2014 PV Distribution System Modeling Workshop: IEEE 1547a and 1547.1a: Removing the Barriers to Smart Inverters, Aminul Huque, EPRI

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2014 PV Distribution System Modeling Workshop: IEEE 1547a and 1547.1a: Removing the Barriers to Smart Inverters, Aminul Huque, EPRI

2014 PV Distribution System Modeling Workshop: IEEE 1547a and 1547.1a: Removing the Barriers to Smart Inverters, Aminul Huque, EPRI

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  • 1. Aminul Huque, PhD Project Manager, EPRI PV Distribution Systems Modeling Workshop Sandia/EPRI 2014 PV Systems Symposium May 6, 2014 IEEE 1547a and 1547.1a – Removing the Barriers to Smart Inverters
  • 2. 2© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Original context of IEEE1547-2003 Scope: Criteria and requirements for interconnection of distributed resources with electric power systems, up to 10MVA “DER Interconnection” • Deals with the relays, switchgear, grounding and interface issues that are specific to the DG at the DG site. • Generally did not address integration of DER at feeder level, in power system design, planning or grid operations.
  • 3. 3© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. IEEE 1547 Standards, Guides & Recommended Practices Source: Tom Basso, NREL; April 2014 1547-2008 Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems – WG meeting April 23-25, 2014 P1547a (Amendment 1; ballot recirculation 94% affirmation, at IEEE SASB May’14) 1547.1-2011 Conformance Test Procedures for Equipment Interconnecting DR with EPS – Reaffirmed in 2011 P1547.1a Amendment 1 – Initiated Aug 2013; planned ballot 2014 1547.2-2008 Application Guide for IEEE 1547 Standard for Interconnection of DR with EPS 1547.3-2007 Guide for Monitoring, Information Exchange and Control of DR 1547.4-2011 Guide for Design, Operation, & Integration of Distributed Resource Island Systems with EPS 1547.6-2011 Recommended Practice for Interconnecting DR with EPS Distribution Secondary Network 1547.7-2013 Guide to Conducting Distribution Impact Studies for DR Interconnection (published Dec 2013) P1547.8 Recommended Practice for Establishing Methods and Procedures that Provide Supplemental Support for Implementation Strategies for Expanded Use of IEEE Standard 1547 – planned ballot 2014
  • 4. 4© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. IEEE 1547a – Latest Status Full Description Amendment Standard - Unapproved Draft. This document provides a uniform standard for interconnection of distributed resources with electric power systems. It provides requirements relevant to the performance, operation, testing, safety considerations, and maintenance of the interconnection. This DRAFT standard is currently available for purchase from IEEE SA - Standards store: http://www.techstreet.com/ieee/products/vendor_id/5531
  • 5. 5© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Major Changes in IEEE 1547Amendment (1547a) • Voltage Regulation (section 4.1.1) • Response to Area EPS Abnormal conditions – Voltage (section 4.2.3) – Frequency (section 4.2.4)
  • 6. 6© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Voltage Regulation – Changes in Section 4.1.1. The DR shall not actively regulate the voltage at the PCC. Coordination with and approval of, the area EPS and DR operators, shall be required for the DR to actively participate to regulate the voltage by changes of real and reactive power. The DR shall not cause the Area EPS service voltage at other Local EPSs to go outside the requirements of ANSI C84.1-2011 1995, Range A.
  • 7. 7© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Impact of Voltage Regulation Changes DR will be allowed to actively participate in closed-loop voltage regulation. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 93% 94% 95% 96% 97% 98% 99% 100% 101% 102% 103% 104% 105% 106% 107% kW kVAR Voltage (% of Nominal) kVar (max) Nebland Inverter Settings kWVolt-Var Characteristics Voltage Regulation thru Volt-Var Function
  • 8. 8© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120% 99% 100% 101% 102% 103% 104% 105% 106% 107% 108% 109% 110% ActivePower(%Rated) Grid Voltage (V) Volt-Watt Function Inverter reducing power output in response to a voltage swell (108% VN) event 270 275 280 285 290 295 300 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Averageof3PhaseL-NVoltages(V) ActivePower(kW) Time (s) kW VLN
  • 9. 9© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Response to Area EPS Abnormal conditions Changes in Section “4.2.3 Voltage”: When any voltage is in a range given in Table 1, the DR shall cease to energize the Area EPS within the clearing time as indicated. Under mutual agreement between the EPS and DR operators, other static or dynamic voltage and clearing time trip settings shall be permitted. Clearing time is the time between the start of the abnormal condition and the DR ceasing to energize the Area EPS. For DR less than or equal to 30 kW 300 W in peak capacity, the voltage set points and clearing times shall be either fixed or field adjustable. For DR greater than 30 kW 300 W, the voltage set points and clearing times shall be field adjustable.
  • 10. 10© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Changes in “Table 1 – Response to Abnormal Voltages” IEEE 1547-2003 IEEE 1547a
