INTRODUCTION
RESPIRATORY INFECTION
BY
MS.SANDHYA,
ACUTE RESPIRATORY
INFECTION
DEFINITION
Acute respiratory infection includes
group of conditions which causes
inflammation ...
• INCIDENCE :
- 4.5 million deaths
- 5 yrs child suffers episodes
per year.
- In india 22-26 op and 12-45
ip cases
Epidemiology
• AGENT FACTORS
Agent : Bacteria & Virus
• HOST FACTORS
Age : more in infants
Sex : Adult women affected
more...
MOT :
Airborne,
Direct contact
INCUBATION PERIOD
1-10 days
CLINICAL FEATURES
TREATMENT
Antibiotics( cotrimazole)
Benzyl penicillin or ampicilin
Cotrimaxazole
Maintain warmth
Give hot drinks
Saline na...
• PREVENTION& CONTROL
• ROLE OF NURSE
SARS
• DEFINITION:
SARS is a newly infectious human
infection caused by corona virus.
Epidemiology
Agent factors
Agent : c...
Mode of transmission :
- Droplet
- Airborne
Incubation period:
2-10 days
Clinical features:
Chills and rigors
Fever more t...
Prevention & control
 No vaccine available
 Isolation
 Universal precautions
 Screening of international
travellers
 ...
DEFINITION:
Tuberculosis is an infectious
disease caused by
mycobacterium tuberculi
primarily affecting the lungs.
COMMON ...
INCIDENCE :
• Global incidence of - 2.4 percent per year.
• Mortality rate - 26 per lakh population.
• WORLD :
Estimated t...
EPIDEMIOLOGY:
• AGENT FACTORS
Agent : Mycobacterium tuberculi
Source : bovine & human
• HOST FACTORS
Age : 20-40 yrs
Sex :...
• MOT:
• Droplet infection
• Direct contact(overcrowded places)
• Inhalation of tubercle bacilli
• Ingestion of contaminat...
• CLINICAL FEATURES:
• Dry cough
• Loss of weight
• General malaise
• Pyrexia
• Night sweats
• Cough with blood strained s...
• COMPLICATIONS:
•Malnutrition
•Hepatitis
•Neurological changes
•Spread of TB infection
•Multi drug resistance
• MANAGEMENT :
• Isolation and bed rest.
• Administer Anti-TB drugs
− (Isoniazid,Rifampicin,Ethambutal,
Streptomycin & pyr...
• PREVENTION AND CONTROL:
−Early case finding
−Chemotherapy
−BCG vaccination
−DOTS
−Health education
−Role of RNTCP
• Role of nurse in communicable
diseases
• Summary and conclusion
• Evaluation
• Bibliography
DEFINITION:
Influenza or Flu is the acute infectious disease
of the respiratory tract which is caused by
influenza virus o...
• MOT:
• Droplet infection
• Droplet nuclei( coughing,
sneezing & talking )
• Direct contact (person to
person)
• Handling...
• CLINICAL FEATURES:
• Sudden onset of fever (102-104 F)
• General malaise & Sorethroat
• Blocked nose
• Typical substerna...
• COMPLICATIONS:
• Myocarditis
• Pneumonia
• Chronic bronchitis
• Meningo-encephalitis
• Cranial nerve palsy
• Heart block...
• MANAGEMENT :
• Adequate bed rest
• Maintain fluid and electrolyte balance
• Symptomatic treatment
-Paracetamol
- aspirin...
• PREVENTION AND CONTROL:
Active immunization by influenza
vaccine
Annual vaccination for HR persons
Antiviral therapy
...
MENINGOCOCCAL
MENINGITIS
• DEFINITION:
Meningococcal meningitis
or cerebral fever is an acute
infectious disease caused by
Neisseria meningitidis.
EPIDEMIOLOGY
• AGENT FACTORS
Agent : Neisseria meningitidis
Source : Clinical cases and
carriers
• HOST FACTORS
Age : Chil...
• MOT:
−droplet infection
−droplet nuclei
• INCUBATION PERIOD:
− 3-4 days
• CLINICAL FEATURES:
•Intense headache
•High grade fever
•Vomiting
•Sensitivity to light
•Stiffness of neck
•Petechial ras...
• COMPLICATIONS:
•Haemorrhage
•Pneumonia
•Encephalitis
•Infection and sepsis
•Spasticty
• MANAGEMENT :
−Isolation and rest
−Administration of steroids and
strong antibiotic
−Hydrocortisone & rifampicin
−Maintai...
