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© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 20121Simulation and Virtual Product Developmentof Advanced Automotive BatteriesSandeep Sov...
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 20122Virtual Product DevelopmentConcept & DesignPhysicalPrototypeProductionSimulation-Driv...
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 20123LargestIndependent CAE simulation software companyFocusedSimulation is all we do.Lead...
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 20124Fluid DynamicsStructural MechanicsANSYS SimplorerANSYS Engineering Knowledge ManagerA...
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 20125Simulation in Automotive Product DevelopmentUsed extensivelyCars and LightTrucksHeavy...
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 20126Three key differencesBatteries simulation is very different fromtraditional automotiv...
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 20127Current Distribution,EMI/EMC, AbuseThermal MgmtDurability, NVH,Impact, AbuseNVHTight ...
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 20128Multi-PhysicsMultiple physics solvers and seamless interconnections
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 20129- Newman & Tidemann (1993);- Gu (1983) ;- Kim et al (2008)*J)()( TfUYJ npCathode Anod...
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 201210Geometry & MeshTemperature Current DensityExample 1Multi-Physics
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 201211Temperature DistributionCurrent Density DistributionStructural Deformation, Fatigue ...
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 201212Multi-ScaleMulti-PhysicsMulti-Parameter
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 201213Phenomena at one level affect those at other levels andneed to be simulated in simul...
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 201214Enabling comprehensive multi-scale simulation:DOE-NREL CAEBAT ProjectElectrodeLevelM...
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 201215Multi-ScaleTwo key needs for multi-scale simulation:1. Co-SimulationSimultaneous sim...
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 201216Battery ElectricalModelCell 4Cell 5Cell 6Cell 1Cell 2Cell 3Battery Cooling Flowand T...
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 201217HeatDissipatedTemperatureHeat dissipationDischarge curveTemperature contoursMulti-Sc...
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 201218A sample stepresponseMulti-ScaleLTI Model Order ReductionExample 2Module Geometry (C...
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 201219Multi-ScaleLTI Model Order ReductionExample 2A foster network model is created using...
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 201220Multi-ScaleLTI Model Order ReductionExample 2Simulation runtime reducedfrom many hou...
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 201221• 60 Cells connected in matrix pack• Packs are connected in matrix to finalconfigura...
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 201222Powertrain andVehicle LevelSystemIntegrationMulti-ScalePack Model is integrated into...
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 201223Multi-ScaleMulti-PhysicsMulti-Parameter
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 201224Multi-Parameter• Multitude of design variables in batteries• Simulation is the only ...
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 201225PropertySD/MeanMetallic materials, yield 15Carbon fiber composites 17Metallic shells...
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 201226Input with Variations• Gap Thickness• Cell Resistance• Flow Rate• Six inputparameter...
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 201227Outputs – variation• Max temperature• Differential temperature• Pressure dropSix out...
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 201228Channel InletsMulti-Parameter Optimization ExampleTask:Optimize the manifold shapeto...
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 201229InitialGeometryFinalGeometryMulti-Parameter Optimization Example
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 201230• Simulation is key to battery development• Battery simulation poses three challenge...
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Simulation and Virtual Product Development of Advanced Automotive Batteries

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Presentation given at Advanced Automotive Batteries Conference 2012 in Orlando, FL.