  • 11. 11© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Response to Area EPS Abnormal conditions Changes in Section “4.2.4 Frequency”: When the system frequency is in a range given in Table 2, the DR shall cease to energize the Area EPS within the a pre-set clearing time as indicated. Under mutual agreement between the EPS and DR operators, other static or dynamic frequency and clearing time trip settings shall be permitted. Clearing time is the time between the start of the abnormal condition and the DR ceasing to energize the Area EPS. For DR less than or equal to 30 kW in peak capacity, the frequency set points and clearing times shall be either fixed or field adjustable. For DR greater than 30 kW, the frequency set points shall be field adjustable. The frequency and time set points in Table 2 shall be field adjustable. Adjustable under-frequency (UF) and over-frequency (OF) trip settings shall be coordinated with the Area EPS operations operator. DR settings for frequency response shall be coordinated with load shedding schemes of the Area EPS.
  • 12. 12© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Changes in “Table 2 – Response to Abnormal Frequency” IEEE 1547-2003 IEEE 1547a
  • 13. 13© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Low/High Voltage Ride Thru 1.0 0.6 1.2 0.8 100 10,0001,000 Duration [ms] Voltage[pu] 0.2 0.4 Ride-thru of a voltage sag event to 52% nominal with 15 cycle duration
  • 14. 14© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Power Modulation New Addition after Table 2 in Section 4.2.4: As mutually agreed upon by the area EPS and DR operators, DR shall be permitted to provide modulated power output as a function of frequency in coordination with functions UF1, UF2, OF1, and OF2. Operating parameters shall be specified when this function is provided. 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 50 50.25 50.5 50.75 51 51.25 51.5 InverterActiveOutputPower(kW) Frequency (Hz) Germany Retrofitting: 15,000 PV systems Sized 10kW+ 9 GW Nominal Power Over 3 – 4 years Costing €70 – 180 Million
  • 15. 15© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Inverter Grid Support Functions – Example Results 400sec reversion time 57.5 58 58.5 59 59.5 60 60.5 61 61.5 62 62.5 0 100000 200000 300000 400000 500000 600000 1 114 227 340 453 566 679 792 905 1018 1131 1244 1357 1470 1583 1696 1809 1922 2035 2148 2261 2374 2487 2600 2713 2826 2939 3052 3165 3278 3391 3504 3617 3730 3843 3956 4069 P[kW] Freq[Hzs] Volt-Var Function Frequency-Watt Function
  • 16. 16© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. IEEE 1547.1a – Update Scope of the project: This IEEE P1547.1a Amendment 1 establishes test regimens to verify interconnection systems conformance to IEEE Std 1547 Amendment 1 for voltage regulation, and response to area EPS abnormal conditions of voltage and frequency. Additionally, this P1547.1a may consider other testing changes that may be necessary in response to updates under the 1547 Amendment 1. Work in Progress:  New tests to verify that EUT changes its output of active power in response to overfrequency/ underfrequency events as specified by the manufacturer. The manufacturer shall specify the response characteristics.  If multiple characteristics are available, this test shall be performed with the most severe combination of characteristics of the available settings.  Voltage regulation tests − where the EUT responds to variations in voltage − verify EUT responds to manufacturer specified communicated commands and/or settings. −where the EUT responds to a time schedule
  • 17. 17© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. IEEE 1547 – Starting a Full Revision P1547 PAR Draft Title: IEEE Std. P1547 Draft Standard for Interconnection and Interoperability of Distributed Energy Resources with Associated Electric Power Systems Interfaces PAR Draft Scope: This standard establishes criteria and requirements for interconnection of distributed energy resources (DER) with electric power systems (EPS) and associated interfaces. PAR Draft Purpose: This document provides a uniform standard for the interconnection and interoperability of distributed energy resources (DER) with electric power systems (EPS). It provides requirements relevant to the interconnection and interoperability performance, operation and testing, and, safety, maintenance and security considerations.
  • 18. 18© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. IEEE 1547 Full Revision – 1st WG Meeting Highlights • Around 90 stakeholders joined the meeting – 50% plus were from utilities including NERC and FERC – 25% were from manufacturers – Remaining were testing labs, national labs, and consultants • Need for inclusion of abnormal voltage and frequency must ride thru in the standard was clearly expressed by majority – off course there were few exceptions • Different ride thru requirements for inverter and rotating machines? • Remove or increase the standard’s existing limitation to aggregate capacity of 10 MVA or less? • Need for control, in addition to monitoring provision (for 250MVA and larger), beyond certain size (yet to be addressed) ? • Revision is considering inclusion to two type tests – Short circuit & loss of load behavior test • Next meeting (tentative) – June 24-25: 1547.1a & 26-27: Full rev. of 1547 – Most likely again in Las Vegas
  • 19. 19© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Conclusion • IEEE is moving, but likely way to slow….and without the grid operators at the table • NERC is on top of transmission level issues, because of wind, but IVGTF document is for 20MVA size, with discussion to also applied to 10MVA to mate up with IEEE that is up to 10MVA • But, NERC/FERC (SGIP) are still interstate jurisdiction, not really aimed at distributed resources of the smaller variety. And, ultimately states will have jurisdiction over local generation • Efforts like CA Rule 21, may provide a good path to stay ahead of variable generation deployments. (just need 49 more states)
  • 20. Together…Shaping the Future of Electricity