• PREVENTION AND CONTROL:
•Active immunization by
meningococcal vaccine (0.5ml,
subcutaneously)
•Early detection
•Isolatio...
• DEFINITION:
Small pox is a highly
contagious disease caused by
variola virus characterized by
skin eruptions.
• HISTORY:
• Small pox major killer
• world’s last case of smallpox
Somalia on 26 October 1977.
• Finally in April 1977, I...
• MILESTONES IN ERADICATION OF
SMALLPOX:
• May 1975 : Last case in
INDIA ( Bihar)
• April 1977 : India declared
smallpox f...
• SMALLPOX ERADICATION-
EPIDEMIOLOGICAL FACTORS:
• No known animal reservoir.
• Absence of long-term carrier state and
sub...
• FUTURE OF SMALL POX:
• Accidental infection with
laboratory associated stocks
• Infection with animal pox virus.
(monkey...
• DEFINITION:
Chickenpox is an acute
infectious disease caused by
varicella – zoster.
• AGENT FACTORS
Agent : Varicella-zoster
Source : Clinical cases
• HOST FACTORS
Age : Occurs in children under
10 years
Se...
• MODE OF TRANSMISSION:
• Droplet infection
• Droplet nuclei
• Direct contact
• Indirect contact( through
infected dust, f...
• CLINICAL FEATURES:
1.PRE-ERUPTIVE STAGE:
• Gradual onset of fever & Headache
• Malaise & Prostration
• Nausea & vomiting...
• COMPLICATIONS:
•Pneumonia
•Encephalitis
•Haemorrhage
•Acute cerebral ataxia
•Reye’s syndrome
•Congenital varicella
•Onco...
• MANAGEMENT :
• Isolation and bed rest
• Soothening lotion or powder
• Antiviral therapy
- Acyclovir (200-400mg)
• Admini...
• PREVENTION AND CONTROL:
• Active immunization by varicella
vaccine
• Passive immunization by varicella
immunoglobulin
• ...
• DEFINITION:
Measles is a highly
infectious disease caused by a
specific virus of the group
myxovirus which is
characteri...
• CLASSIFICATION:
• Modified measles( partially
immune person)
• Atypical measles( previously
immune person)
• Haemorrhagi...
• AGENT FACTORS
Agent : Paramyxo virus
Source : Clinical cases
• HOST FACTORS
Age : Common in pre-schoolers
Sex : Affects ...
• MODE OF TRANSMISSION:
- Droplet infection
- Droplet nuclei.
- Direct contact(through
conjunctiva)
• INCUBATION PERIOD
10...
• PRODROMAL STAGE( 10-14
DAYS)
• Coryza & sneezing
• Low grade fever
• Redness of eyes
• Lacrimation & photophobia
• Diarr...
• COMPLICATIONS:
• Pneumonia
• Measles associated diarrhoea
• Otitis media
• Febrile convulsions
• Encephalitis
• SSPE( su...
• MANAGEMENT :
Symptomatic treatment:
- Maintain airway
- Administer antibiotics
- Administer antiviral drug-
ribivarin
Su...
• PREVENTION AND CONTROL:
• Active immunization by measles
vaccine ( life attenuated vaccine
0.5 ml S.C)
• Passive immunsa...
• DEFINITION:
Mumps is an acute generalized
infectious disease caused by
myxovirus parotidis which
results in non-suppurat...
• AGENT FACTORS
Agent : paramyxo virus parotidis
Source : Clinical cases and sub-
clinical cases
• HOST FACTORS
Age : Comm...
• MODE OF TRANSMISSION:
Droplet infection
Droplet nuclei.
Direct contact
• INCUBATION PERIOD:
2-3 weeks
• CLINICAL FEATURES
• Sudden onset of fever (102-104 F)
• General malaise
• Difficulty in chewing
• Pain in the earlobe
• ...
• COMPLICATIONS:
• Aseptic meningitis
• Orchitis
• Encephalitis
• Epididymitis
• Pancreatitis
• Nephritis
• Myocarditis
• ...
• MANAGEMENT :
Symptomatic treatment:
-Maintain airway
-Administer anti-inflammatory
drugs
-Saline mouth wash
-Hot or cold...
• PREVENTION AND CONTROL:
• Isolation of child until parotid swelling gets
resolved
• Active immunisation mumps vaccine (0...
