4. Basic Assumptions of a Developmental Psychobiological Perspective Gottlieb’s Bidirectional Model1. Planes of Action: An organism exists simultaneously at a number of planes of action – from the level of the gene, to the level of the cell, to that of organs and then organ systems, and finally to the level of individual.2. Characteristics of development: All levels or planes of activity adhere to the same set of defining characteristics – i.e. change at any level is irreversible, developing systems are active, organisms develop. Successive reorganizations is called stages.
5. Gesell’s Maturation Theory of Human Development1. Human development as an “order of nature” – a sequence of changes or maturations regulated by a genetically defined timetable2. The key element is biological structure – in particular, the structure of the nervous system3. The role of the environment is to support and nurture. When the child is ready for new experience, the environment had to be ready to provide them (readiness)4. Developmental Principles:  Principle of developmental direction: motor development moves along three gradients: cephalo to caudal, proximal-to-distal, ulnar-to-radial  Principle of reciprocal interweaving: course of development resembles a spring or helix  Principle of functional asymmetry: in some case asymmetry rather than symmetry is the preferred, more adaptive, developmental outcome  Principle of individuating maturation  Principle of self regulatory fluctuation
6. McGraw’s Growth Theory of Human Development1. Three factors must be considered when viewing long-term stability of early intervention efforts:  Degree of fixity: critical periods in development  Degree to which physical changes in the developing child facilitate or hinder the subsequent expression of initial behavior  Changes in children’s attitudes1. Findings: (a) it is possible to alter typical behavior patterns, (b) the long-term permanence of such changes reflects the interplay of a number of developmental systems2. Development is bidirectional process in which structure and function mutually influence each other
7. Thelen’s Dynamic Systems TheoryDevelopment is multi-determined• there is not 1 element in the system that controls developmentalchange• behavior is the result of many elements interacting through time– stepping reflex depends on interaction of muscle strength, leg weight,etc.Development is softly assembled• the elements of a behavioral system can interact in many different waysdepending on the task, context, etc.– stepping reflex appears and disappears depending on whether theinfant is in water, is wearing leg weights, etc.Development is non-linear• the elements of a behavioral system often interact in non-linear ways• small change in one element leads to big changes in behavior– add a small amount of weight to infants’ legs, stepping disappears (bigchange in behavior)
8. Edelman’s Dynamic Systems TheoryAccording to Edelman’s theory, the primary repertoire responds when the message towhich it is susceptible is received. Such receipt causes the neuron group to emit its ownsignal, which is recognized in turn by a second level of neural groups called the "secondarybrain repertoire."Consciousness arises when impulses and patterns generated by the secondary repertoireare cycled around and fed back in as fresh input for other units in the secondary repertoire.While the primary system only responds to direct sensory data from the outside, thesecondary system can also respond to internally-generated data as if it were externally-generated. This self-monitoring effect gives rise to human consciousness because it allows areview of internal states. In other words, the brain can watch itself work.
10. Piaget’s Development Perspective1. There is a cumulative dimension to subject / object interactions2. It is difficult to clearly distinguish actions on objects in the real world from actions on objects in consciousness3. We come to know something only by acting on it4. Knowledge is never a perfect carbon copy of reality (an approximation which increasingly comes to resemble objective reality as individuals become more competent)
11. Causal Factors in Piaget’s TheoryThree factors:1.Maturation (sets a significant upper limit on development)2.Experience with the social world3.Experience with the physical world
12. The Two Sides of Piaget’s Constructivist Theory1. The Functional Side  Adaptation: two complementary processes: assimilation (interpreting new experiences in the context of previous knowledge, i.e. create schema) and accommodation (to resolve cognitive conflict, make a change – i.e. change schema because it doesn’t fit)  Organization: Efforts to adapt are interconnected in a systematic fashion1. The Structural Side  Schemes (generalized action patterns)  Cognitive operations (action in a mental representation)  Groupings (combinativity, associativity, identity, and reversibility)
13. Stage 1: Birth to 6 weeks – ReflexesStage 2: 6 weeks to 4-5 months – Primary circular reactionStage 3: 4-5 months to 9 months – Secondary circular reactionStage 4: 9 months to 12 months – Object PermanenceStage 5: 12 months to 18 months: tertiary circular reactionStage 6: 18 months to 24 months: Beginnings of symbolic thought
14. NEO-PIAGETIAN PERSPECTIVESKurt Fischer, Gisela Labouvie-Vief, William Damon
15. Fischer’s Skill Theory1. Fischer’s sequences are markers of the development of skills.2. Four Tiers: Reflex, Sensori- motor, representational, and abstract3. Each tier is in turn defined in terms of four levels  Single Point: Demonstrate the skill to control specific actions  Mappings: the ability to integrate and differentiate specific actions  Systems: skills are coordinated into systems
16. Labouvie-Vief’s Theory of Adult Development1. Offers an extension of Piaget’s theory into the adult years2. Young adults reports are characterized as reflecting a “goal oriented individual whose evaluations are guided by achievement-oriented and conventional goals, values, and roles.3. Development across the adult years reflects an individual’s ability to reunite the dualities of mind and self. This takes place over a 5 step sequence:  Concrete-presystemic level (behavioral action and psychological states)  Interpersonal-protosystemic level (relationships and networks)  Institutional-intrasystemic level (coordination of action and states)  Contextual-intersystemic level (personal desire and institutional constraints)  Dynamic inter-subjective (change & transformation)
17. Damon’s Moral Goals Model1. William Damon’s early research was focused on children’s understanding of moral issues such as friendship, equity, and authority. This was followed by work looking at children’s concept of self-understanding, and more recently, his work has focused on moral development during the adult years. He focuses on the interplay between thought and action.2. Damon’s findings with respect to children’s understanding of positive justice and obedience shows there is a developmental progression in these 2 moral issues3. Damon’s two dimensions of self-understanding are the self-as- subject and the self-as-object
18. The Psychodynamic Models of Freud & Erikson
19. Freud’s Stages ofPsychosexual Development
20. Freud’s – Id, Ego, and Superego 1. Superego – arises out of the ego to deal with the child’s acceptance of the expectations of others as a regulator of his/her behavior. Recall easily available. 2. Ego – emerged from the ID as a way to cope with conflicts arising from the power struggles. Recall difficult. 3. ID – purpose is to gain pleasures, reduce tension. Recall impossible.
21. Erik Erikson’s EpigeneticModel of Development
22. Erik Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial DevelopmentMore similarity to Piaget than Freud. However, Erikson’s observations take place at many levels.