Chuck Jenkins: 2013 Sandia National Laboratoies Wind Plant Reliability Workshop

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Bently Nevada Wind CMS Offerings

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Chuck Jenkins: 2013 Sandia National Laboratoies Wind Plant Reliability Workshop

  1. 1. Bently Nevada Wind CMS Offerings
  2. 2. Oil & Gas Power Generation • Thermal • CCPP • Co-Gen • Hydro • Wind • LNG • Ethylene • Refining • Fertilizers • PTA Who is Bently Nevada?
  3. 3. Switch/Hub Rotating Machines Online - Continuous monitoring & protection 3500 & TDI Online – Periodic (scanning) monitoring Wired Wireless Essential Assets • Fans • Pumps • Blowers • Etc… SCOUT 100 BOP Assets • Vibration • Portable Devices • Lube Oil • Thermography • MCA, etc… Offline – Periodic walk- around monitoring Critical Assets • Gas Turbines • Steam Turbines • Compressors • Main line Pumps Bently Nevada – Online Condition Monitoring
  4. 4. Why Plant Asset Optimization? Optimization of plant asset performance and reliability is essential to meeting the challenge of increased production at lower costs - a situation faced by many companies in a world of increased competition Improved: • Safety, environmental compliance • Reliability, availability • Throughput, quality • Planning and scheduling • Maintenance efficiency • Spare parts inventory Reduced: • Downtime • Energy consumption • Maintenance costs Plant Asset Optimization
  5. 5. Wind Farm Operators strive to optimize their maintenance resources by minimizing down-tower repairs & making sure parts are on hand Graphic from EPRI Paper – Condition Monitoring of Wind Turbines What are the business challenges?
  6. 6. Benefits of Early Detection • Limit downtower repairs • Eliminate expedited crane charges • Crane bundling to minimize mobilization and demobilization charges • Minimize downtime and optimize planning for low wind repairs
  7. 7. “25%-30% of the overall operation and maintenance costs at a wind farm will be associated with the gearbox alone.”* *EPRI Paper – Condition Monitoring of Wind Turbines Why Drive Train CMS?
  8. 8. Failure Rates, Costs, and CMS Value Component Failure Rate Total Cost Detection Rate (%) Savings From CMS Total Savings Gearbox 3% $255,240 50% $80,000 $1,200 Gearbox Refurbishment 38% $200,240 50% $80,000 $15,200 Generator 5% $146,280 80% $30,000 $1,200 Main Bearing 18% $135,240 40% $20,000 $1,440 Generator Refurbishment 10% $113,280 80% $30,000 $2,400 Gearbox Stage Replacement 35% $40,760 50% $10,000 $1,750 Average Savings from CMS: $23,190 per turbine
  9. 9. Bently Nevada Wind CMS Offerings Entered Market with DSM Solution ~ 25 Units installed 2004 2006 2008 2009 2012 + Refine Wind solution: Independent processor/Scalable ADAPT. Wind Released Continuous Product Enhancements  DSM Solution ~ 25 Units installed  TurningPoint ~ 2000 Units installed  SmartSignal ~ 150 Units installed  ADAPT.Wind ~ 3000 Units installed  ADAPT.Wind - Standard Option for GE New Units & Included in LTSA
  10. 10. Condition Monitoring System Drivetrain Transducers Up-Tower SoftwareMonitor Up-Tower
  11. 11. Network Friendly Architecture Monitors communicate with the farm server via the SCADA Network. Utility Transmission System SCADA Server Local ADAPT Server Firewall SCADA Network Remote Monitoring Center WAN
  12. 12. Expandability Farm Server • Bently Nevada Data Services • ADAPT.wind Farm Client or Ascent WTG1 Monitor WTG2 Monitor WTG199 Monitor WTG200 Monitor One farm server can accommodate up to 200 Wind Turbine Generator (WTG) monitors. SCADA Network WTG3 through WTG198 Ethernet Switch
  13. 13. Transducer Locations Ring Gear Sun Gear Planet Gear Rotor Hub HSS HSIS LSIS Generator Gearbox HSS Speed LSS Speed LSS Main Bearing Intermediate Stage Planetary Stage High Speed Stage Generator Bearings 6 accelerometers 2 speed sensors