DEFINITION
Rubella is a viral infection
caused by RNA virus which
is characterized by low grade
fever, lymph adenopathy an...
• AGENT FACTORS
Agent : RNA virus
Source : Clinical cases and
sub- clinical cases
• HOST FACTORS
Age : Common in 3 – 5 yrs...
• MODE OF TRANSMISSION:
Direct contact
Indirect contact(
through freshlu infected
fomites)
Transplacental
• INCUBATION PER...
• CLINICAL FEATURES:
• PRODROME:
• Mild fever up to 100 F
• Headache
• Myalgia
• Malaria
• Upper respiratory manifestation...
• COMPLICATIONS:
•Arthritis
•Encephalitis
•Thrombocytopenic purpura
•Congenital rubella
syndrome
•Testicular pain
• MANAGEMENT :
• Supportive treatment:
- Isolation and bed rest
- Maintain fluid and
hydrational status
- Maintain airway
...
• PREVENTION AND CONTROL:
•Isolation of the patient.
•Early diagnosis and prompt
treatment.
•Avoidance of close contact wi...
• DEFINITION:
It is an infectious disease
caused by corynebacterium
diphtheria characterized by
formation of a grayish or
...
• AGENT FACTORS
Agent : Corynebacterium
diptheriae
Source : Clinical cases
• HOST FACTORS
Age : Common in 1yr age
Sex : Af...
• MODE OF TRANSMISSION:
- Droplet infection
- Direct
contact(overcrowded places)
- Indirect contact
( through infected dus...
• CLINICAL FEATURES:
• PHARYNGEAL DIPTHERIA
Low grade fever
Sore throat
Dysphagia
Greyish or yellowish Membrane on the ton...
• COMPLICATIONS:
Peripheral circulatory failure
Myocarditis
Palatal Paralysis
Ocular palsy
Generalized polyneuritis
MANAGEMENT:
Isolation and bed rest
– Administer diphtheria antitoxin
(10000- 80000 I.U)
– Administer penicillin and
erythr...
• PREVENTIVE MEASURES:
• Active immunization by DPT or
diphtheria vaccine
• Give booster dose of DPT at 2 yrs
followed by ...
• DEFINITION:
Pertussis is a highly infectious
disease of the respiratory tract
caused by Bordetella pertussis
which usual...
• EPIDEMIOLOGY:
AGENT FACTORS
Agent : Bordetella pertussis
Source : Clinical cases
• HOST FACTORS
Age : Common in U5 s
Sex...
• MODE OF TRANSMISSION:
Droplet infection
Direct contact(coughing,
sneezing)
Indirect contact( through
infected articles &...
• CLINICAL FEATURES:
• CATARRHAL STAGE( 1-2 wks)
• Coryza
• Sneezing
• Low grade fever
• Severe cough at night
• Vomiting
...
• COMPLICATIONS:
• Broncho-pneumonia
• Lung collapse
• Rectal prolapse
• Convulsions
• Right cardiac failure
• Retinal det...
• MANAGEMENT :
• Isolation and bed rest
• Maintains adequate nutritional and
hydrational status
• Administer antibiotics
(...
• PREVENTION AND CONTROL:
• Early diagnosis
• Isolation of diagnosed cases
• Prompt treatment of cases
• Disinfection of d...
• DEFINITION:
Tetanus is an acute
neurological disease caused by
clostridium tetani characterized
by muscular rigidity and...
• TYPES OF TETANUS:
• Traumatic ( Following wound
contamination)
• Puerperal ( Following delivery)
• Otogenic ( Introduced...
• EPIDEMIOLOGY:
AGENT FACTORS
Agent : Clostridium tetani
Source : Clinical cases
• HOST FACTORS
Age : Common in 5-40yrs
Se...
• MODE OF TRANSMISSION:
Contamination of wound
with tetanus spores.
• INCUBATION PERIOD:
6-10 days
• CLINICAL FEATURES:
• Dysphagia
• Elevated body temperature
• Irritability
• Excessive sweating
• Physical exhaustion
• D...
• COMPLICATIONS:
•Injury to the tongue
•Ateclectasis
•Pneumothorax
•Fractures f vertebral bones
•Intramuscular
haemorrhage
• MANAGEMENT :
• Isolation and bed rest
• Administer human tetanus
immunoglobulin(3ooo-6000 units)
• Anti- tetanus serum.(...
• PREVENTION AND CONTROL:
• Active immunization either by DPT
• Passive immunization by TIG
• Administering 0.5ml of tetan...
