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Evolution of processors
Evolution of processors
Evolution of processors
Evolution of processors
Evolution of processors
Evolution of processors
Evolution of processors
Evolution of processors
Evolution of processors
Evolution of processors
Evolution of processors
Evolution of processors
Evolution of processors
Evolution of processors
Evolution of processors
Evolution of processors
Evolution of processors
Evolution of processors
Evolution of processors
Evolution of processors
Evolution of processors
Evolution of processors
Evolution of processors
Evolution of processors
Evolution of processors
Evolution of processors
Evolution of processors
Evolution of processors
Evolution of processors
Evolution of processors
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Evolution of processors

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this presentation is a great to deliver in classrooms, stage or also can be used to deliver lecture on "Evolution of processor". …

this presentation is a great to deliver in classrooms, stage or also can be used to deliver lecture on "Evolution of processor".
it is also very helpful to learn about microprocessor, directly we can say its a self pack containing all about microprocessor.
this ppt contains evolution not only on the basis of generations but also on the basis of their invention.
must gothrough it

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  • 1. Department of Elex. & Instru. Engg. Shri G.S. Institute of Tech & Sci Indore A Seminar on EVOLUTION OF PROCESSORS Presented by Sandesh Agrawal BE (3rd Year ) Guided by Mrs. S. V. Charhate DEAN Academics
  • 2. Brief history of computers Various Technical Definition Introduction of IC technology Functions of Microprocessor Various stages of development of Computer Various leading Processor manufacturing companies
  • 3. AUTOMATION MICROPROCESSOR MICRONTROLLER
  • 4. WHY µ-PROCESSOR ??????
  • 5. MICROPROCESSOR MICRONTROLLER Process DATA Process DATA Don’t have RAM ,ROM & other Peripherals have RAM ,ROM & other Peripherals Designed to perfo specific task Designed to perform Unspecific task Clock Speed is quite highClock Speed is few High Cost, Large size Low Cost, Small s
  • 6. TECHNICAL TERMS - Buses ADDRESS BUS DATA BUS CONTROL BUS Program Counter (PC) Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) Interrupt Registers
  • 7. What are microprocessors??? A microprocessor is a processor that X Y Control unit IR PC ALU ACC MAR Data bus Control bus Address bus A simple microprocessor architecture contains the entire central processing unit of a computer on a single chip.  Process bundle of Information
  • 8. What are microprocessor-based systems??? Consisting of microprocessors, memories, I/O units, & other peripherals. Memory Output units Input units Bus Microprocessor Control unit Data path ALU Reg. Microprocessors are the brains of the systems
  • 9. The Electrical age: -Hollerith machine(1889) -ENIAC(Electronics Numerical Integrator & Calculator) -first general-purpose, programmable electronic computer -17,000 vacuum tube, 500 miles of wire, 6000 switches -life of vacuum tube(3000 hours) : maintenance problem EVOLUTION OF COMPUTER IBM 650, 1954 The Mechanical age: -abacus : 500 B.C. -calculator(with gears and wheels) : Pascal  First generation (1889-1954) -vacuum tube
  • 10. Manchester University Experimental Transistor Computer Bipolar Transistor : 1948, William Shockley, John Bardeen, Walter H. Brattain at Bell labs(1956, Novel physics award) Mainframe : describe CPU portion of computer Mainframe computer : designed to handle large volumes of data while serving hundreds of users simultaneously Built on circuit boards mounted into rack panels(frame)  Second generation (1954-1959) -transistor
  • 11.  Integrated Circuit : 1958,Jack Kilby (Texas Instruments) & Dr. Robert Noyce (Fairchild Semiconductor).  IBM : 32-bit 360 series(1964)  INTEL(Integrated Electronics) : 1968  Third generation (1959-1971) - IC PDP-8, Digital Equipment Corporation Thanks to the use of ICs, the DEC PDP-8 is the least expensive general purpose small computer in 1960s
