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2014 PV Distribution System Modeling Workshop: European codes & guidelines for the application of advanced grid support functions of inverters: Roland Bruendlinger, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology
 

2014 PV Distribution System Modeling Workshop: European codes & guidelines for the application of advanced grid support functions of inverters: Roland Bruendlinger, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology

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2014 PV Distribution System Modeling Workshop: European codes & guidelines for the application of advanced grid support functions of inverters: Roland Bruendlinger, AIT Austrian Institute of ...

2014 PV Distribution System Modeling Workshop: European codes & guidelines for the application of advanced grid support functions of inverters: Roland Bruendlinger, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology

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    2014 PV Distribution System Modeling Workshop: European codes & guidelines for the application of advanced grid support functions of inverters: Roland Bruendlinger, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology 2014 PV Distribution System Modeling Workshop: European codes & guidelines for the application of advanced grid support functions of inverters: Roland Bruendlinger, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology Presentation Transcript

    • 123.05.2014 European codes & guidelines for the application of advanced grid support functions of inverters Roland Bründlinger Senior Engineer AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, Vienna, Austria PV Distribution System Modeling Workshop, Santa Clara, May 6, 2014
    • Contents  Background – Development and challenges of grid connected PV in Europe  Overview of current grid codes and requirements in Europe  Outlook on the new ENTSO-E Network Code  Summary & recommendations 223.05.2014 223/05/2014
    • Contents  Background – Development and challenges of grid connected PV in Europe  Overview of current grid codes and requirements in Europe  Outlook on the new ENTSO-E Network Code  Summary & recommendations 323.05.2014 323/05/2014
    • Evolution of European cumulative installed PV capacity Source:EPIA,”IEA-PVPSTask14,TransitionfromConsumptiontoSupplyGrids,tobepublished For comparison: Total installed generation capacity in EU27 2011 approx. 850 GW (eurelectric figures)
    • Net power generation capacity added in the EU28 in 2013 Source:EPIA,ESTELA,EU-OEA,EWEA,PlattsPowerVision,PVCYCLE MW  PV now covers 3% of the overall and 6% of the peak electricity demand  PV has been the top newly-added generation capacity together with wind for the 3rd year.  Within growing share of RES in the generation mix, grid and market/system integration challenges are becoming more and more important for the future PV deployment.
    • Spatial distribution of installed capacity (W/per inhabitant) Source: EPIA, ”Global Market Outlook 2017”, May 2013 Bavaria: >800 W/inhabitant Italy: >6% of electricity demand  Some key facts about PV grid connection in Europe (end 2013)  About 80 GW installed in EU27  95% of the capacity is connected at the distribution levels  Numerous regions/DSOs already coping with High PV penetration (>100%)  PV has become a game changer in the European electricity market
    • The role of PV in the European national electricity systems  Key Challenges  Increased variability and uncertainty  Increasing share of non-rotating generation  Increasing share of distribution system connected generation  Provision of grid support services by RES?  Penetration levels in some regions and countries have reached levels where full PV grid integration becomes critical to guarantee operational stability  Coordinated development of Grid Code requirements for PV and DG needed. 7 Source: EPIA 2013, Reservices Project 2014
    • Contents  Background – Development and challenges of grid connected PV in Europe  Overview of current grid codes and requirements in Europe  Outlook on the new ENTSO-E Network Code  Summary & recommendations 823.05.2014 823/05/2014