Respiratory infections
Respiratory infections
Respiratory infections
Respiratory infections
Respiratory infections
Respiratory infections
Respiratory infections
Respiratory infections
Respiratory infections
Respiratory infections
Respiratory infections
Respiratory infections
Respiratory infections
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Respiratory infections

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION
  2. 2. RESPIRATORY INFECTION BY MS.SANDHYA,
  3. 3. ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTION DEFINITION Acute respiratory infection includes group of conditions which causes inflammation of the respiratory tract from nose to alveoli. CLASSIFICATION AURI ( commoncold,pharyngitis,otitis media) LURI ( epiglottitis, laryngitis, laryngotracheitis, bronchitis, pneumonia)
  4. 4. • INCIDENCE : - 4.5 million deaths - 5 yrs child suffers episodes per year. - In india 22-26 op and 12-45 ip cases
  5. 5. Epidemiology • AGENT FACTORS Agent : Bacteria & Virus • HOST FACTORS Age : more in infants Sex : Adult women affected more than men • ENVIRONMENT: overcrowding & industrialization
  6. 6. MOT : Airborne, Direct contact INCUBATION PERIOD 1-10 days CLINICAL FEATURES
  7. 7. TREATMENT Antibiotics( cotrimazole) Benzyl penicillin or ampicilin Cotrimaxazole Maintain warmth Give hot drinks Saline nasal drops No use of medicated drops Continue breastfeeding Hospitalise the patient for parenteral antibiotics.
  8. 8. • PREVENTION& CONTROL • ROLE OF NURSE
  9. 9. SARS • DEFINITION: SARS is a newly infectious human infection caused by corona virus. Epidemiology Agent factors Agent : corona virus Host : Man Environment : poor environment poor economical status
  10. 10. Mode of transmission : - Droplet - Airborne Incubation period: 2-10 days Clinical features: Chills and rigors Fever more than 100.4 F General discomfort, head ache Muscular weakness and stiffness Shortness of breath Diarrhoea
  11. 11. Prevention & control  No vaccine available  Isolation  Universal precautions  Screening of international travellers  Report to local authority
  12. 12. DEFINITION: Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by mycobacterium tuberculi primarily affecting the lungs. COMMON SITES: Meninges, joints, skin, intestine, bones, lymphglands & pericardium
  13. 13. INCIDENCE : • Global incidence of - 2.4 percent per year. • Mortality rate - 26 per lakh population. • WORLD : Estimated total case : 15-20 million Yearly new cases : 7.3 million Estimated total deaths : 3 million • INDIA : Radiologicallly active cases : 12.7 million Estimated sputum positive cases : 3.4 million Estimated total Deaths per year : 500,000 Prevalence of infection : 40%
  14. 14. EPIDEMIOLOGY: • AGENT FACTORS Agent : Mycobacterium tuberculi Source : bovine & human • HOST FACTORS Age : 20-40 yrs Sex : Adult men affected more than women • ENVIRONMENT: • Low poverty people • Low level education • Large families • Industrialization • Malnutrition • Occupation (Silicotics,Doctors and nurses, Students of medical field)
  15. 15. • MOT: • Droplet infection • Direct contact(overcrowded places) • Inhalation of tubercle bacilli • Ingestion of contaminated food and milk • INCUBATION PERIOD: • Several months to years
  16. 16. • CLINICAL FEATURES: • Dry cough • Loss of weight • General malaise • Pyrexia • Night sweats • Cough with blood strained sputum • Chest pain • Dyspnoea • Marked weakness • Anorexia • Sleeplessness • Haemoptysis • DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATION:
  17. 17. • COMPLICATIONS: •Malnutrition •Hepatitis •Neurological changes •Spread of TB infection •Multi drug resistance
  18. 18. • MANAGEMENT : • Isolation and bed rest. • Administer Anti-TB drugs − (Isoniazid,Rifampicin,Ethambutal, Streptomycin & pyrazinamide) • Maintain nutritional status • Supportive • Facilitate breathing • Maintain airway clearance • Adequate hydrational status • Psychological support
  19. 19. • PREVENTION AND CONTROL: −Early case finding −Chemotherapy −BCG vaccination −DOTS −Health education −Role of RNTCP
  20. 20. • Role of nurse in communicable diseases • Summary and conclusion • Evaluation • Bibliography
