Human development in perspective dale goldhaer (part i)
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Human development in perspective dale goldhaer (part i)

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  • Accounting Theory (6 th edition) Wolk, Dodd and Tearney Copyright 2004 Chapter 2 Accounting Theory and Accounting Research This is a modification of a model
  • Accounting Theory (6 th edition) Wolk, Dodd and Tearney Copyright 2004 Chapter 2 Accounting Theory and Accounting Research This is a modification of a model

Transcript

  • 1. Theories of Human Development Integrative Perspectives Dale Goldhaer
  • 2. The Value of Theories  A means to categorize data, make comparisons, and identify patterns  A way to generalize about specific understandings & recognize links  A basis for decision making  A means for predicting future events  To define the next question to askpp. 2
  • 3. The Validity of Theories 1. Testability 2. Organization 3. Generativity 4. Precisionpp. 3
  • 4. Deductive vs. Inductive DEDUCTIVE INDUCTIVE General General Observe Interpret Ask Ask Test Test Analyze Analyze Interpret Observe Particular Particularpp. 3
  • 5. The Construction of Theories
  • 6. Three Developmentalists Worldviews 1. Mechanistic Worldview (metaphor: machine) 2. Organismic Worldview (metaphor: living organism)Stephen Pepper (1961) 3. Contextualist Worldview (metaphor: historical act)
  • 7. Comparison of Pepper’s Three World Views World View Generalizability Types of Level of Analysis Acceptable Causes (Is the data a reflection (What causes us to be (How do the causes of development for all the way we are?) relate to one another?) times & in all places?)Mechanism Universal Efficient, material Reductionist(How we are)Organicism Universal Efficient, material, Holistic(Why we are) formal, finalContextualism Situation-Specific Efficient, material, Holistic(What we are) formalEfficient causes: External to the individualMaterial causes: specific, internal components that make up the individualFormal causes: influence of the interaction of the parts of a systemFinal causes: there is a reason development seems unidirectional
  • 8. How We Are – The Mechanist World View Chapter 2 Dale Goldhaer
  • 9. Pepper’s Analysis1. Primary qualities (“real events”):  Each of the components exist independently of the others, and this existence can be expressed in precise quantitative terms  Each of the elements exist in particular relationship to other elements  The components function in an exact quantitative relationship with one another1. Secondary qualities (“epiphenomena”)  Relateto mental phenomena – sensations, perceptions, feelings, hopes, and dreams. They are not seen as amendable to scientific analysis and therefore they have no relevance to the efficient operation of the machine
  • 10. Mechanism as a Development Perspective1. The separation of observation and behavior (stimuli with responses)2. The discovery of universal laws (all behavior is regulated by the same factors and comprise the same basic elements)3. The independence of antecedent conditions (causes of behavior)4. The integration of human development with other scientific disciplines (unity-of-science position)
  • 11. The Study of Behavioral Change from a Mechanistic World View1. Methods of group data collection: controlled experimental designs to collect behavioral data2. Methods of group data analysis: Statistical procedure is used to analyze data.3. Method of single-subject data collection and analysis: Skinnerians prefer single-subject procedure
  • 12. Summary of the Mechanistic World View1. Behavior and behavior change are naturally occurring, universal, lawful phenomena2. It is possible to use objective, neutral empirical research strategies to study these phenomena3. Behavior and behavioral change are caused by one or more material and/or efficient causes4. The influence of each efficient and/or material cause can be known independent of all others5. The process of behavioral change over time is best understood as a quantitative process involving the increasing complexity of a set of basic elements common to all age groups
  • 13. Key Words Prediction  Independent Stability  Interindividual variability Universality Linear Relationships Reductionist Empirical
  • 14. Why We Are – The Organismic World View Chapter 3 Dale Goldhaer
  • 15. Pepper’s Analysis1. Development as integrative change  For mechanists, change comes when an external force acts upon an object that is inherently at rest. For organicists, behavioral change is inherent in the living organism rather than externally driven  Both mechanism and contextualism focus on their analyses on observable phenomena, while organicism focuses on what is seen as the underlying process regulating these observable phenomena  Organicists view that development is directional. One can develop but not “undevelop”1. The Dialectical process  Each integration brings the organism that much closer to a theoretical idealized state in which all fragments are united and harmonized.  There is no guarantee that any individual will ever reach his or her development end point. The only guarantee is directionality.
  • 16. Organicism as a Development Perspective1. A process occurring on a unique plane or level of action  Positioning of an abstraction, a psychological plane of action. Nothing else appears theoretically capable of explaining as well the patterns of behavior and behavioral change that occur over a life span1. An active process  Behavior is reflection of an active process of construction taking place within an organized set of psychological structures  Behavior can never be fully predictable1. A directional process  Development sequence is purposeful/ the purpose is adaptation  They document development sequence in terms of developmental stages
  • 17. The Study of Behavioral Change from a Organismic World View1. Detailed clinical investigation of the psychological organization present at a particular time  Clinical interview  Correlation techniques1. Attempts to document one ore more behavioral sequences over some period of time  Longitudinal research design (repeated testing, assessment, and/or observation of one ore more individuals over a period of time)  Cross-sectional design (testing, assessment, and/or observation of different groups of individuals measured at the same time)  Retrospective longitudinal study (gathering information from the past)
  • 18. Summary of the Organismic World View1. Development is best understood as a qualitative process involving the progressive, active construction and reconstruction of levels of organization2. Development is universal, unidirectional process typical of all humans3. There is an idealized end point toward which all development proceeds4. Individuals actively meaning to their experiences5. Development proceeds through a series of syntheses, each leading to a greater potential for effective adaptation to life experiences
  • 19. Key Words Holistic Rational Deep structure to uncover Non-linear Unidirectional Interdependent Common sequence / stages
  • 20. What We Are – The Contextualist World View Chapter 4 Dale Goldhaer
  • 21. Pepper’s Analysis1. Time and Place  Search for meaning is specific to time and place  There is a true interdependence between the individual and the events, because each functions to give meaning to the other1. Quality and Texture  Three aspects to the quality (intuitive wholeness) of a context: spread, change, and fusion  Three aspects to the texture (details and relations that make up quality) of an event: strands, context, and reference1. Contextualism and Context  Elementscannot be analyzed out of context, because once they are taken out of context, they no longer have any meaning
  • 22. Contextualism as a Development Perspective1. An emphasis on the practical and the immediate1. Individuals as active meaning makers in social settings Development is best studied from a systems perspective Concerned about the relationships among elements in a system1. The open-ended nature of human development  No universal principles regulate the maintenance or change of patterns over time1. Scientific inquiry as human endeavor
  • 23. The Study of Behavioral Change from a Contextualist World View1. Cohort analysis: To determine the long-term, cumulative impact of the slice of history experienced as a result of a group’s shared experience2. Pattern analysis: cross-legged panel correlation and factor analysis3. Ethnographic analysis: prolonged active contact of the ethnographer with a culture (descriptive understanding)4. Narrative analysis: interpretive understanding of the way people weave life experiences into coherent stories or narratives (recording another’s stories)
  • 24. Summary of the Contextualist World View1. Study of human development always reflects the socio-historical perspective of the researcher2. The meaning of an event is best defined from the perspective of the individual experiencing that event3. Explanations and interpretations of human development are always situated in and restricted to any particular socio-historical context4. Human development is an open-ended phenomenon, with no necessary theoretically implied directions, patterns, or limits5. There is a moral and ethical imperative in the study of human development that is directed toward a “politics of liberation”
  • 25. Key Words Holistic Unpredictable Socio-historical No universal claims Interdependent Subjective individual experience