The foundations and future of organization development (od)
THE FOUNDATIONS AND FUTUREOF ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT Presented by Sandhya Johnson
Discussion TopicsIntroduction Defining Organization Development Characteristics and Values of ODSection I – Foundations of Organization Development Origins of OD The system aspects of OD Timeline and contributions of key OD ThinkersSection II – Future Directions of Organization Development Contrasting Diagnostic and Dialogic Organization Development A “new” OD – Implications for the OD fieldConcluding Thoughts
Defining Organization Development Theorist Definition WHAT HOW WHY WHOBeckhard (1969) An effort (1) planned, (2) organization-wide, (3) managed from the top, Planned effort, Using behavioral To increase Managed from to increase organizational effectiveness and health through (5) planned organization- science knowledge organizational the top interventions in the organization’s processes using behavioral science wide effectiveness and knowledge interventions healthCole (1973) Organization development is the knowledge and skill necessary to Program of Using behavioral To build greater implement a program of planned change using behavioral science planned change science concepts organizational concepts for the purpose of building greater organizational effectiveness effectivenessBurke (1982) Organization development is a long-range effort to improve an Long-range Assistance of a To improve an organization’s problem solving and renewal processes, particularly effort change agent, or organization’s problem through a more effective and collaborative management of an catalyst, and the use solving and renewal organization’s culture, with special emphasis on the culture of formal of the theory and processes, through a work teams, and with the assistance of a change agent, or catalyst, technology of more effective and and the use of the theory and technology of behavioral science, behavioral science, collaborative including action research including action management of an research organization’s culture, with special emphasis on the culture of formal work teamsFrench & Bell (1999) Organization development is a long-term effort, led and supported by Long-range using the consultant- to improve an Led and top management, to improve an organization’s visioning, effort facilitator role and organization’s supported by empowerment, learning, and problem-solving processes, through an the theory and visioning, top ongoing, collaborative management of organization culture-with special technology of empowerment, management emphasis on the culture of intact work teams and other team applied behavioral learning, and problem- configurations – using the consultant-facilitator role and the theory and science, including solving processes technology of applied behavioral science, including action research action researchBradford, Burke, Organization development is a system-wide and values-based system-wide and applying behavioral adaptive development, collaborativeSeashore, & Worley collaborative process of applying behavioral science knowledge to the values-based science knowledge improvement, and(2004) adaptive development, improvement, and reinforcement of such process reinforcement of such organizational features as the strategies, structures, processes, organizational features people, and cultures that lead to organizational effectiveness as the strategies, structures, processes, people, and cultures that lead to organizational effectivenessWarrick, D. D. (2005) Organization development from the view of the Experts, in Rothwell, W J and Sullivan, Roland (pages 164-186).
Characteristics and Values of Organization Development Warrick (2005) from his research on OD identified the following 13 characteristics and 15 values of OD Characteristics of OD Values of OD 1. Recognizes what you change and how you change as 1. Development equally important and emphasizes health, effectiveness, 2. Professionalism and adaptability of an organization. 3. Helping people and organizations 2. OD can be used with all sizes of organizations and at all 4. Respect to all individuals levels of an organization 5. Inclusion, collaboration and participation 3. Recognizes the dynamic process of change and that 6. Open , honest and candid communications change takes time and quick fix solutions rarely last. 7. Authenticity 4. Approaches change from systems or big picture 8. Inquiry perspective and considers interrelatedness of various 9. Community systems and components. 10. Diversity 5. OD is an interdisciplinary approach and draws heavily 11. Personal and organization awareness, growth from behavioral science knowledge. and learning 6. OD is data driven. 12. Experimentation 7. OD uses action research process and involves key stake 13. Creating a realistic hope holders. 14. Integrity 8. OD is typically facilitated by professionally trained change 15. Confidentiality agents who believe in helping others to discover solutions to their own issues than dictating what should be done. 9. OD is a value driven approach that seeks to instill values and build cultures that bring out the best in people. 10. OD is collaborative top down and bottom up process. 11. OD is an education based strategy. 12. OD is committed to transference of knowledge and skills 13. OD emphasizes the importance of reliable feedback in monitoring and managing the change process.Warrick, D. D. (2005) Organization development from the view of the Experts, in Rothwell, W J and Sullivan, Roland (pages 164-186).