  21. 21. DEFINITION: Influenza or Flu is the acute infectious disease of the respiratory tract which is caused by influenza virus of which there are 3 types- A,B& C. • AGENT FACTORS Agent : Influenza virus A, B & C Source : Cases & subClinical cases HOST FACTORS Age : Attacks all ages Sex : Affects both sexes ENVIRONMENT: winter months & overcrowding
  22. 22. • MOT: • Droplet infection • Droplet nuclei( coughing, sneezing & talking ) • Direct contact (person to person) • Handling contaminated kerchiefs, articles, etc • INCUBATION PERIOD: • 18 – 72 hours
  23. 23. • CLINICAL FEATURES: • Sudden onset of fever (102-104 F) • General malaise & Sorethroat • Blocked nose • Typical substernal pain • Hoarseness of voice • Chills and rigors • Pain in limbs and back • Anorexia & sleeplessness • Rhinorrhoea • Headache and Myalgia • Copious blood strained sputum • Abdominal pain • Diarrhoea & vomiting
  24. 24. • COMPLICATIONS: • Myocarditis • Pneumonia • Chronic bronchitis • Meningo-encephalitis • Cranial nerve palsy • Heart block • Peripheral vasoconstriction
  25. 25. • MANAGEMENT : • Adequate bed rest • Maintain fluid and electrolyte balance • Symptomatic treatment -Paracetamol - aspirin - cold sponging - codeine syrup - administer antiviral drug ( amantidine) • Administer tetracycline( 2gm/ day) • Give antibiotics – cloaxacillin(500mg)
  26. 26. • PREVENTION AND CONTROL: Active immunization by influenza vaccine Annual vaccination for HR persons Antiviral therapy Provide vaccine to the medical and paramedical members.  Notification Prompt isolation treatment Throat painting - Mandle’s solution Spray the throat colloidal solution
  27. 27. MENINGOCOCCAL MENINGITIS
  28. 28. • DEFINITION: Meningococcal meningitis or cerebral fever is an acute infectious disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis.
  29. 29. EPIDEMIOLOGY • AGENT FACTORS Agent : Neisseria meningitidis Source : Clinical cases and carriers • HOST FACTORS Age : Children & young adults. Sex : Affects both sexes Immunity : Clinical & sub clinical infection • ENVIRONMENT: • Occurs in dry & cold months
  30. 30. • MOT: −droplet infection −droplet nuclei • INCUBATION PERIOD: − 3-4 days
  31. 31. • CLINICAL FEATURES: •Intense headache •High grade fever •Vomiting •Sensitivity to light •Stiffness of neck •Petechial rash on the skin •Coma & Confusion •Positive Kernicke’s sign •Positive brudzinki’s sign
  32. 32. • COMPLICATIONS: •Haemorrhage •Pneumonia •Encephalitis •Infection and sepsis •Spasticty
  33. 33. • MANAGEMENT : −Isolation and rest −Administration of steroids and strong antibiotic −Hydrocortisone & rifampicin −Maintain nutritional and hydrational status. −Antimicrobial therapy (Penicillin, ampicillin & chloramphenicol)
  34. 34. • PREVENTION AND CONTROL: •Active immunization by meningococcal vaccine (0.5ml, subcutaneously) •Early detection •Isolation and Prompt treatment •Appropriate antimicrobial therapy •Notification of cases •Disinfection of articles used •Improve housing & prevent overcrowding.
  35. 35. • DEFINITION: Small pox is a highly contagious disease caused by variola virus characterized by skin eruptions.
  36. 36. • HISTORY: • Small pox major killer • world’s last case of smallpox Somalia on 26 October 1977. • Finally in April 1977, India was declared smallpox-free • By eradication of smallpox, 2 million deaths were prevented.
  37. 37. • MILESTONES IN ERADICATION OF SMALLPOX: • May 1975 : Last case in INDIA ( Bihar) • April 1977 : India declared smallpox free • October 1977 : World’s last case (Somalia) • 8th may 1980 : WHO declaration on Small poX • eradication.
  38. 38. • SMALLPOX ERADICATION- EPIDEMIOLOGICAL FACTORS: • No known animal reservoir. • Absence of long-term carrier state and subclinical Infections. • Life long immunity • The detection of cases comparatively simple • Persons with subclinical infection did not transmit the disease. • Vaccine highly effective ; easily administered. • Relatively slow transmission • International co-operation campaign
  39. 39. • FUTURE OF SMALL POX: • Accidental infection with laboratory associated stocks • Infection with animal pox virus. (monkey pox, tana pox)
  40. 40. • DEFINITION: Chickenpox is an acute infectious disease caused by varicella – zoster.