  • 12. 4- Bit processor- MCS-4 Family - 4004 (used in calculator), 4001, 4002,4003,4008,4009 MCS-40 Family- 4040, 4101,4207,4209 etc. 8- Bit processor- 8008,8080,8085 etc 16- Bit processor- 8086,8088,80186,80286 etc. 32- Bit processor- 80386DX, 80386SX, 80376,pentium Pentium pro, II, etc. 64- Bit processor- Intel Pentium, core i3, core i5,core i7,etc  Fourth generation (1971-present) - microprocessor
  • 13. Evolution of Intel Microprocessors 1 10 100 1000 10000 1974 1979 1982 1985 1989 1993 1997 1999 2000 8080 8088 80286 80386 Pentium P II P III P 4 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1974 1979 1982 1985 1989 1993 1997 1999 2000 8080 8088 80286 80386 Pentium P II P III P 4 1 10 100 1,000 10,000 100,000 1,000,000 10,000,000 100,000,000 1974 1979 1982 1985 1989 1993 1997 1999 2000 8080 8088 80286 80386 Pentium P II P III P 4 Number of transistors Minimum transistor sizes (µm) Clock frequencies (MHz)
  • 14. Introduced in 1977 8-bit with 40-pin dual in line package 16-bit address bus 4500 transistors,2 MHz,8-bit word size
  • 15. Introduced in 1978 20-bit address bus : access up to 1MB memory 16-bit Internal processor registers also can process 8 bit. A separate BIU & EU: fetch & execute simultaneously 40-pin DIP package, 29k transistors,
  • 16. 8088 VDD (5V) GND CLK 20-bit address 8-bit data control signals To 8088 control signals from 8088 8088 signal classification Introduced in 1979, almost similar to 8086 20-bit address bus: access up to 1Mb memory external 8-bit data bus, 16 bit Internal
  • 17. 24-bit address bus : 16M byte memory added 16 new instructions Identical to 8086 except the addressing and higher clock speed 134k transistors 6-12 MHz Introduces “VIRTUAL MEMORY CONCEPT”
  • 18. flexible 32-bit Microprocessor(1986) : data bus, registers 32-bit address bus(4G byte physical) 64 terabyte virtual 4G maximum segment size Support 16k segments Concept of paging was introduced Available in 20MHz to 33MHz 132-PIN grid array package
  • 19.  Increasing the complexity of the IC: if every line could be shrunk in half, same circuit could be built in one-forth the area  Superscalar : support 2 instruction pipelines(5 stage) actually execute two different instruction simultaneously  Pentium(1993) : originally labeled P5(80586) - 60 - 66MHz(110MIPS) -8K code cache, 8K data cache -coprocessor : redesign(8-stage instruction pipeline) -64 bit AB(higher data transfer rates)
  • 20.  Code named P6 : 1995 -basic clock frequency : 150-166MHz  Two chips in one : two separate silicon die  Superscalar processor of degree three- -12 stage  Internal cache :  level one(L1) : 8K instruction and data cache  level two(L2) : 256K(or 512K)  36-bit address bus : 64G byte memory  has been optimized to efficiently execute 32-bit code
  • 21. 1. used faster core than Pentium is still P6 or Pentium pro processor 2. Two version : 1. slot 1 version mounted on a plastic cartridge 512K cache : one-half the clock speed 2. socket 370 version called flip-chip : looks like the older Pentium package → Intel claim cost less 256K cache : clock speed 3. clock frequency : 1 GHz
  • 22. Facts  44 Billion dollars worth of Microprocessors were made in 2003 as well as sold. Most was spent on laptop and or desktop computers it takes about 0.2 % of the CPU’s sold.  Almost 56% of CPUs sold are 8 bit microcontrollers.  Less the 10 % of CPUs sold are 32 bit or more. Most are sold in house hold appliances such as vacuums, TVs,
  • 23. Case Study: Intel Processors Slide 26 SUMMARY  104 increase in transistor count, clock frequency over 30 years!
  • 24. J. L. Antonakos, "An Introduction to the Intel Family of Microprocessors," Third Edition, Prentice Hall, 1999 REFERENCES Tanenbaum, A S, 1990, 'Structured Computer Organisation', Prentice-Hall. Brian Bramer, Faculty of Computing and Engineering Sciences De Montfort University, Leicester, UK, “Workstation and System Configurations”

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