Heavy metal in the environment and effect on plant physiology
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Heavy metal in the environment and effect on plant physiology

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These slide gives an overview of effect of heavy metal pollution in the environment towards the physiology of plant.

These slide gives an overview of effect of heavy metal pollution in the environment towards the physiology of plant.

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Heavy metal in the environment and effect on plant physiology Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Heavy metal in the environment and effect on plant physiology
    Muhammad Arifin Sandhi
    Masters Student, Ecology
    Stockholm University
    SE- 10691, Sweden
  • 2.
  • 3. Some Real Scenario……. 
  • 4. Why?
    Burning Fossil fuels
    Rapid Industrilization
    Mining and Smelting
    Sewage Sludge
    Chemical fertilzers
    Pesticide, herbicide residues
    ( Memon et al., 2001)
  • 5. Review
    • A brief summary about heavy metals,their availibilty,uptake and distribution pathway in plants.
    • 6. Changes of plant physiology as effects of metal accumulation
  • The Begining
    Industrial Revolutions during18th century
    http://www.lessons-from-history.com/
  • 7. Heavy Metal
    • Specific gravity 5gm/cm3
    • 8. Formation of Ligands based on Oxygen
  • Nutrients and Heavy Metals
    • Essentials, required for all kinds of plant.
    Cu-Photosynthesis
    Zn-connective between DNA binding proteins & hydrolytic enzymes
    • Beneficial, required by specific plant groups.
    Ni-Activation of enzymes
    Co- Essential for N fixation
    • Non-essentials, not required and accumulated in plant body due to their weak uptake control mechanism and heavy metals under this category like Cd, Hg, Cr, etc.
    (Morgan, nd; Clemens et al., 2002)
  • 9. Availabilty & Uptake
    Persistence
    Bonding of negetive (Soil) and positive (metal) charge.
    Metal binds with hydroxyl (-OH), Carboxyl
    group (COOH) and phenolic group of soil and 98% metal binds with inorganic compounds.
    In terrestrial system metal ions enter in the plant through root hair > cortex and in aquatic system ,through foliage either crack on the cuticle or stomata >plasmolema.
  • 10. Physiological Effects of Metal in Plants
    Cellular Interactions
    • Stored in epidermis,collencyma and vacoular comapartment for either less metabolic activity there or further use in future.
    • 11. H+ -ATPaseworks for pumping the proton in both plasma membrane and tonoplast.
    • 12. Transporter proteins (in membrane) works as carrier and channels for metal transport.
    • 13. These protein classfied as Phytochelatins (PC), Metallothioneinin (MT) originated from plant and animal respectively.
    • 14. Proteins bind with metals and also works as a chelator.
    • 15. Some organic acid helps to transport metals from root to shoot.
    (Streit & Stumm, 1993)
  • 16. Physiological Effects of Metal in Plants
    Metabolsim
    • Heavy metal (Ni, Cd) can produce oxidative stress as they can work as free radicles
    • 17. Responce and tolerance of metal stress of plants depends on the concentration level and on essentiality of the metal.
    • 18. Enzymatic activity (anti-oxidant) and production of amino acid reflected with heavy metal exposure.
    Reproduction
    • Cd and Pb disturbance in mitotic cell division ,mitotic index.
    • 19. Germination rate (81-89%) and pollen tube length (89-96%) decrease in tobacco with Hg, Ni and Cd exposure.
    • 20. Pectin-Calcium based pollen tube cell complexed with metal and reduce cell elasticity.
    • 21. Heavy metal cause disturbance in plumela and radicale.
  • Physiological Effects of Metal in Plants
    Photosynthesis
    • Leaf Chlorosis and stunting.
    • 22. Electron transport in PS2, Phosporylation and NADPH.
    • 23. Reduced chlorophyll pigment and alter leaf architecture.
    • 24. PS1 and carotenoid pigment less disturbed.
    (Striborova et al., 1987)
  • 25. Hyperaccumulator
    • Heavy metal deposited at least 1mg/g of their DW.
    • 26. R. R. Brooks (1977)
    • 27. Metal uptake higher due to detoxification mechanism well developed or need metal for protection from pest and pathogen.
    • 28. Deposit metal in shoot, whereas accumulator deposit in root.
    • 29. 400 plant species, major comes from Brassicasae, Alyssum and Thlaspi genus.
    • 30. Disadvantage: low biomass production.
    (Wittig, 1993)
  • 31. Resistance Strategy of Plants
    Two Kinds, Avoidence and Tolerance
    • Aviodence
    • 32. Metal uptake exclusion
    • 33. Enzymatic change
    • 34. Binding with cell wall and other cell components.
    • 35. Tolerance
    • 36. Binding with MT , PC
    • 37. Vacuole compartmentalization
    Some other ways metal release from plant like volatilazation, leaf fall,decaying of bark, leaching from leaf, fluid secretion from xylem or hydrathods.
  • 38. Conclusion
    • Metal uptake feature can be used for phytoremediation technology.
    • 39. Be a solution for solving required metal deficiency of infants (Ex. Zinc).
    • 40. Needs further research to understand the amount of metal in the food grain.
    (Striborova et al., 1987)
  • 41.
  • 42. Tack såmycket !