Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Leadership by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa

1,274

Published on

leadership ppt

leadership ppt

Published in: Business, Technology
3 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,274
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
3
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • Manish
  • Manish
  • … .teachers
  • Manish: So for a leader, EQ is as important as IQ. Now that we know the qualities of a leader, let have a look at the functions ;;;;;;; and what about the duties zoul
  • Manish
  • Manish
  • Manish
  • Manish
  • To include slide(photos) before theories
  • Manish: Yes that’s right vicky
  • Zoul
  • Manish:
  • Transcript

    • 1. LEADERSHIP Proudly Presented by: Zouleikha Toorawa Manish Cushmagee Leckraj Sooriah And Deepraj Naiko1
    • 2. What is common among them?
    • 3. Whats the overview of this presentation?  This presentation deals with the concept of leadership in relation to the management of organisations.  We shall explain the nature of leadership and its importance; its relationship with Human Resource Management and its contribution to effective HRM.  We will also provide an insight into the various theories of leadership.  We shall make reference to a great leader, Steve Jobs, as and when required to help3 us give a clearer picture.
    • 4. What shall we cover?  How about an Introduction to Leadership?  How are Managers different from Leaders?  How does a Leader emerge?  What are the Qualities, Functions and other duties of a Leader?  What are the 3 main types of Leadership Styles and how they differ?  What are the other types of Leadership Styles?  What factors influence the style of Leadership to adopt?  What are the main Historical Studies on Leadership?  What are the Main Theories of Leadership?  Is Communication important for a Leader?  What is Successful & Effective Leadership?  What can cause Leaders to Fail?  Are Leaders Necessary?  What can be Concluded?  What references have been used?4
    • 5. How about an Introduction to Leadership?  It makes a business organization successful. It enables an organization to fulfill its mission.  Without leadership, organizations move too slowly, stagnate, and lose their way.  Leadership is crucial for implementing decisions successfully in Human Resource Management.  A good leader can make a success of a weak business plan, but a poor leader can ruin even the best plan.  The discipline of management is giving5 way to the discipline of leadership.
    • 6. LEADERSHIP = LEADER MANAGEMENT = MANAGER An individual can be a Manager without being a Leader An individual can be a Leader without being a Manager Is a LEADER different to a MANAGER? HOW???6
    • 7. How are Managers different from Leaders? Leadership Management • Based on influence • Based on authority • • A formally designated An informal designation position • An achieved position • An assigned position • Independent of • Improved by use of management effective leadership skills • • Administrate Innovate • Focus on systems and • Focus on people structures • Have a long-range view • Have a short-range view • Ask what and why • Ask how and when • • Accept status quo Challenge status quo • Do things right • Do the right thing7
    • 8. What is Leadership? Leadership has no exact definition, however, it can be termed as: •The process of influencing the behaviour of others towards the accomplishment of goals in a given situation. [Hersey and Blanchard, 1977] •The process by which a person influences, motivates and guides the group towards a visualized goal, getting the group to do something significant that they might not otherwise do. It’s energizing people towards a goal. •Without followers, however, a leader isn’t a leader, although followers may only come after a long wait. •The Leader-follower relationship is reciprocal and effective leadership is a two-way process which influences both individual and organisational performance. [Mullins ,1999]8
    • 9. How does a Leader emerge?All people have untapped leadership potential… it is there in everyone.Be verbally involved: Speak up! The more you insert your voice intothe decision-making process of your organization, the more visible youbecome to everyone. e.g. when John Sculley decided that Apple will impose a high priceon the Iphone, Jobs immediately disapproved and in the end, a lowerprice was set.Be informed: Being knowledgeable can give you an edge in your workas well as earn you a reputation as an “expert”. e.g. Jobs used to always keep in touch with the latest designsand techniques9
    • 10. How does a Leader emerge?  Seek others’ opinions: Consider asking older experienced colleagues what they think of your ideas before you present them.  Initiate new ideas: It doesn’t help your organization for you to sit still and silent when you have a way to improve things.  E.g. jobs came up with the innovative Ipod  Be firm but not rigid: If you present an idea and nobody else is into it, don’t write them all off, but continue to work with your colleagues to come up with something that makes sense to everyone.10
    • 11. What are the Qualities of a Leader?  A good Motivator, e.g. Stock options at Apple  A good Source of Knowledge  Has a Judgmental knowledge  Has Problem solving capacity  Easily Manages conflict  An Effective communicator  A Critical thinker  Organizes and allocates workflow  Encourages progress and recognizes efforts  Builds team spirit  Recognizes success and learns from failure. E.g. All staff were given a free Iphone  Trusts subordinates  Respects people  Is ready to take initiatives to bring change  Has emotional intelligence11
