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Chapter 8: Intellectual Disabilities

Chapter 8: Intellectual Disabilities



Intellectual Disabilities

Intellectual Disabilities



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    Chapter 8: Intellectual Disabilities Chapter 8: Intellectual Disabilities Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 8:Mild Intellectual Disabilities Adapted from a presentation by the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction
    • Focus Questions How are intellectual disabilities defined? What are the primary criteria used to identify students with intellectual disabilities? What are the major characteristics of students with intellectual disabilities? What educational practices improve outcomes for students with intellectual disabilities?
    • IDEA Definition• Significantly sub-average intellectual functioning• Exists concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior• Manifested during the developmental period• Adversely affects educational performance
    • Levels of SupportsThe AAMR recommends identifying studentsbased on levels of supports needed to functioneffectively: • Intermittent • Limited • Extensive • Pervasive
    • Eligibility CriteriaThe child must meet the criteria with regard to: • Intellectual Functioning • Adaptive Behavior • Academic Functioning
    • Intellectual FunctioningThe child has a standard score of 2 or morestandard deviations below the mean (<70) on anindividually administered intelligence test • verbal ability • either performance or nonverbal ability
    • Normal Distribution of IQ Scores
    • Adaptive BehaviorThe child has deficits in measures of adaptivebehavior:• Communication • Leisure• Self-care • Self-direction• Social skills • Health and Safety• Home-living skills • Applying academic skills• Use of community • Work resources
    • Academic FunctioningIntellectual functioning adversely affectseducational performance as shown by achievementtests scores in: • Language • Reading • Writing • Mathematicscreating a need for special education and relatedservices.
    • Primary CharacteristicsAcademic • Low achievement in all areas • Delayed language development • Basic literacy and functional mathCognitive • Slow rate of learning • Limited attention • Difficulty remembering • Lack of generalization
    • Primary CharacteristicsSocial • Trouble understanding social interactions • Difficulty picking up social cues • Problems discriminating between appropriate and inappropriate behavior • Lack of opportunity (in segregated settings)
    • Educational Practices• Functional vs. general curriculum• Curricular adaptations• Universal Design for Learning• Assistive technology• Direct/systematic instruction• Hands-on “real life” experiences• Social skills instruction• Peer Tutoring
    • Systematic Instruction• Task Analysis – Break complex skill into steps – Teach steps using prompting system• Prompting systems – System of least prompts – Time delay• Data collected to determine effectiveness