Chapter 8:Mild Intellectual Disabilities Adapted from a presentation by the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction
Focus Questions How are intellectual disabilities defined? What are the primary criteria used to identify students with intellectual disabilities? What are the major characteristics of students with intellectual disabilities? What educational practices improve outcomes for students with intellectual disabilities?
IDEA Definition• Significantly sub-average intellectual functioning• Exists concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior• Manifested during the developmental period• Adversely affects educational performance
Levels of SupportsThe AAMR recommends identifying studentsbased on levels of supports needed to functioneffectively: • Intermittent • Limited • Extensive • Pervasive
Eligibility CriteriaThe child must meet the criteria with regard to: • Intellectual Functioning • Adaptive Behavior • Academic Functioning
Intellectual FunctioningThe child has a standard score of 2 or morestandard deviations below the mean (<70) on anindividually administered intelligence test • verbal ability • either performance or nonverbal ability
Normal Distribution of IQ Scores
Adaptive BehaviorThe child has deficits in measures of adaptivebehavior:• Communication • Leisure• Self-care • Self-direction• Social skills • Health and Safety• Home-living skills • Applying academic skills• Use of community • Work resources
Academic FunctioningIntellectual functioning adversely affectseducational performance as shown by achievementtests scores in: • Language • Reading • Writing • Mathematicscreating a need for special education and relatedservices.
Primary CharacteristicsAcademic • Low achievement in all areas • Delayed language development • Basic literacy and functional mathCognitive • Slow rate of learning • Limited attention • Difficulty remembering • Lack of generalization
Primary CharacteristicsSocial • Trouble understanding social interactions • Difficulty picking up social cues • Problems discriminating between appropriate and inappropriate behavior • Lack of opportunity (in segregated settings)
Educational Practices• Functional vs. general curriculum• Curricular adaptations• Universal Design for Learning• Assistive technology• Direct/systematic instruction• Hands-on “real life” experiences• Social skills instruction• Peer Tutoring
Systematic Instruction• Task Analysis – Break complex skill into steps – Teach steps using prompting system• Prompting systems – System of least prompts – Time delay• Data collected to determine effectiveness