    • 12. What is Emotional Intelligence? Emotional Intelligence, or EI, describes an ability or capacity to perceive, assess, and manage the emotions of ones self, and of others. Emotional Quotient or EQ, is how one measures Emotional Intelligence.  The most effective leaders are alike in one crucial way: They all have a high degree of what has come to be known in HRM as emotional intelligence. It’s not that IQ and technical skills are irrelevant. They do matter, but mainly as capabilities; that is, they are the entry-level requirements for executive positions. Emotional intelligence is indispensable in HRM leadership. –What Makes a Leader? by Daniel Goleman – Harvard Business Review, Nov- Dec 199812
    • 13. What are the Key Functions of a Leader? The organizational function deals with the organizational structure and the selection of people who operate within this structure and the control of internal and external communication flows. The interpersonal function involves the degree of concern about the humanness of the organization. It requires that the leader pay attention to individual concerns. The decisional function involves the making of the right decisions that must be made in order for the organization to achieve its goals.13
    • 14. What are the other Duties of a Leader?  Set Direction: Mission, Goals e.g. When Jobs came back, he stopped all other products to concentrate only on computers  Build Commitment: Motivate & Inspire  Confront Challenges: Deal With Change, Take Risks  Knowing And Using The Resources Of The Group efficiently and effectively  Communicating  Planning  Controlling Group Performance  Evaluating  Setting The Example  Counseling  Act as a Visionary, e.g. Steve Jobs had already visualized that floppy would be obsolete in the coming years14
    • 15. What are the 3 main types of Leadership Styles?  Autocratic leadership.  Democratic or participative leadership.  Laissez-faire leadership.15
    • 16. What is the Autocratic Style?  Leader makes decisions without reference to anyone else, e.g. Jobs used to shut himself in his office to analyse the designs alone and decide everything alone.  Exerting high levels of power over employees or team members e.g. employees were immediately “Steved” upon slightest mistakes.  High degree of dependency on the leader.  May be valuable in some types of business where decisions need to be made quickly and decisively  But can create de-motivation and alienation of staff.16
    • 17. What is the Democratic Style?  Also known as Participative Leadership, a democratic leader may help motivation and involvement.  This not only increases job satisfaction by involving employees or team members, but it also helps to develop skills.  However, As participation takes time, this style can lead to things happening more slowly than an autocratic approach, but often the end result is better.  It can be most suitable where team working is essential, and quality is more important than17 speed to market or productivity.
    • 18. What are the different Democratic Styles? Consultative: Process of consultation before decisions are taken Persuasive: Leader takes decision and seeks to persuade others that the decision is correct18
    • 19. What is the Free Rein Style?  ‘Delegative’ or ‘Laissez Faire’ – the leadership responsibilities are shared by all  Relies on good interpersonal relations  Can be very useful in businesses where creative ideas are important  Relies on good team work  Most often, laissez-faire leadership works for teams in which the individuals are very experienced and skilled self-starters, e.g. Reporters  But can make coordination and decision making time-consuming and lacking in overall direction and managers do not exert sufficient control.19
    • 20. How do the 3 main Leadership Styles differ? Laissez- Authoritary Democratic Faire Degree of freedom Little Moderate Much Degree of control High Moderate None Decision making By leader Leader & group Group or no one Leader activity High High Minimal level Assumption of Leader Shared abandoned Responsibility Output of group High & good High & creative Poor20 quality
    • 21. What are the other types of Leadership Styles?  Bureaucratic leadership.  Charismatic leadership.  People-oriented or relations-oriented leadership.  Servant leadership.  Task-oriented leadership.21
    • 22. What is the Bureaucratic Style? Bureaucratic leaders work by the book, ensuring that their staff follow procedures exactly. It is an appropriate style for work involving serious safety risks. Such as working with machinery, with toxic substances or at heights or where large sums of money are involved such as cash-handling. e.g. Law Firms and Accountants22
    • 23. What is the Charismatic Style? A charismatic leader injects huge doses of enthusiasm into his or her team, and is very energetic in driving others forward. This can create a risk that a project, or even an entire organization, might collapse if the leader were to leave.. Just as Apple was doomed when Jobs left the Company23
    • 24. What is the People (Relations) Oriented Leadership Style? This style of leadership is when the leader is totally focused on organizing, supporting and developing the people in the team. It tends to lead to good teamwork and creative collaboration. However, taken to extremes, it can lead to failure to achieve the teams goals.24
    • 25. What does a Leader choose? Theory X or Theory Y? Theory X says most people are lazy and the manager’s job is to make them work hard. And that employees need strict rules, constant supervision, & the threat of punishment to be conscientious. (e.g. Personnel Management) Theory Y manager believes the work itself is motivating and people really want to do a good job, and emphasizes guidance rather than control, development rather than close supervision, & reward instead of punishment. (e.g. Human Resource Management) A Personnel Manager can choose Theory X, but the HRM Leader will always opt for the Theory Y25
