Whiting’s Word Nerds (blog): http://wordsavviness.wordpress.com/ - Ann Whiting’s 7th grade -Kuala Lumpur International School
  209. 209. Fletcher, J.M., Lyon, G. R., Fuchs, L.S., Barnes, M.A. (2007). Learning Disabilities: From Identification to Intervention , New York: The Guilford Press. Appendix C Intervention Meta Analysis
  210. 210. 1. Increases time on task. ✔ 2. Scope & sequence is explicit, organized & cumulative. ✔ 3. Teaches self-regulation. ✔ 4. Considers….. scaffolding. ✔ 5. Integrated & systematic scope & sequence; top-down & bottom-up. ✔ 6. Addresses specific reading and writing skills. ✔ 7. Focuses on the ultimate competencies, not just isolated skills. ✔ 8. Customized for each individual. ✔ 9. Includes ongoing progress monitoring. ✔ 10. Systematically integrated with general education. ✔ Appendix C (2) Fletcher, J.M., et al. (2007) SUMMARY
  211. 211. For In-Depth Professional Education On the Lexercise Forums- search: Lexercise Professional Education Courses Courses Hours Lexercise Professional Courses (for SLPs) #1: Structure of Written English (prerequisite for #2*) #2: Orton-Gillingham for Clinical Professionals 25-30 hrs. 25-30 hrs. 50-60 hrs. Appendix D
  212. 212. Dyslexia is characterized by difficulties with accurate and / or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Appendix E-1 The definition of dyslexia
  213. 213. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge. Adopted by the IDA Board of Directors, Nov. 12, 2002. This Definition is also used by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD). Appendix E-2
  214. 214. §  Studies show that individuals with dyslexia process information in a different area of the brain than do non-dyslexics. §  Many people who are dyslexic are of average to above average intelligence. Adopted by the IDA Board of Directors, Nov. 12, 2002. This Definition is also used by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD). Appendix E-3
  215. 215. Terms Phonemes- speech sounds; used to express meaning (e.g., /k/) Graphemes- the choice of graphemes that represent phonemes (e.g. <c>, <k>, <-ck> for /k/) Morphemes- units of spoken language that express meaning Appendix F-1
  216. 216. Terms (continued) §  syllable (and syllable types) §  semivowel §  glide §  consonant cluster (vs. blend) §  allophone §  flap Appendix F-2
  217. 217. Terms (continued) §  grapheme §  digraph (e.g., <sh>, <-ck>) §  trigraph (e.g. <eau>) §  stress §  schwa §  voiced & unvoiced (consonants) §  rhotic vowels Appendix F-3
  218. 218. ĭ ē ā ĕ ă ī ŏ ŭ oo oo ō aw er ar or əә vowels: phonic symbols o oy/oi ow/ou Appendix G-1 The English vowel system
  219. 219. ĭ ē ā ĕ ă ī ŏ ŭ oo oo ō aw er ar or əә “short” or lax vowels, closed syllables bit bet bat bot butow,ou oy/oi Appendix G-2 The English vowel system
  220. 220. ur, ir, er ar or her, sir, fur car port r-controlled vowels Appendix G-3 The English vowel system
  221. 221. ĭ ē ā ĕ ă ī ŏ ŭ oo oo ō aw əә oy/oi ou/ow er ar or “long” / tense vowels, open syllables he baby bivalve go ruby Appendix G-4 The English vowel system
  222. 222. ē ā ī ō Pete make time vote oo tube “long” / tense vowels, silent –e syllables Appendix G-5 The English vowel system
  223. 223. ē ā ī ō see eat chief weird key rain play eight vein they great straight pie right boat show toe moult oo moo chew blue suit soup “long” / tense vowels, vowel digraph syllables Appendix G-6 The English vowel system
  224. 224. əә about lesson elect definition circus schwa vowel in an unaccented syllable Appendix G-7 The English vowel system
  225. 225. oy / oi ou / ow əә boy boil out cow diphthong* vowels, vowel digraph syllables Appendix G-8 The English vowel system

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