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Transcript of "Simulation and Virtual Product Development of Advanced Automotive Batteries"

  1. 1. © 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 20121Simulation and Virtual Product Developmentof Advanced Automotive BatteriesSandeep Sovani, Ph.D.Manager, Global Automotive StrategyANSYS Inc, Ann Arbor, MI, USAFebruary 10, 2012
  2. 2. © 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 20122Virtual Product DevelopmentConcept & DesignPhysicalPrototypeProductionSimulation-DrivenProduct DevelopmentToday’s norm for automotive product development
  3. 3. © 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 20123LargestIndependent CAE simulation software companyFocusedSimulation is all we do.Leading product technologies in all physics areasLargest development team focused on simulationCapable2,000 employees60 locations, 40 countriesTrusted96 of top 100 FORTUNE 500 industrialsISO 9001 and NQA-1 certifiedProvenRecognized as one of the world’s most innovativeand fastest-growing companies*IndependentLong-term financial stability *BusinessWeek, FORTUNEAbout ANSYS A Simulation Software Company
  4. 4. © 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 20124Fluid DynamicsStructural MechanicsANSYS SimplorerANSYS Engineering Knowledge ManagerANSYS HPCANSYS WorkbenchElectromagneticsANSYS DesignXplorerSystems and MultiphysicsANSYS FLUENTANSYS CFXANSYS IcepakANSYS HFSSANSYS MaxwellANSYS Q3DANSYS MechanicalANSYS LS-DYNAANSYS nCodeANSYS AcousticsAbout ANSYSProducts – Advanced Physics Solvers
  5. 5. © 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 20125Simulation in Automotive Product DevelopmentUsed extensivelyCars and LightTrucksHeavy TrucksAnd BusesOff-Highway,ConstructionMotorsportsTwo WheelersRailwaysOther GroundTransportation
  6. 6. © 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 20126Three key differencesBatteries simulation is very different fromtraditional automotive simulationsMulti-ScaleMulti-PhysicsMulti-Parameter
  7. 7. © 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 20127Current Distribution,EMI/EMC, AbuseThermal MgmtDurability, NVH,Impact, AbuseNVHTight coupling betweenmultiple fieldsMulti-PhysicsBattery Image Reference: http://a.img-zemotoring.com/media/news/2010/11/renault-battery-pack.jpg
  8. 8. © 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 20128Multi-PhysicsMultiple physics solvers and seamless interconnections
  9. 9. © 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 20129- Newman & Tidemann (1993);- Gu (1983) ;- Kim et al (2008)*J)()( TfUYJ npCathode AnodeCurrent Currentip= Current Vectorsat Cathode plate in= Current Vectorsat Anode plateJ = Current DensityJ (t, x, y, T )Cathode AnodeCurrent Currentip= Current Vectorsat Cathode plate in= Current Vectorsat Anode plateJ = Current DensityJ (t, x, y, T )Transfer currentU and Y are derived from experimentallyobtained polarization curve, dependent onDepth of Discharge (DOD) & TemperatureA model based on the work of:* Reference: U. S. Kim, C. B. Shin , C. S. Kim, “Effect of electrode configuration on the thermalbehavior of a lithium-polymer battery”, Journal of Power Sources 180 (2008) 909–916.Example 1Multi-Physics
  10. 10. © 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 201210Geometry & MeshTemperature Current DensityExample 1Multi-Physics
  11. 11. © 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 201211Temperature DistributionCurrent Density DistributionStructural Deformation, Fatigue LifeElectro-Thermal-Structural Fatigue of Bus BarsMulti-Physics Example 2
  12. 12. © 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 201212Multi-ScaleMulti-PhysicsMulti-Parameter
  13. 13. © 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 201213Phenomena at one level affect those at other levels andneed to be simulated in simultaneous co-simulationElectrodeLevel•Electrode layout•Manufacturingprocessdevelopment•AgingMolecularLevel•Materialinnovation•MaterialselectionCell Level•Charging, dischar-ging profiles•Heating•Safety under abuse•Swelling,deformationPack Level•Thermal Mgmt•BMS Logic•Safety•Durability•NVH•EMI/EMCPowertrain andVehicle Level•System IntegrationSmallScaleLargeScaleMulti-ScaleTight inter-coupling between multiple scales
  14. 14. © 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 201214Enabling comprehensive multi-scale simulation:DOE-NREL CAEBAT ProjectElectrodeLevelMolecularLevelCell Level Pack Level Powertrain andVehicle LevelSmallScaleLargeScaleMulti-ScaleUniversities andResearch InstitutesCommercialSimulation SoftwareCompaniesESimOne of the 3 teams in CAEBAT