    • 26. What is the Task-Oriented Style? A highly task-oriented leader focuses only on getting the job done, and can be quite autocratic. He or she will actively define the work and the roles required, put structures in place, plan, organize and monitor. However, as task-oriented leaders spare little thought for the well-being of their teams, this approach can suffer many of the flaws of autocratic leadership, with difficulties in motivating and retaining staff.26
    • 27. What is the Servant Leadership Style? A leader not formally recognized as such, at any level within an organization, leads simply by virtue of meeting the needs of his or her team. Servant leaders achieve power on the basis of their values and ideals. People practicing servant leadership will often find themselves left behind by leaders using other leadership styles.27
    • 28. What factors influence the style of Leadership to adopt?  Level of Risk  The people  The job  The management support  The personal characteristics28
    • 29. How do the People influence the Style of Leadership to adopt?The performance levels v/s Employees expectationsEmployees with low expectations:  Will need Close supervision  Leader will tend to be Work-centered  Autocratic StyleEmployees with high expectations: Leadership styleis:  Will work on their own  Leader will tend to be People-centered  Democratic Style29
    • 30. Whats "Blakes & Moutons Managerial Grid?"30
    • 31. The Historically important studies on•The Iowa Leadership Studies LeadershipIt was observed that authoritarian leader was more friendly andimpersonal rather than openly hostile; the bureaucratic leader triedto be ‘objective’ in giving praise and that under the Laissez-FaireStyle, the leader gave complete freedom to the group•The Ohio State Leadership StudiesThe Ohio State Leadership Studies focused on how leaders couldsatisfy common group needs. The findings indicated that the twomost important dimensions in leadership included: "initiatingstructure," and "consideration." These characteristics could be eitherhigh or low and were independent of one another. The research wasbased on questionnaires to leaders and subordinates.31
    • 32. The Historically important studies on Leadership•The Early Michigan Leadership Studies The Michigan Leadership Studiesindicated that leaders could be classified aseither "employee-centered," or "job-centered."These studies identified three criticalcharacteristics of effective leaders: taskoriented behavior, relationship-orientedbehavior, and participative leadership.32
    • 33. What are the Main Theories of Leadership?  "Great Man" or Trait Theories  Contingency Theories  Behavioural Theories  Participative Theories  Management (Transactional) Theories  Relationship (Transformational) Theories33
    • 34. What are the Great Man Theories of Leadership? Great man theories or Trait theories assume that the capacity for leadership is inherent – that great leaders are born, not made. These theories often portray great leaders as heroic, mythic and destined to rise to leadership when needed. The term "Great Man" was used because, at the time, leadership was thought of primarily as a male quality, especially in terms of military leadership. Among the core traits identified are: Achievement drive: High level of effort, high levels of ambition, energy and initiative Leadership motivation: an intense desire to lead others to reach shared goals Self-confidence: Belief in one’s self, ideas, and ability Cognitive ability: Capable of exercising good judgment, strong analytical abilities, and conceptually skilled Knowledge of business: Knowledge of industry and other technical matters Emotional Maturity: well adjusted, does not suffer from severe psychological disorders.34
    • 35. What are the Contingency Theories of Leadership? Contingency theories of leadership focus on particular variables related to the environment that might determine which particular style of leadership is best suited for the situation. According to this theory, no leadership style is best in all situations. Success depends upon a number of variables, including the leadership style, qualities of the followers and aspects of the situation. Contingency Theories include the : Fiedler LPC model Path-goal model Situational leadership theory35
    • 36. What is Fiedler’s Contingency Theory? Fiedler’s Contingency Theory shows the relationship between the leader’s style and group performance under differing situational conditions. The theory is based on determining the orientation of the leader (relationship or task), the elements of the situation (leader-member relations, task structure, and leader position power), and the leader orientation that was found to be most effective as the situation changed from low to moderate to high control.36
    • 37. What is Fiedler’s Contingency Theory?37
    • 38. What is Path-Goal Contingency Theory? The way that leaders encourage and support their followers in achieving the goals they have set by making sure the path that they should take is clear and easy. In clarifying the path, they may be directive or give vague hints in removing roadblocks. In increasing rewards, they may give occasional encouragement or pave the way with gold. This variation in approach will depend on the situation, including the followers capability and motivation, as well as the difficulty of the job and other contextual factors.38
    • 39. What is Path-Goal Contingency Theory?House and Mitchell (1974) describes four such styles of leadership:Supportive leadershipConsidering the needs of the follower, showing concern for theirwelfare and creating a friendly working environment. This includesincreasing the followers self-esteem and making the job moreinteresting.Directive leadershipTelling followers what needs to be done and giving appropriateguidance along the way. This includes giving them schedules ofspecific work to be done at specific times. Rewards may also beincreased as needed and role ambiguity decreased (by telling themwhat they should be doing).Participative leadershipConsulting with followers and taking their ideas into account whenmaking decisions and taking particular actions.Achievement-oriented leadershipSetting challenging goals, both in work and in self-improvement. Highstandards are demonstrated and expected. The leader shows faith inthe capabilities of the follower to succeed.39