SECTION IThe Foundations of Organization Development
Origins of OD Timeline OD started with small groups and action research as a means for creating organizational change. This was followed by an emphasis on changing the individual and leadership. Finally there was recognition that change had to be done with taking the whole system into account both internally and externally. This is how the field presents itself today.Rothwell, W. J. and Sullivan,Rolland (2005), Practicing Organization Development: A Guide for Consultants, Second edition, San Francisco, Pfeiffer, John Wiley and Sons.
Linking the System Characteristics of Healthy Organizations to Organization Development efforts Conceptualizing Characteristics of Healthy Characteristics of OD efforts Operational Goals of OD Conditions that call for OD Organizations as Systems Organizations effortsOpen System Organization and its parts There is a planned To develop a self- Incomplete(composed of several parts, interact with each other and program involving the renewing viable system understanding of thewhich are in interaction with with a larger environment. whole system multiple causes of aone another) Organization maintains integrity Goals are related to the problem and uniqueness in an organization’s mission Need to change cultural interdependent environment normsBoundaries Form follows function (the OD efforts work primarily To organize itself Coping with a problem(permeable boundaries from problem, or task, or project with groups differently depending on after a merger orwhich energy, matter, or determines how the human the task acquisitioninformation are exchanged) resources are organized) Need to change structure and roles Improve inter-group collaborationFeedback Mechanisms Communication is undistorted. Usually relies on some To build in continuous Need to change(Various parts or components People share facts including form of experienced-based feedback regarding the managerial strategyadjust to other parts or feelings learning activities way a system or Need to make thecomponents) Individuals and groups learn Activities are action subsystem is operating organizational climate from their own experiences oriented To reach a point where more consistent with decisions are made individual needs and based on the source of the needs of the information rather than environment roleEntropy Individuals manage their work Focuses on changing To create conditions is Change in motivation of(running down of the system if against goals and plans for attitudes and/or behavior brought out and managed the workforcesources of energy are not achievement of these goals Need for better planningmaintained – i.e. human effort Constant efforts exist at alland motivation) levels to resolve conflict situationsHomeostasis (maintains An internal climate of support It is a long-term effort To move toward high Adaptation to newinternal balances when faced and freedom from threat The top of the organization collaboration and low environmentwith internal / external threats) is committed to the competition between program interdependent units
Timeline of Key OD Thinkers FIRST WAVE SECOND WAVE (Pioneers) 1940 - 1959 1960 - 1979 1980 -1999 2000 - Current Eric Trist Kurt Lewin David Harrison Cooperrider Owen Appreciative Open Socio- Laboratory Inquiry Space Technical Training Systems Rensis Edgar Likert Schein Marvin Weisbord The Survey Tavistock Feedback Group Future Method Process SearchWilfred Bion Consultation Winner 2011: Outstanding Global work Award (OD Network)
Contributions of Key OD Thinkers FIRST WAVE SECOND WAVE (Pioneers) 1. David Cooperrider (Appreciative Inquiry):1. Kurt Lewin (Laboratory Training): A method that looks at the positive aspects of “what is First laboratory-training sessions working” in the organization through storytelling and The concept of T-groups (“here-and-now” sessions) extrapolates from these stories the “more” that is needed to Small group trainings initially called “sensitivity sustain the positive into the future. Combines data collection training sessions,” designed to sensitize participants with large-group meetings where the stories gathered are to the forces of group dynamics (like decision making used as building blocks to design new initiatives for the and conflict resolution) future.2. Wilfred Bion (Tavistock Method): 2. Edgar Schein (Process Consultation): Presented the notion that when the leader fails to Indicates that consultants should ask the following questions take responsibility for the group’s output, participants about communication in the team: (1) who communicates? will predictably react to the authority figure with one How often? For how long? (2) Who communicates to whom? of three behavioral options – fight, flight, or pairing. (3) Who talks to whom? Who interrupts whom? When the leader takes responsibility, the participants are more likely to respond with a fourth option that 3. Marvin Weisbord (Future Search): Bion called work. Planning meeting that helps people transform their capability for action very quickly. People tell stories about their past,3. Eric Trist (Socio-Technical Systems): present and desired future. Through dialogue they discover An organization is simultaneously a social (i.e. their common ground. Only then do they make concrete people who interact) and a technical system (those action plans. systems that produce something tangible). 4. Harrison Owen (Open Space Technology):4. Rensis Likert (Survey Research and Feedback): Comes from research dealing with self-organization, Demonstrated how information can be collected from complex adaptive systems, etc. members of an organization and used as the basis Participant chairs arranged in a circle; a "bulletin board" of for participative problem solving and action planning issues and opportunities posted by participants; a Advocated pursuit of a norm for organizational "marketplace" with many breakout spaces that participants functioning (System 4) that has since prompted move freely between, learning and contributing as they others to pursue similar norms for organizations. "shop" for information and ideas; a "breathing" or "pulsation" pattern of flow, between plenary and small-group breakout sessions.