    • Framework for PV/DG interconnection in Europe Country specific grid codes and standards  Up to now no EU wide directive on DER/PV grid interconnection  Country specific grid codes, standards, DSO guidelines…  Different legal and administrative levels  Fundamental differences between the countries  Generally complex, intransparent situation  Issues for manufacturers and project developers  Specific product settings for each country/market  Interpretation of the requirements and application in practice  Increased costs and reduced competiveness  Critical issues for power system operation  Lack of coordination and compatibility  Risk of losing system security during critical events due to undefined behavior of DER 95/23/2014
    • Current requirements for advanced grid support by PV Connection to LV distribution grids 105/23/2014  Full set of advanced grid support requirements mandatory for :  DE: Systems >16 A (2012)  AT: Systems >16 A (2013)  IT: Units >3 kVA (2012)  DK: Systems >16 A (2013)  Main functions:  Reactive power control (typ. PF(P) characteristic  Frequency control P(f)  No trip at low frequency  Remote limitation of P output (DE, AT, IT)
    • Current requirements for advanced grid support by PV Connection to MV distribution grids 115/23/2014 Full set of advanced grid support requirements:  DE (2008), IT (2011), AT (2013), DK (2013), FR (2008) Selected requirements:  ES, PT, UK, CZ, BE…  Typically for MW scale generators Main functions:  Reactive power control  Voltage control PF(U)  Frequency control P(f)  Remote power limitation  FRT (=LVRT)
    • Contents  Background – Development and challenges of grid connected PV in Europe  Overview of current grid codes and requirements in Europe  Outlook on the new ENTSO-E Network Code  Summary & recommendations 1223.05.2014 1223/05/2014
    • Framework for PV/DG interconnection in Europe The new ENTSO-E Network Codes  2009: European Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators (ACER) issued an official mandate to ENTSO-E (European Network of Electricity TSOs) to develop draft “Network Codes”  A set of rules applying to one aspect of the energy sector  Developed by ACER, ENTSO-E & market participants (transparent process)  Become legally binding (comitology process)  Ultimately have the same status as a European Regulation  Goal: Strengthen the European internal electricity market 135/23/2014 Source:ENTSO-E
    • Framework for PV/DG interconnection in Europe The new ENTSO-E Network Code RfG  Network Code on “Requirements for Grid Connection applicable to all Generators (RfG)” is one of the first projects, aiming at  Establishing legally binding EU wide harmonization of grid interconnection requirements  Ensuring and increasing the system security with a growing share of RES and variable generation  Avoiding future regret and costly retrofits to ensure security of supply 145/23/2014 Source:ENTSO-E
    • Framework for PV/DG interconnection in Europe ENTSO-E RfG Network Code  Basic approach  Applicable to all generators >0.8 kW  Balance European settings and regional specifics  Proportional approach from smallest generation to largest plants  Application for (all) new generators in order to  ensure system security in a changing environment  accommodate evolution in the generation portfolio  reduce costs through standardization.  Application for existing generators (retrofit) only if  technically justifiable,  benefits demonstrated by Cost Benefit Analysis  approved by National Regulatory Authority 155/23/2014 https://www.entsoe.eu/major-projects/network-code-development/requirements-for-generators/
    • Framework for PV/DG interconnection in Europe ENTSO-E RfG Network Code  Standardized definition of generator types and associated functionalities/ requirements depending on  transmission grid region  connection level (voltage)  generator capacity and technology (synchronous or converter based) 165/23/2014 Type D Type C Type B Type A • Wide-scale network operation and stability • Balancing services • Stable and controllable dynamic response • covering all operational network states • Automated dynamic response and resilience to events • System operator control • Basic capabilities to withstand wide-scale critical events • Limited automated response and control
    • Framework for PV/DG interconnection in Europe ENTSO-E RfG Network Code 175/23/2014
    • Framework for PV/DG interconnection in Europe ENTSO-E RfG Network Code  Overview of aspects and requirements addressed by the RfG 185/23/2014 Addressed system aspect Requirement Type A Type B Type C/D Frequency stability Operating frequency ranges X X X RoCoF withstand capability X X X Limited Frequency Sensitive Mode - Overfrequency X X X Constant active power output regardless of changes in Frequency X X X Limitation of power reduction at underfrequency X X X Automatic connection X X X Remote ON/OFF X X Active power reduction remote control X Additional requirements related to frequency control X Provision of synthetic inertia X