    • 40. What are the Situational Theories of Leadership?Situational theories,also known as LifeCycle Theory (Herseyand Blanchard)propose that leaderschoose the bestcourse of actionbased upon maturitylevel of followers, i.e.degree of motivation,experience andinterest. Follower Maturity isgrouped in 4 levels:40
    • 41. What are the Behavioural Theories of Leadership? Behavioral theories of leadership, contrarily to “Great Man Theories”, are based upon the belief that great leaders are made, not born. Rooted in behaviorism, this leadership theory focuses on the actions of leaders not on mental qualities or internal states. According to this theory, people can learn to become leaders through teaching and observation.41
    • 42. What are the Participative Theories of Leadership? Participative leadership theories suggest that the ideal leadership style is one that takes the input of others into account. These leaders encourage participation and contributions from group members and help group members feel more relevant and committed to the decision-making process.42
    • 43. What are the Management (Transactional) Theories of Leadership? Management theories, also known as transactional theories, focus on the role of supervision, organization and group performance. These theories base leadership on a system of rewards and punishments. Transactional theories are often used in business; when employees are successful, they are rewarded; when they fail, they are reprimanded or punished.43
    • 44. What are the Relationship (Transformational) Theories of Leadership? Relationship theories, also known as transformational theories, focus upon the connections formed between leaders and followers. Transformational leaders motivate and inspire people by helping group members see the importance and higher good of the task. These leaders are focused on the performance of group members, but also want each person to fulfill his or her potential. Transformational leadership is built on top of Transactional Leadership [Robbins and Coulter, 1999]44
    • 45. What is the difference between Transactional and Transformational Leadership? Transactional Leadership Transformational Leadership Leadership is responsive and its basic orientation Leadership is proactive and forms new is dealing with present issues expectations in followers Works through hierarchical structures and Leads by inspiration, sharing energy and systems of reward and punishment enthusiasm Exists under Personnel Management Created under Human Resource Management Leaders motivate followers by setting goals and Leaders motivate followers to work for goals that promising rewards for desired performance go beyond self-interest45
    • 46. Is Communication important for a Leader? Is at the heart of leadership Leadership can not occur except in relationship to other people & communication is the means through which leadership is accomplished Human Resource Management lays emphasis on Communication for effective Leadership More Details next week with BBM2 Team46
    • 47. What is Successful & Effective Leadership? There can be three types of situations:  Attempted Leadership: refers to a situation where there is an attempt to exert influence over others  Successful Leadership: refers to a situation where the leader knows what will be the response of the follower due to his position power to reward or punish  Effective Leadership: refers to a situation where the follower realises his goals are being fulfilled and responds by his willingness. If Managers are both successful and effective, their influence tends to lead to long-term productivity and organisational development. [Hersey and47 Blanchard, 1977]
    • 48. What can cause Leaders to Fail?  Wrong Leadership Style adopted  Arrogance e.g. Hitler  Lack of Vision  Failure to take risks  Poor communicator  Doesn’t change with time  Lack of innovation and creativity  Poor interpersonal skills  Cannot build and motivate teams  Lack Business or industry knowledge48
    • 49. Are Leaders Necessary?49
    • 50. What can be Concluded? Leadership is not the random occurrence of great men at moments in history, but rather the interaction of innate traits, themselves long nurtured and refined by situational forces and the organizational context in which these traits are expressed. This is powerful knowledge if we can learn to identify the types of roles needed to guide a group or an organization in a certain situation, and then find the right person for the job. An important task in the coming years will be the training and testing of future leaders.50
    • 51. Thank You51 © BBM1 Team 2012
    • 52. What References have been used?  http://psychology.about.com/od/leadership/p/leadtheories.htm  http://www.nbogroup.com/Articles/WLF_results.pdf  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leadership  http://www.rotary.org/RIdocuments/en_pdf/250.pdf  www.exinfm.com/training  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/transactional_leadership  http://www.mindedgepress.com/PDFs/htlhtl.pdf  centres.exeter.ac.uk/cls/documents/mgmt_standards.pdf  www.leaders.co.uk/  University of Mauritius, MGT 1111  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leadership_studies  Leadership Mastery – How to Challenge Yourself and Others to Greatness, by Dale Carnegie & Associates, Inc.  The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People by Stephen Covey  Inside Steve’s Brain by Leander Kahney52

    ×