SECTION II Future Directions ofOrganization Development
Contrasting Diagnostic and Dialogic Organization Development DIAGNOSTIC OD DIALOGIC OD Influenced by Classical science, positivism, and Interpretive approaches, social modernist philosophy constructionism, critical and postmodern philosophy Dominant organizational construct Organizations are like living systems Organizations are meaning-making systems Ontology and epistemology Reality is an objective fact Reality is socially constructed There is a single reality There are multiple realities Truth is transcendent and Truth is immanent and emerges from discoverable the situation Reality can be discovered using Reality is negotiated and may involve rational and analytic processes power and political processes Constructs of Change Usually teleological Often dialogical or dialectical Collecting and applying valid data Creating containers and processes to using objective and problem-solving produce generative ideas leads to methods leads to change change Change can be created, planned, and Change can be encouraged but is managed mainly self-organizing Change is episodic, linear, and goal Change may be continuous and/or oriented cyclical Focus of Change Emphasis on changing behavior and Emphasis on changing mindsets and what people do what people thinkBushe, G. and Marshak, R.J. (2009). “Revisioning organization development: Diagnostic and dialogic premises and patterns of practices.”Journal of Applied Behavioral Science. Volume 45 (3)
Kegan’s Orders of Consciousness STAGE SUBJECT OBJECT UNDERLYING (Structure of Knowing) (Content of Knowing) STRUCTURE 1 Perceptions Movement Single point SOCIAL PERCEPTIONS Sensation Impulses 2 Concrete Perceptions Durable category POINT OF VIEW SOCIAL PERCEPTIONS Enduring Dispositions Impulses 3 Abstractions Concrete Cross categorical / Traditional Trans-categorical MUTUALITY/INTERPERSONALISM Relationship POINT OF VIEW Self-consciousness Enduring Dispositions 4 Abstract Systems / Ideology Abstractions System / Complex Modernism INSTITUTION Relationship-Regulating Forms MUTUALITY/INTERPERSONALISM Relationship Self-authorship Self-consciousness 5 Dialectical Abstract Systems / Ideology Trans-System / Trans-Post-Modernism complex INTER-INSTITUTIONAL INSTITUTION Relationship-Regulating Forms Self-transformation Self-authorship Kegan, R. (1994). In over our heads: The mental demands of modern life. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
The Five Orders of OrganizationsEvolution of Organization Team Individual Leadership UnderlyingOrganizations Level Level Level Level AssumptionsFirst order Organization is Individualistic Obedience Autocratic / Price is the competitiveOrganizations secondary Command-and- advantage control (Do as I say)Second order Mechanistic, Work groups Loyalty Bureaucratic Product is theOrganizations scientific (Follow the rules) competitive advantage management view of organizationsThird Order Organization is a Intergroup relations Involvement Task Leader People are theOrganizations system (Here is what to do competitive advantage and how to do it)Fourth Order Organization is a Intercompany Engagement Facilitator Processes, Structures,Organizations system of relationships (You are and cutting edge systems empowered) technology are key to the success of an organizationFifth Order Organization is a Geographically Agility Builder of learning PredictiveOrganizations dynamic web of dispersed team / organization (Here Capabilities i.e. complex systems Virtual teams is our purpose and Customer / market direction – I will intimacy and innovation guide and coach) are the main drivers of organizational success
Mapping OD approach and Methodologies to Order of OrganizationsOrders of Type of Type of OD Approach OD Methodology Level of ChangeOrganization OrganizationsFirst order N/A N/A N/A Change is not viewed asOrganizations desirableSecond order Mechanistic, Foundational OD: Values collaborative decision T-groups, task-oriented team Incremental (moderateOrganizations scientific making, giving people in groups the opportunity to development and other single adjustments to an individual management freely make informed choices cycle action research projects or group) view of that focus on a group of organizations individualsThird Order Organization as Diagnostic OD: Data is gathered to compare a Survey feedback, Socio-technical Transactional / EvolutionaryOrganizations an open or living given team or organization against a prescriptive systems analysis, Process (Re-engineering and system model or desired future state. Consultation, and other reinventing current diagnostic models that assume organization-wide activities) there are optimal kinds of organization-environment fitFourth Order Organization is a Dialogic OD: Data is gathered and used for the Search Conferences (M. Emery Transitional (significantOrganizations system of purposes of presenting multiple possibilities and & Purser, 