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The Organizational Culture Perspective (J. Steven Ott)
Organizational Culture Perspective Organizational culture is like air. It cannot be touched, felt or seen.
The Essence and Functions of Organizational Culture
11. SymbolsSigns that connote meanings greater than themselves and expressmuch more than their intrinsic content. (Example: word, phrase,policy, logo, flag, building, office, seating arrangement, etc.)
2. ArtifactsMaterial and nonmaterialobjects and patterns thatintentionally or unintentionallycommunicate informationabout the organization’stechnology, beliefs, values,assumptions and ways of doingthings. (Example: annualreports, internal memos,brochures, jargon, acronyms,metaphors, stories, jokes,myths, heroes, ceremonies andcelebrations) Lee Iacocca
3. Patterns of BehaviorRoutinized activities which cause members to continue to do things, suchas rites, rituals, and behavioral norms, which through repetitioncommunicate information about the organization’s technology, beliefs,values, assumptions and ways of doing things. (Example: managementpractices as holding staff meetings, training, conducting performancereviews, etc.)
4. Beliefs and Values Hard Quality Work CommitmentBeliefs are consciously held, cognitive (mental) views about truth andreality. Values are conscious, affective (emotion-laden) desires or wants.(Example: Ethical and moral codes, ideologies)
5. Basic Underlying Assumptions Lee Iacocca A Transformational LeaderComprehensive, potent, but out-of-conscious system of beliefs,perceptions and values. (Example: view of customers, competitors,openness to technology)
Organizational Culture:Concepts, Definitions and a Typology
Culture is a Concept not a ThingIt is created in peoples’ minds – it must be conjured up, defined and refined. There is no final authoritative source or experiment to settle disagreements about it is and what comprises it.
Culture is not something an Organization has…. Culture is something an Organization is.
Culture as a PuzzleOrganizational Culture is not just another piece of the puzzle, it isthe puzzle. (Pacanowsky & O’Donnell-Trijillo, 1983)
Culture is not just Structural ElementsIt is also a DYNAMIC process – a social construction that isundergoing continual reconstruction.
A Typology Level 1A ArtifactsSchein’s three levelmodel provides the Level 1 Bmost useful TYPOLOGY Patterns of Behaviorpublished to date forclassifying elements ofOrganizational Culture Level 2:into usable groupings. ValuesSeparating Level 1 intoLevel 1A (artifacts) andLevel 1B (patterns ofbehavior) appears to Level 3: Basic Assumptionsmake it even moreuseful.
A Functional Definition for Culture.. Social force that controls patterns of organizational behavior by shaping members’ cognitions and perceptions of meanings and realities, providing affective energy for mobilization, and identifying who belongs and who does not.
Culture provides shared patterns of cognitiveinterpretations or perceptions, so team membersknow how they are expected to act and think.
Culture provides shared patterns of affect, anemotional sense of involvement and commitment toorganizational values and moral codes, so teammembers know what they are expected to value andhow they are expected to think.
Culture defines and maintains boundaries,allowing identification of members and non-members.
Culture functions as an organizational controlsystem, prescribing and prohibiting certainbehaviors.
Origins, Development, and Perpetuation of Organizational Culture
Origins or Sources of Organizational Culture Broader Societal The Impacts Culture of Founder(s) Nature of the Business or Business EnvironmentEvery organizational culture is the unique result of a composite blending of these three sources. They are not independent of each other.
OrganizationalCultures tend to bequite STABLE, theydo not remainSTATIC
Organizational Cultures have DEEP ROOTS.. and they developover long periods of time throughcomplex individual and group mechanisms.
How Culture Tends to Perpetuate Itself1. Pre-selection and hiring of new members 3. Removal of 2. Socialization of CULTURE Members who Members Deviate 6. CULTURAL Vijay 4. BEHAVIOR COMMUNICATIONS Sathe’s Six Step Model 5. JUSTIFICATION OF BEHAVIOR