  15. 15. © 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 201215Multi-ScaleTwo key needs for multi-scale simulation:1. Co-SimulationSimultaneous simulation of a component anda systemE.g. cell and module co-simulation2. Model Order ReductionRepresenting a component with a simplifiedmodel to faster system simulation
  16. 16. © 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 201216Battery ElectricalModelCell 4Cell 5Cell 6Cell 1Cell 2Cell 3Battery Cooling Flowand Thermal CFDModelHeatDissipatedTemperatureMulti-ScaleElectrical-Thermal-Fluid Co-SimulationExample 1
  17. 17. © 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 201217HeatDissipatedTemperatureHeat dissipationDischarge curveTemperature contoursMulti-ScaleElectrical-Thermal-Fluid Co-SimulationExample 1
  18. 18. © 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 201218A sample stepresponseMulti-ScaleLTI Model Order ReductionExample 2Module Geometry (CAD)Simulation Model3D Flow Simulation ResultThermal step load (heat release) isapplied to each cell and theresponse of the entire cooling flowfield is recorded
  19. 19. © 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 201219Multi-ScaleLTI Model Order ReductionExample 2A foster network model is created using the step responses
  20. 20. © 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 201220Multi-ScaleLTI Model Order ReductionExample 2Simulation runtime reducedfrom many hoursto few seconds,without loss ofaccuracy makingis possible tosimulate verylong transientcycles.
  21. 21. © 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 201221• 60 Cells connected in matrix pack• Packs are connected in matrix to finalconfiguration5cellsMulti-ScaleModule Models incorporated into Pack ModelExample 2
  22. 22. © 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 201222Powertrain andVehicle LevelSystemIntegrationMulti-ScalePack Model is integrated into Powertrain ModelExample 2
  23. 23. © 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 201223Multi-ScaleMulti-PhysicsMulti-Parameter
  24. 24. © 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 201224Multi-Parameter• Multitude of design variables in batteries• Simulation is the only feasible way to handlea large number of variables for –• Robust design• Optimization
  25. 25. © 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 201225PropertySD/MeanMetallic materials, yield 15Carbon fiber composites 17Metallic shells, buckling 14Junction by weld 8Bonded insert, axial load 12Honeycomb, tension 16Launch vehicle , thrust 5Transient loads 50Thermal loads 7.5Deployment shock 10Acoustic loads 40Vibration loads 20Fluid flow 3FatigueFluidsStructural(thermal)GeometryStructural(deformation)±??%PotentialFailure?Multi-ParameterProtection against potential failureRobust Design
  26. 26. © 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 201226Input with Variations• Gap Thickness• Cell Resistance• Flow Rate• Six inputparameters:– tgap– tgap– R– R– Frate– FrateRef: Valhinos et al, “Improving Battery Thermal Management Using Design for Six Sigma Process”, 20th Electric VehicleSymposium, Long Beach, CA (November 15-18, 2003)Multi-Parameter Robust Design Example
  27. 27. © 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 201227Outputs – variation• Max temperature• Differential temperature• Pressure dropSix output parameters:• Tmax• dT• dP• Tmax• dT• dPThree Upper Specification Limits (USL)Ref: Valhinos et al, “Improving Battery Thermal Management Using Design for Six Sigma Process”, 20th Electric VehicleSymposium, Long Beach, CA (November 15-18, 2003)Multi-Parameter Robust Design ExamplePotentialFailure
  28. 28. © 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 201228Channel InletsMulti-Parameter Optimization ExampleTask:Optimize the manifold shapeto ensure flow uniformityacross channel inletsSimulation accomplished thistask automatically with shapemorphing
  29. 29. © 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 201229InitialGeometryFinalGeometryMulti-Parameter Optimization Example
  30. 30. © 2011 ANSYS, Inc. February 28, 201230• Simulation is key to battery development• Battery simulation poses three challenges1. Multi-physics2. Multi-scale3. Multi-parameter• Several useful simulation solutions arecommercially available today• Ongoing work is further addressingsimulation challengesSummary
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