    • Framework for PV/DG interconnection in Europe ENTSO-E RfG Network Code 195/23/2014 Addressed system aspect Requirement Type A Type B Type C/D Robustness of power generating modules Fault-ride-through X X Post-fault active power recovery X X System restoration Coordinated reconnection X X General system management Control schemes and settings X X Electrical protection and control schemes and settings X X Priority ranking of protection and control X X Information exchange X X Additional requirements to monitoring X Voltage stability Reactive power capability X X Fast reacting reactive power injection X X Additional requirements for reactive power capability and control modes X  Overview of aspects and requirements addressed by the RfG
    • Framework for PV/DG interconnection in Europe ENTSO-E RfG Network Code 205/23/2014  Some further aspects related to the RfG  Eventually, the RfG will have the character of a EU directive  Later amendments will be very difficult  Definitions in RfG leave wide room for variation/interpretation by the local TSOs/NRAs  After its implementation the RfG will  Define system relevant minimum requirements for all generators  Provide a basis for national codes and standards  However, the RfG will not  Provide a true harmonization of the requirements across Europe  Provide “product specifications” which can be easily be implemented by manufacturers  Provide harmonized certification, type testing or modeling procedures  Provide requirements related to communication protocols or technologies (e.g. IEC 61850, DNP3)
    • Framework for PV/DG interconnection in Europe ENTSO-E RfG Network Code 215/23/2014  Recent steps  Jan-March 2012: Open public consultation with all stakeholders  July 2012 – March 2013: Review of RfG draft by ACER  October 2013: Implementation Guideline published  European Commission comitology procedure started in January 2014  Further implementation of the code at national level via existing processes  Definition of detailed local requirements and conditions by national TSOs in collaboration with NRAs  Amendments/ modifications to existing national guidelines  Planned to be legally binding from 2017
    • Framework for PV/DG interconnection in Europe ENTSO-E RfG Network Code 225/23/2014  Resources  RfG webpage: https://www.entsoe.eu/major-projects/network-code- development/requirements-for-generators/  Final version of RfG Network code: https://www.entsoe.eu/fileadmin/user_upload/_library/resources/RfG/13 0308_Final_Version_NC_RfG.pdf  Implementation Guideline: https://www.entsoe.eu/fileadmin/user_upload/_library/resources/RfG/13 1016_-_NC_RfG_implementation_guideline.pdf
    • Contents  Background – Development and challenges of grid connected PV in Europe  Overview of current grid codes and requirements in Europe  Outlook on the new ENTSO-E Network Code  Summary & recommendations 2323.05.2014 2323/05/2014
    • Summary and key conclusions  In Europe the role of PV has changed from a marginal technology to a visible player in the electricity market  PV and grid parity  further massive deployment in short and near term  In particular Germany acts as show-case for high-penetration PV and provision of grid support (voltage, frequency…) by decentralised PV  Coordinated approach for integrating PV on high penetration levels is crucial to ensure system stability and security  Addressed by upcoming ENTSO-E network code “Requirements for Generators”  Open collaboration between TSOs, DSOs and PV industry necessary  Redefinition of the interaction between DSOs and TSOs needed  The development in some European regions and countries shows that large- scale integration of PV is technically feasible without threatening security of supply. 245/23/2014
    • PV&RES grid integration A brief overview of current RTD&D projects in Europe  ECOGRID EU www.eu-ecogrid.net  metaPV www.metapv.eu  PV GRID http://www.pvgrid.eu  REserviceS www.reservices-project.eu  IGREENGrid www.igreengrid-fp7.eu  PV PARITY www.pvparity.eu  And numerous other national projects/demonstrators 2523.05.2014
    • 2623.05.2014 Thank you very much for your attention! Roland Bründlinger AIT Austrian Institute of Technology Giefinggasse 2, 1210 Wien, Austria roland.bruendlinger@ait.ac.at