  41. 41. • AGENT FACTORS Agent : Varicella-zoster Source : Clinical cases • HOST FACTORS Age : Occurs in children under 10 years Sex : Affects both sexes Immunity : One attack gives lifelong immunity. • ENVIRONMENT: • Occurs in first 6 months of years • Overcrowding
  42. 42. • MODE OF TRANSMISSION: • Droplet infection • Droplet nuclei • Direct contact • Indirect contact( through infected dust, fomites) • INCUBATION PERIOD: 14 -16 days
  43. 43. • CLINICAL FEATURES: 1.PRE-ERUPTIVE STAGE: • Gradual onset of fever & Headache • Malaise & Prostration • Nausea & vomiting & Diarrhoea • Pain in the back • Shivering 2.ERUPTIVE STAGE: • Onset of rashes • Pleomorphism • Centripetal distribution of rashes
  44. 44. • COMPLICATIONS: •Pneumonia •Encephalitis •Haemorrhage •Acute cerebral ataxia •Reye’s syndrome •Congenital varicella •Oncogenicity
  45. 45. • MANAGEMENT : • Isolation and bed rest • Soothening lotion or powder • Antiviral therapy - Acyclovir (200-400mg) • Administer Erythromycin(50 mg / kg) dose for 5-6 days • Antipyretics & analgesics • Maintain nutritional and hydrational status. • care of skin and maintain personal hygiene.
  46. 46. • PREVENTION AND CONTROL: • Active immunization by varicella vaccine • Passive immunization by varicella immunoglobulin • Early detection of cases • Isolation Prompt treatment • Notification of cases after 6 days of onset • Disinfection of articles
  47. 47. • DEFINITION: Measles is a highly infectious disease caused by a specific virus of the group myxovirus which is characterized by cough, coryza, maculopapular rash and koplik’s spot.
  48. 48. • CLASSIFICATION: • Modified measles( partially immune person) • Atypical measles( previously immune person) • Haemorrhagic measles ( severe variety)
  49. 49. • AGENT FACTORS Agent : Paramyxo virus Source : Clinical cases • HOST FACTORS Age : Common in pre-schoolers Sex : Affects both sexes Immunity : One attack gives lifelong immunity. ENVIRONMENT: • Occurs in winter and early spring
  50. 50. • MODE OF TRANSMISSION: - Droplet infection - Droplet nuclei. - Direct contact(through conjunctiva) • INCUBATION PERIOD 10 days to onset of fever & 14 days to appear rashes on the body.
  51. 51. • PRODROMAL STAGE( 10-14 DAYS) • Coryza & sneezing • Low grade fever • Redness of eyes • Lacrimation & photophobia • Diarrhoea & vomiting • Bluish white spots on a red base( smaller than head of pin) • Koplik,s spots • ERUPTIVE STAGE: -Maculo-papular rash - Dusky rash
  52. 52. • COMPLICATIONS: • Pneumonia • Measles associated diarrhoea • Otitis media • Febrile convulsions • Encephalitis • SSPE( sub-acute sclerosing pan encephalitis)
  53. 53. • MANAGEMENT : Symptomatic treatment: - Maintain airway - Administer antibiotics - Administer antiviral drug- ribivarin Supportive treatment: - Isolation and bed rest - Adequate nutritional and hydrational status - Administer vitamin A( 200000 I.U) to children for 2 consecutive days
  54. 54. • PREVENTION AND CONTROL: • Active immunization by measles vaccine ( life attenuated vaccine 0.5 ml S.C) • Passive immunsation by immunoglobulin (0.25ml / kg) • Early diagnosis and treatment • Isolation of 7 days after rash. • Prompt immunization • Protection of the childs eyes from light or glare.
  55. 55. • DEFINITION: Mumps is an acute generalized infectious disease caused by myxovirus parotidis which results in non-suppurative swelling and tenderness of one or both the parotid glands.
