2014 PV Distribution System Modeling Workshop: Hosting Capacity Analysis and New Screening Methods for PV: Jeff Smith, EPRI
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2014 PV Distribution System Modeling Workshop: Hosting Capacity Analysis and New Screening Methods for PV: Jeff Smith, EPRI

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2014 PV Distribution System Modeling Workshop: Hosting Capacity Analysis and New Screening Methods for PV: Jeff Smith, EPRI

2014 PV Distribution System Modeling Workshop: Hosting Capacity Analysis and New Screening Methods for PV: Jeff Smith, EPRI

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2014 PV Distribution System Modeling Workshop: Hosting Capacity Analysis and New Screening Methods for PV: Jeff Smith, EPRI 2014 PV Distribution System Modeling Workshop: Hosting Capacity Analysis and New Screening Methods for PV: Jeff Smith, EPRI Presentation Transcript

  • Jeff Smith Manager, Power System Studies PV Distribution System Modeling Workshop 5/6/2014 Hosting Capacity Analysis and New Screening Methods for PV Alternatives to the 15% (or 100%) Rule
  • 2© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Overview • Hosting capacity – What is it? – Typical hosting capacity – is there such a thing? • Screening feeders for potential issues? • Need for New Screening Methods – How effective are current methods? – How can the methods be refined? • Developing new screening methods – Feeder selection/clustering – Hosting Capacity Determinations – Screening Development and Validation
  • 3© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Detailed Hosting Capacity Analysis Brief Overview 1.035 1.04 1.045 1.05 1.055 1.06 1.065 1.07 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 MaximumFeederVoltage(Vpu) Total PV Penetraionof Deployment (MW) Minimum Hosting Capacity Maximum Hosting Capacity A B C Worst-CaseResultforEach UniquePVDeployment Increasing penetration (MW) Threshold of violation A – All penetrations in this region are acceptable, regardless of location B – Some penetrations in this region are acceptable, site specific C – No penetrations in this region are acceptable, regardless of location Details on Hosting Capacity Approach: Stochastic Analysis to Determine Feeder Hosting Capacity for Distributed Solar PV. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2012. 1026640. Feeder characteristics Location of PV Amount of PV How much PV a specific feeder can host
  • 4© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Detailed Hosting Capacity Analysis Sample Findings • Each feeder is found to have a unique hosting capacity for PV • Feeder characteristics determine issues that occur Research Details found here: Distributed Photovoltaic Feeder Analysis: Preliminary Findings from Hosting Capacity Analysis of 18 Distribution Feeders. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2013. 3002001245. 0 5 10 J1 R1 R2 R3 R4 T1 T2 G1 G2 G3 P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 D1 D2 D3 Large Scale Feeder All penetrations in this region are acceptable, regardless of location Some penetrations in this region are acceptable, site specific No penetrations in this region are acceptable, regardless of location
  • 5© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Detailed Hosting Capacity Analysis Can load be used to predict hosting capacity? 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 MinimumHostingCapacity(MW) Peak Load (MW) Not without knowledge of other feeder characteristics No correlation between hosting capacity and peak load
  • 6© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 J1 R1 R2 R3 R4 T1 T2 G1 G2 G3 P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 D1 D2 D3 MW Feeder MinimumHostingCapacity 100% of Daytime Minimum Load How Effective are Current Screening Practices? Keeping in mind, “screens” should be conservative by nature… 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 J1 R1 R2 R3 R4 T1 T2 G1 G2 G3 P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 D1 D2 D3 MW Feeder MinimumHostingCapacity 15% of MaximumLoad 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 J1 R1 R2 R3 R4 T1 T2 G1 G2 G3 P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 D1 D2 D3 MW Feeder MinimumHostingCapacity 100% of MinimumLoad 15% peak and 100% minimum load overestimates hosting capacity on some feeders Feeders at risk for PV to pass through screens without issues being flagged
  • 7© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. What feeder characteristics seem to matter most when predicting PV impacts? Voltage • Line regulators Impedance • PV location Initial analysis has shown that simplified methods can be used to estimate hosting capacity
  • 8© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Developing Alternatives to the 15% Screen (or new 100% screen) – CPUC/CSI3 Project • Overview – Use rigorous modeling to develop alternate simplified screening methods for PV interconnections – Sample wide range of feeder types • Team – EPRI, Sandia, NREL, SCE, PG&E, SDGE, ITRON • Timeline – End of 2014 Feeder Selection Hosting capacity Analysis Develop alternative screening methods Screening validation
  • 9© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Feeder Selection • Purpose of task – Determine the range of feeder configurations and characteristics for CA utilities – Select feeders from each range/cluster • Approach – Cluster 1000’s of feeders based upon topology – Identify 20 feeders for analysis application • 15 for detailed analysis • 5 for validation/verification
  • 10© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 22 Feeders Selected 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 miles Feeder Total 3-ph ckt miles 0 2 4 6 8 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 # Feeder Number of Regulators - 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 # Feeder Connected kVA 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 miles Feeder Total 2-ph and 1-ph ckt miles Voltage Class 4 12 16 21 33
  • 11© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Feeder Modeling • Detailed distribution models – Full three-phase – Test and control feeders • Work with participating utility to obtain base feeder data – Add secondary transformers and service drops – Incorporate time-series load data • Convert model to OpenDSS (open source) • Validate/verify model with measurement data Feeder Voltage Heat Map
  • 12© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Detailed Hosting Capacity Sample Results from 5 Feeders 0 2 4 6 8 10 P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 Small Consumer PV (MW) Feeder A – All penetrations in this region are acceptable, regardless of location B – Some penetrations in this region are acceptable, site specific C – No penetrations in this region are acceptable, regardless of location
  • 13© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Development of Screening Methods • Screening Method requirements – Ease of use – Based on readily available data – Conservative • Overall Approach – Develop screening methodology/approach using results from detailed hosting capacity analysis – Validate approach using control group of feeders and corresponding modeling and simulation results with measurement data New Screening Methods
  • 14© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Summary • Screening methods for DER need to evolve – Account for feeder-specific characteristics – Account for high-penetration scenarios • Detailed hosting capacity calculations – Have identified gaps in existing screening methods – Can be used as basis for new screening methods
  • 15© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Questions Contact: Jeff Smith Manager, Power System Studies EPRI jsmith@epri.com, +1.865.218.8069