The Marvin Weisbord Six-Box Model (Weisbord’s Model)The six-box model is a framework developed bythe American analyst Marvin Weisbord to assessthe functioning of organizations. It is a genericframework and is intended for use across a widevariety of organizations.The six-box model is comprised of the followingcomponents (boxes):1. Purposes: What businesses are we in?2. Structure: How do we divide up the work?3. Relationships: How do we manage conflict (coordinate) among people? With our technologies?4. Rewards: Is there an incentive for doing all that needs doing?5. Leadership: Is someone keeping the boxes in balance?6. Helpful mechanisms: Have we adequate coordinating technologies? *Based on Marvin R. Weisbord, “Organizational Diagnosis: Six Places to Look for Trouble with or without a Theory,” Group & Organization Studies 1, 4 (December 1976): 430-447.
Open Systems Model This model describes the interrelationships between individuals, groups, and organizations by investigating three characteristics: 1.Unity: refers to integrated wholeness or coherence, which enables adaptability 2.Internal responsiveness: refers to openness and interchange within the system 3.External responsiveness refers to openness and interchange with the environmentMink, O., Shultz, J., & Mink, B. (1979). Developing and managing open organizations: A model and methods for maximizingorganizational potential. Austin, TA.: Learning Concepts.
Causal Model of Organizational Performance & Change(Burke & Litwin Model)This model provides a framework to assessorganizational and environmental dimensions thatare keys to successful change and it demonstrateshow these dimensions should be linked causally toachieve a change in performance. The model revolves around 12 organizationaldimensions:1. External environment2. Mission and strategy3. Leadership4. Organizational culture5. Structure6. Management practices7. Systems8. Work unit climate9. Task and individual skills10. Individual needs and values11. Motivation12. Individual and organizational performanceThe model also distinguishes betweentransformational and transactional organizationaldynamics in organizations.Burke, W., & Litwin, G. 1992. A causal model of organizational performance and change. Journal of Management, 18: 523-545.
The Seven-S Model The 7-S framework describes 7 key interdependent organizational variables that need to be taken into account in organizational design. It forces practitioners to think not only about the "hardware“ of an organization - its strategy and structure – but also about the "software" - its management style, systems and procedures, staff, skills and shared values ( i.e. culture). The 7-S model has proved to be a useful tool for analyzing internal issues within an organization. However, it does not take into account the impact of the external environment on these 7 variables.Pascale, R. T. & Athos, A. G. (1981). The art of Japanese management: Applications for American executives. New York, NY: Simon &Schuster.Peters, T. J. & Waterman, R. H. (1982). In search of excellence: Lessons from America’s best-run companies. New York, NY: Harper & Row.
Organizational Intelligence ModelThis Model depicts a top-down causalchain, making some tentative assertionswith respect to cause and effect. Thevariables in the upper part of the model(such as environmental inputs) affect theorganization from the outside.Within the organization, the strategicdrivers (e.g., leadership, strategy, andculture) affect key indices that representorganizational climate, capability, andexecution. These include theorganization’s structure andadaptability, effectiveness and quality ofthe direct manager, and rewards andgrowth opportunities, among otherfactors. These latter internal factors inturn influence employee engagement andperformance. Falletta, S. V. (2008). Organizational intelligence surveys. Training & Development, June, 52-58.