  56. 56. • AGENT FACTORS Agent : paramyxo virus parotidis Source : Clinical cases and sub- clinical cases • HOST FACTORS Age : Common in 5 – 15 yrs Sex : Affects both sexes Immunity : One attack gives lifelong immunity. ENVIRONMENT: • Occurs in winter and early spring
  57. 57. • MODE OF TRANSMISSION: Droplet infection Droplet nuclei. Direct contact • INCUBATION PERIOD: 2-3 weeks
  58. 58. • CLINICAL FEATURES • Sudden onset of fever (102-104 F) • General malaise • Difficulty in chewing • Pain in the earlobe • Pain and stiffness on opening the mouth • Cough & Sore throat • Tenderness • Rhinorrhoea • Myalgia • Nausea, vomiting • Abdominal pain • Diarrhoea
  59. 59. • COMPLICATIONS: • Aseptic meningitis • Orchitis • Encephalitis • Epididymitis • Pancreatitis • Nephritis • Myocarditis • Nerve deafness • Facial neuritis • Poly arthrititis
  60. 60. • MANAGEMENT : Symptomatic treatment: -Maintain airway -Administer anti-inflammatory drugs -Saline mouth wash -Hot or cold fomentations -Administer antiviral drug- ribivarin -Analgesics Supportive treatment: -Maintains adequate nutritional and hydrational status
  61. 61. • PREVENTION AND CONTROL: • Isolation of child until parotid swelling gets resolved • Active immunisation mumps vaccine (0.5ml) • Passive immunization by mumps IgG. • Early diagnosis and treatment • Prompt immunization at the beginning of an epidemic. • Disinfection of articles used by the patient • Strengthening of routine immunization.
  62. 62. DEFINITION Rubella is a viral infection caused by RNA virus which is characterized by low grade fever, lymph adenopathy and maculopapular rash..
  63. 63. • AGENT FACTORS Agent : RNA virus Source : Clinical cases and sub- clinical cases • HOST FACTORS Age : Common in 3 – 5 yrs & pregnant mothers Sex : Affects both sexes Immunity : One attack gives lifelong immunity. ENVIRONMENT: • Occurs in winter & spring
  64. 64. • MODE OF TRANSMISSION: Direct contact Indirect contact( through freshlu infected fomites) Transplacental • INCUBATION PERIOD: 2-3 weeks
  65. 65. • CLINICAL FEATURES: • PRODROME: • Mild fever up to 100 F • Headache • Myalgia • Malaria • Upper respiratory manifestations • Mild conjunctivitis • LYMPHADENOPATHY: • Posterior, post auricular and cervical lymph adenopathy • Tenderness • RASH: • Small, sparse, discrete, circular, macopapular rash
  66. 66. • COMPLICATIONS: •Arthritis •Encephalitis •Thrombocytopenic purpura •Congenital rubella syndrome •Testicular pain
  67. 67. • MANAGEMENT : • Supportive treatment: - Isolation and bed rest - Maintain fluid and hydrational status - Maintain airway • Symptomatic treatment - Antiviral drug - Ribivarin - Cold applications - Analgesics - Administer oxygen
  68. 68. • PREVENTION AND CONTROL: •Isolation of the patient. •Early diagnosis and prompt treatment. •Avoidance of close contact with the patients. •Active immunization of rubella vaccine(0.5ml) •Vaccination to girls (11-14 yrs) •Therapeutic abortion is advisable to control congenital Rubella.
  69. 69. • DEFINITION: It is an infectious disease caused by corynebacterium diphtheria characterized by formation of a grayish or yellowish membrane on the tonsils.
  70. 70. • AGENT FACTORS Agent : Corynebacterium diptheriae Source : Clinical cases • HOST FACTORS Age : Common in 1yr age Sex : Affects both sexes .ENVIRONMENT: •Occurs in autumn & spring • Cool, humid environment & overcrowding
  71. 71. • MODE OF TRANSMISSION: - Droplet infection - Direct contact(overcrowded places) - Indirect contact ( through infected dust, fomites) • INCUBATION PERIOD: 2-5 days
  72. 72. • CLINICAL FEATURES: • PHARYNGEAL DIPTHERIA Low grade fever Sore throat Dysphagia Greyish or yellowish Membrane on the tonsils Bullneck appearance • NASAL DIPTHERIA: Foul smelling discharge White membrane over nasal septum Nasal obstruction Dyspnoea • LARYNGEAL DIPTHERIA: Brawny barking cough Hoarseness of voice Progressive stridor Suffocation Heart failure
  73. 73. • COMPLICATIONS: Peripheral circulatory failure Myocarditis Palatal Paralysis Ocular palsy Generalized polyneuritis
  74. 74. MANAGEMENT: Isolation and bed rest – Administer diphtheria antitoxin (10000- 80000 I.U) – Administer penicillin and erythromycin(250 mg Q 6H) for 5-6 days – Give oral erythromycin(250mg) for 10 days – Tracheastomy in case of severe obstruction
  75. 75. • PREVENTIVE MEASURES: • Active immunization by DPT or diphtheria vaccine • Give booster dose of DPT at 2 yrs followed by DT at 5 yrs • Notification • Prompt isolation and treatment of cases • Disinfection of all articles and clothes • Give diphtheria antitoxin( 500-1000 I.U)to infected children who has not immunized before.