  14. 14. Powerful Calculation Engine • Calculation engine embedded inside the monitor • Patented Algorithms – DEI & SER • Up to 200 trendable variables • Component specific variables for the main bearing, generator, and gearbox • Available as input into SmartSignal Predictive Analytics • Data is stored, trended, and alarmed.
  15. 15. Powerful Diagnostics Sensor Health – Transducer Bias Voltage Broadband – Direct Peak Amplitude – Direct RMS Amplitude – Crest Factor – Kurtosis – Cumulative Impulse (CI) Spectral Bands – Orders-Based Amplitude – Dynamic Energy Index (DEI) – Enveloped (demodulated) Bearing Fault Frequencies – Gearmesh Frequencies – Gearbox Fault Frequencies • Planet Fault (3X LSS), Ring Fault, Sun Fault, etc. These measurements are processed by the 3701/60 monitor.
  16. 16. ADAPT.Wind calculated variables •Advanced Techniques • Planetary Impulse Detection (particle trend) Cumulative Impulse Count Cumulative Impulse Rate Cumulative Impulse Magnitude • DEI Dynamic Energy Index… Specifically designed for variable speed machines. • Kurtosis
  17. 17. 4.538 4.54 4.542 4.544 4.546 4.548 4.55 4.552 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Time (s) g SlavePlanetaryRotor16Apr10second1; corner = 0.1 Hz; order 2; 13 events for DI = 66 GE CONFIDENTIAL Planetary debris passage detection by cumulative impulse calculations Amplitude Resets Adaptive Threshold (12 x LP signal) Low-pass filtered signal (red) Decay Envelope Final Maximum For Event (red dot) Rectified Signal Event TerminationEvent Start Default Threshold 4 g
  18. 18. Dynamic Energy Index (DEI) Bands - Definition Spectral Energy is summed within Discrete Frequency Bands shown here, where the Bands correspond to gearbox components. DEI Variables are normalized by Torque Variable Frequency Range Description DEI Bearing 0 – 25 Hz L.S. shaft bearings, Planet bearings, all rotor- related frequencies DEI Planetary 28 – 130 Hz Planetary Gear Mesh Frequencies DEI Intermediate 145 – 570 Hz Intermediate gear mesh frequencies DEI High 590 – 3300 Hz High Speed gear mesh frequencies DEI Structural 4000 – 10000 Hz Covers structural resonant frequencies which are excited by mechanical impacts
  19. 19. DEI Bands New Healthy Gearbox Same Gearbox After HALT damage Damaged Gearbox New GB Damaged GB Ratio DEI Bearing 3.95E-06 4.75E-04 120.1 DEI Planetary 4.39E-04 1.00E-02 22.9 DEI Intermediate 5.37E-04 3.36E-02 62.6 DEI High Speed 1.21E-02 4.47E-01 37.1 DEI Structural 3.60E-02 5.63E+00 156.4 DEI Test values: DEI Bands – Overlaid on actual Frequency Spectrums comparing the gearbox vibration signature of the same gearbox at the beginning and end of a HALT test.
  20. 20. Kurtosis •Variance (standard deviation squared) involves the square of differences between data and the mean •Variance is the 2nd moment •Skew is the 3rd moment •Kurtosis is the 4th moment. It puts more emphasis on the tails of the distribution •Spikier waveforms have higher Kurtosis
  21. 21. Planetary Sun Gear Failure Background >Vibration increased in planetary stage >ADAPT showed high overall vibration and defect on sun gear Benefits … >Two weeks advanced notice >Confirmed crane mobilization required >Confirmed gearbox replacement required
  22. 22. Generator Drive End Bearing EDM Damage Corrosion Spectrum Waterfall – shows signs of bearing EDM (electrical discharge machining) progressing rapidly. Bearing Inner Race and Sidebands Spectrum Detail – shows repeating harmonic peaks of ORBP (Outer Race Ball Pass) frequency, a classic sign of EDM. Harmonics with Sidebands
  23. 23. Generator Drive End Bearing EDM • Ensures proper generator slip-ring operation • Uptower repair • Early detection of EDM allows corrective action to be taken prior to significant bearing damage occurring
  24. 24. Cost Saving Examples – Bearing Cracks • Reduced secondary damage • Uptower repair • Trending allows for maintenance during maintenance or low winds
  25. 25. Broken HSIS Pinion Tooth (Sideband Energy Ratio) SER = 1.1 SER = 3.9 SER = 5.6
  26. 26. Questions?

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