Sensory impairments-VISION AND HEARING

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  • What do you mean by sensory impairment?Sensory impairment is when one of your senses; sight ,hearing , smell, touch , taste and spatial awareness is no longer normal.Examples-if you wear glasses you have sight impairment ,if it is hard to hear or have a hearing aid then you have a hearing impairment.

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  • 1. •Sensory impairment is when one of your senses; sight ,hearing , smell, touch , taste is no longer normal. Examples-if you wear glasses you have sight impairment ,if it is hard to hear or have a hearing aid then you have a hearing impairment. A person does not need to have a full loss of a sense to be sensory impaired. It is the combination of both hearing and sight impairment .It is not necessarily a total loss of both the senses-indeed the majority of dual sensory impaired people do have some degree of sight and/or hearing. DEAFBLIND When a person has difficulties in both seeing and hearing then the person can be termed as deafblind. Deafblindness is a unique and extremely complex disability that often requires specialist communication methods and it has adverse effects on all areas of development , in particular the language adopting process , conceptual development , motor development , behaviour and personality of a person.
  • 2. THREE COMBINATIONS ARE POSSIBLE: 1) Individuals who are born blind and later develop a hearing impairment. 2) Individuals who are born deaf and later develop vision impairment. 3) Individuals who are born sighted and hearing , but later develop a vision and hearing impairment CATEGORIZATION People who are deafblind can generally be divided into two groups: Congenital deafblindness People who were born with a hearing and a vision impairment. This category may also include individuals who are born hearing- sighted , but who become deafblind through some accident or illness within the first months of their lives. The important factor being that they become deafblind before they had the opportunity to gain formal language skills. Acquired Deafblindness People who develop deafblindness later in life.
  • 3. HEARING IMPAIRMENT CLASSIFICATION OF HEARING IMPAIRMENTS 10-25dB 26-40dB 41-55dB 56-70dB 71-90dB Above 90dB NORMAL MILD MODERATE MODERATELY SEVERE PROFOUND TYPES OF HEARING PROBLEM 1) Conductive hearing loss: It is caused by blockage or damage in outer or middle ear. 2) Senorineural hearing loss: It is caused by damage to , or malfunction of the cochlea (sensory part) or hearing nerve (neural part). 3) Mixed hearing loss :It results when there is a problem in both the conductive pathway (in the outer or middle ear) and in the nerve pathway (in the inner ear)
  • 4. CAUSES OF HEARING LOSS AND DEAFNESS The causes of hearing loss and deafness can be divided into congenital causes and acquired causes. CONGENITAL CAUSES Congenital causes lead to hearing loss being present at or acquired soon after birth. Hearing loss can be caused by hereditary and non hereditary genetic factors or by certain complications during pregnancy and childbirth including ; 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Maternal rubella , or other infections during pregnancy. Low birth weight. Birth hypoxia Inappropriate use of toxic drugs during pregnancy. Severe jaundice in the neonatal period , which can damage the hearing nerve in a new born baby.
  • 5. ACQUIRED CAUSES Acquired causes lead to hearing loss at any stage. 1)Infectious diseases such as meningitis , measles can lead to hearing loss , mostly in childhood but later also in life. 2) Chronic ear infections , which commonly presents as discharging ears , can lead to hearing loss. In certain cases this condition also leads to serious life threatening complications . 3) Collection of fluid in ear can also cause hearing loss. 4) Use of toxic drugs at any age , such as some antibiotic and antimalerial medicine can damage the inner ear. 5) Head injury or injury to ear can also cause hearing loss. 6) Excessive noise , including working with noisy machinery , and exposure to loud music or other loud noises , such as gunfire or explosions can harm a person hearing. 6) Age related hear loss is done by degeneration of sensory cells. 7) Wax or foreign bodies blocking the ear canal can cause hear loss at any age. Such hear loss is mild and can be readily corrected.
  • 6. IMPACT OF HEARING LOSS FUNCTION IMPACT One of the main impacts on hearing loss is on the individual ability to communicate with others. Spoken development is also delayed in children with deafness. SOCIAL IMPACT Limited excess to communication can have a significant impact on everyday life , causing feeling of loneliness , isolation and frustration. ECONOMIC EFFECT In developing countries children with hearing loss rarely receive any schooling . Adults with hearing loss have a very high unemployment rate .Among those who are employed , a higher percentage of people with hearing loss are in the lower grades of employment compared with general people.
  • 7. TYPES OF BLINDNESS 1) MYOPIA OR NEAR SIGHTEDNESS In this defect we see the nearly objects clearly but after a certain distance either we see blurd or unable to see the object. RECTIFICATION OF MYOPIA Generally convex lens is used by which light rays are focussed on yellow point of the retina and create a clear image. 2) HYPER MYOPIA OR FARSIGHTEDNESS In this defect the long distance object can be seen clearly at closer distance -25 cm , approximately focus is not possible. RECTIFICATION OF HYPER MYOPIA A concave lens of suitable focal length is used for rectification of hyper myopia.
  • 8. PRESBYOPIA This is the defect in both short and long distances . For such cases bifocal lens are being used . The upper lens is convex lens and is used for long distance and the lower lens is concave and is used for short distances. ASTIGMATISM In this defect objects are seen blurred either in horizontal or in vertical direction . In such cases cylindrical lenses are being used to rectify the defect. COLOUR BLINDNESS There are two types of nerves sensory nerves found at retina . The rod types nerves which are concerned with the density of light and the cone type nerves which are sensitive to colours . If the number of the conical shape nerves decreases at the retina , the person become unable to identify colour properly.The defect is permanent in such cases.
  • 9. CAUSES OF BLINDNESS 1) CONGENITAL :Some children are blind by birth . 2) POST- BIRTH :Some children become blind as a result of sickness or some injury to the eye or some disability to the brain or due to malnutrition or infection .Some post birth causes are below: a)NUTRITIVE BLINDNESS . b)Some infectious diseases also lead to blindness , such as conjunctivitis . c)GLAUCOMA: This develops due to excessive pressure within the eyeball . c)RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA : It makes the retina slowly grow thinner , the area of vision continually decreases , leading to blindness .
  • 10. RETROLENTAL FIBROPLASIA : In this disease , due to the presence of excessive oxygen in the eye , the retina gets detached from the eye and the person becomes blind. MEASLES : It affects the pupil and the eye sight gets affected . The person may also become blind . BRAIN INJURIES : Due to cerebral palsy , brain infection , or oxygen shortage at the time of birth ,the brain gets injured . This can lead to blindness . EYE INJURIES : An individual becomes blind due to some injury to the eye from a pointed object or from fire . DIABETES: Increase in percentage of sugar in the blood lead to blindness . HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE: Due to excessively high blood pressure , the blood gets clotted in the veins of eyes which leads to blindneess .
  • 11. PREVENTIONS OF HEARING LOSS AND BLINDNESS It is generally said that little precaution has more significance than a cure . 1) Avoid marriages amongst close relatives . 2) Immunize adolescent girls and women in child bearing age against rubella 3) Expectant mother should avoid contact with person suffering from infectious diseases . 4) Ensure good health of expectant mother – seek health check ups at regular interval . 5) Make sure that the delivery is performed under the supervision of a trained person . 6) Follow the child immunization schedule properly . 7) Maintain good ear and eye hygiene of the children . 8) Do not swim in dirty or highly chlorinated water ,as they affect ear and eyes . 9) Do not apply homely products in ear or eye without any consultant.