  76. 76. • DEFINITION: Pertussis is a highly infectious disease of the respiratory tract caused by Bordetella pertussis which usually affects the infants.
  77. 77. • EPIDEMIOLOGY: AGENT FACTORS Agent : Bordetella pertussis Source : Clinical cases • HOST FACTORS Age : Common in U5 s Sex : Affects both sexes .ENVIRONMENT: •Occurs in winter & spring • low socio economic status & overcrowding
  78. 78. • MODE OF TRANSMISSION: Droplet infection Direct contact(coughing, sneezing) Indirect contact( through infected articles & fomites) • INCUBATION PERIOD: 7-14 days
  79. 79. • CLINICAL FEATURES: • CATARRHAL STAGE( 1-2 wks) • Coryza • Sneezing • Low grade fever • Severe cough at night • Vomiting • PARAXYSMAL STAGE:(4-8 wks) • Repeated coughs • Paroxysmal bouts • Protruded tongue & eyeballs • Congested face • Engorged veins in neck • Sweating • Crowing sound during inspiration • Sub conjunctival haemmorhage
  80. 80. • COMPLICATIONS: • Broncho-pneumonia • Lung collapse • Rectal prolapse • Convulsions • Right cardiac failure • Retinal detachment • Inguinal hernia
  81. 81. • MANAGEMENT : • Isolation and bed rest • Maintains adequate nutritional and hydrational status • Administer antibiotics (Ampicillin, Cotrimaxazole & tetracyclines) • Do not give any cough syrup
  82. 82. • PREVENTION AND CONTROL: • Early diagnosis • Isolation of diagnosed cases • Prompt treatment of cases • Disinfection of discharges • Active immunization of pertussis • Passive immunization by pertussis immunoglobulin
  83. 83. • DEFINITION: Tetanus is an acute neurological disease caused by clostridium tetani characterized by muscular rigidity and paroxysmal spasm of the voluntary muscles.
  84. 84. • TYPES OF TETANUS: • Traumatic ( Following wound contamination) • Puerperal ( Following delivery) • Otogenic ( Introduced through foreign bodies Like pencils, etc) • Tetanus neonatorum ( through umbilical sepsis) • Idiopathic ( Due to microscopic trauma)
  85. 85. • EPIDEMIOLOGY: AGENT FACTORS Agent : Clostridium tetani Source : Clinical cases • HOST FACTORS Age : Common in 5-40yrs Sex : Affects both sexes .ENVIRONMENT: • Ignorance about infection • Accidents leading to trauma • Unhygienic delivery practices • Lack of primary health care
  86. 86. • MODE OF TRANSMISSION: Contamination of wound with tetanus spores. • INCUBATION PERIOD: 6-10 days
  87. 87. • CLINICAL FEATURES: • Dysphagia • Elevated body temperature • Irritability • Excessive sweating • Physical exhaustion • Difficulty in opening the mouth • Rhisus sardonicus • Grimacing expression • Lock jaw • Fecal and urinary incontinence • Rigidity of facial muscles • Opisthotonus
  88. 88. • COMPLICATIONS: •Injury to the tongue •Ateclectasis •Pneumothorax •Fractures f vertebral bones •Intramuscular haemorrhage
  89. 89. • MANAGEMENT : • Isolation and bed rest • Administer human tetanus immunoglobulin(3ooo-6000 units) • Anti- tetanus serum.(ATS) • Administer penicillin(200,000I.U) • Administer sedatives and muscle relaxants. • Tracheostomy in case of severe obstruction • Adequate fluids and nutrition • Care of the tongue and mouth • Treatment of local wounds
  90. 90. • PREVENTION AND CONTROL: • Active immunization either by DPT • Passive immunization by TIG • Administering 0.5ml of tetanus toxoid • Clean delivery practice • Training the Traditional birth attendants. • Educating pregnant women regarding immunization. • Administer TT during pregnancy at 1 month interval.
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