1996), Future Search change establishing a new systems perspectives than bringing objective “facts” to bear (Weisbord, 1993), World Café organizational direction) on the situation or producing an objective (Brown & Issacs, 2005), Open diagnosis against an ideal model to change Space (Owen, 2008), behaviors. Instead the greater emphasis is on Appreciative Inquiry reaching new social agreements or adopting new (Cooperrider, 1995), mindsets and, therefore, new realities to guide future actions.Fifth Order Organization is a Expanded Dialogic OD: Objective data is combined Emerging – still to be developed Transformational (dynamicOrganizations dynamic web of with unique insights into unexpressed needs to and quantum change complex systems drive innovation and create new organizational establishing a new models. Unanticipated opportunities are seized organizational direction, nimbly. possibly including creating or recreating completely new business models)
Reflections on the Future of Organization Development THEME DEFINITION… THE FIELD NEEDS… PERCENTAGE OF INTERVIEWEES Less reliance on fads and techniques To rely a lot less on techniques and jumping on the latest fad 48 Collaboration within the field To do more bridging among different stakeholders within the 43 social sciences and a lot more working together Relevant approaches to change Approaches to change that add value and are relevant to the 43 organization and its members Personal and group development A lot more emphasis on individual and group-related interventions 43 OR a lot less emphasis on these Large systems focus A larger system focus 38 Understanding of organization A lot more values work OR needs to drop the whole values issue 33 development’s value orientations More business knowledge To incorporate more business knowledge in its thinking 29 Taking a stance To take a stand on issues in organizations and with client systems 24 and be less wishy-washy More understanding of self as Individuals with a lot more understanding of who they are and 19 instrument their motivation for doing this work Generating new ideas To develop new ideas and new ways of looking at organizations 14 Action learning To create methods and processes that promote learning 14 Working with power To learn to work with or against power in a system 9 Global competency To address cross-cultural and global issues 9Worley, C.G. & Feyerherm A.E. (2003) Reflections on the future of organizational development. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, Volume 39, 97–115.
In the Future, OD Practitioners Must….. THEME Definition Percentage of interviewees Large system fluency Understand and work with large systems, including large organizations and 43 large groups of people Consulting is saying the tough stuff Have the mind-set and ability to handle rejection and deliver tough messages to 33 client Ability to design Have the ability to understand how to design and redesign systems 28 Power and influence Be comfortable with power and using influence 24 Business Orientation Have more skills and knowledge about business and a line management 24 orientation Broad understanding Have a broader understanding of the world 24 Systems thinking Understand the way systems work and behave 24 Evaluate and research Have better research and evaluation skills 19 The necessity of practice / Have more experience and fieldwork before they practice 19 experience Self-knowledge and exploration Have a solid understanding of their “self” and focus on their personal growth 19 Ability to deeply understand an Have better diagnostic skills that get behind the issues into important, deep, and 14 organization subtle aspects of the organization Developing new models of change Have better models and new ideas about how organizations work and change 14 and organization Considering multiple viewpoints Consider contrasting, conflicting, and cross-cultural perspectives 14 Ability to bring people together Be better at pulling people together for a common purpose 14 Core knowledge about the field Have a good knowledge about the field of organization development 14Worley, C.G. & Feyerherm A.E. (2003) Reflections on the future of organizational development. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, Volume 39, 97–115.
Concluding ThoughtsOrganizational Development is practitioner driven The discipline of physics has not abandoned classical Newtonian principles of the physical world in favor of the modern principles of quantum physics. Instead, physicists recognize the utility of both sets of principles for different levels of analysis. Likewise, the discipline of Organizational Development recognizes the importance of having a diverse set of tools and methodologies to address a wide range of organizational needs. OD consultants need to recognize the order of the organization and employ methodologies and tools to more fully round out understanding of the phenomenon at hand.