Disk storage, disk checkers, disk defragmentation & disk cleaners by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
• Definitions of Technical Terms• Functions of each Utility Software• Procedures to use these Utilities• Advantages & Disadvantages of these Utilities• A simulation where all these 4 Utilities act as a group• Conclusion• Questions from floor
Disk Storage, Disk Checkers, Disk Defragmenter and Disk Cleaners are Utilities integratedwithin the Software System.Utility Software, also referred to as service program, tool, or utility routine, is a type ofcomputer software specifically designed to help the end-user analyze, configure, optimizeand maintain the system software. A single piece of utility software is usually called a utility.http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_utility_softwareSystem software refers to the files and programs thatmake up your computers operating system. Theprograms that are part of the system software includeassemblers, compilers, file management tools, system,utilities, etc… The system software is installed on yourcomputer when you install your operating system(e.g. Windows 7)http://www.techterms.com/definition/systemsoftware
What is Disk StorageDisk storage is a general category of storage mechanisms, in which data are digitallyrecorded by various electronic, magnetic, optical, or mechanical methods on a surface layer.http://dictionary.babylon.com/disk%20storage/An external computer storage device consisting of one or more disks spaced on a commonshaft, and magnetic heads mounted on arms that reach between the disks to read andrecord information on them.http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/disk+storageDisk storage is a group of data storage mechanisms for computers; data is transferred toplanar surfaces or disks for temporary or permanent storage.http://www.wordiq.com/definition/Disk_storage
Examples & Uses of Disk StorageA hard disk (HDD) is a non-volatile, random access device for digital data. Data ismagnetically read from and written to the platter by read/write heads. Hard Disks ofdifferent capacities are used in all computers. HDD save all the data and information for acomputer.The floppy disk (FDD) was invented at IBM by Alan Shugart in 1967. The first floppydrives used an 8-inch disk (later called a "diskette" as it got smaller), which evolved intothe 5.25-inch disk. Todays 3.5-inch diskette can store 1.44 megabyte of documents.http://www.howstuffworks.com
Examples & Uses of Disk StorageA Compact Disc (CD) is an optical disc used to store digital data. It was originallydeveloped to store and playback sound recordings exclusively, but later expanded toencompass data storage CD-ROM for write-once audio and data storage and also formovies and sound tracks and for back ups.A Digital Versatile Disk (DVD) is very similar to a CD, but it has a much larger datacapacity. A standard DVD holds about seven times more data than a CD does.The industry is set for yet another revolution with the introduction of Blu-ray Discs (BD) in2006. With their high storage capacity, Blu-ray discs can hold and play back largequantities of high-definition video and audio, as well as photos & data. http://www.howstuffworks.com
How is data stored on a disk (e.g. Hard Disk)RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) is a technology for managing howdata is stored on the physical or hard disks that reside in your system. RAID spanshard disks so that the combined capacity of multiple disks can be treated as a single,extended chunk of disk space. The Figure shows the RAID technology in a harddisk. http://support.dell.com/support/edocs/software/svradmin/1.9/en/stormgmt/strcnpts.html
How is data stored on a disk (e.g. Hard Disk)Each platter, supported by the spindle(Made of ferromagnetic material), has aread/write head, which moves over theplatters but does not touch the platters.The spindle rotates the platters and theread/write head moves only forward andbackward, thus enabling data to be writtenon any cluster, track or sector by inducinga magnetic field.When data is saved, its address on theplatter is also saved. When the data is to beaccessed, the Direct Memory Access allowsthe read/write head to go directly to thedata retrieved. http://support.dell.com/support/edocs/software/svradmin/1.9/en/stormgmt/strcnpts.html
History of Disk StorageThe invention of magnetic disk storage, pioneered by IBM in the 1950s, was a criticalcomponent of the computer revolution. More magnetic disk storage were developed byIBM from 1956 through 1993.The basic mechanical arrangement of hard disk drives hasnt changed since the IBM1301. Disk drive performance and characteristics are measured by the same standardsnow as they were in the 1950sRAMAC mechanism at Computer History MuseumEarly IBM disk storage - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.mht
What is Disk CheckerDisk Checker is a free disk utility that checks the health of your hard drive. It scans yourhard disk for bad sectors and alerts you if the media does not have optimum usability. Withthis software, the user can choose to scan the hard drive and check the health or bad sectorsof other types of data media, such as floppy disks, flash drives, magnetic tape etc…http://www.adrc.com/software/hard_disk_checker/chkdsk (check disk) is a Microsoft program that checks your hard drive for logical errors asopposed to physical defects. This program is supported in all versions of Windows.Windows NT/2000/XP use it as the main disk checking program.http://www.geek.com/glossary/C/chkdsk-check-disk/Disk Checker is a hard drive monitoring/repairing tool for Windows. It is even more of asuite of tools that allow you to scan your hard disks for errors. Disc Checker will even tellyou what files are located on sectors with errors, so you can delete or maybe save them.http://EzineArticles.com/507870
Functions of Disk Checker Scan any removable media that you connect to your system so as to detect any potential threats like virus. Scan any disk for bad sectors. Analyze the disk for any corrupted clusters whereby data is not accessible. Attempts to recover bad sectors Enables fixing the file system errors
Examples & Uses of Disk Checkers One Example is the “Check Now” option that Microsoft Windows offers. This option allows easy checking of the hard disk. This will check the hard disk and give results as per the condition of the disk. It is mostly used by people who are not too familiar with programs or codes.
Examples & Uses of Disk CheckersThe computer will restart and the ChkDsk program will run prior to the Windowsstartup process. Any bad clusters or lost sectors that can be recovered or remappedwill be fixed during the disk-checking process.
Examples & Uses of Disk CheckersThe “chkdsk.exe” option, using the command prompt, looks for errors on hard drive,floppy drive or removable drives. It is the same utility that is being used, but accesseddifferently. It originated with MS DOS 1.0, and has remained as a command line utilityin all Windows versions to detect bad clusters.
What is a Bad or Damaged ClusterA bad or lost cluster or sector on a computers hard disk drive is an area of the diskthat cannot be used due to being marked as damaged. Bad sectors and lost clusters ona hard drive can significantly slow down a drives performance.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bad_sectorA cluster is the smallest logical amount of disk space that can be allocated to hold afile.http://www.techterms.com/definition/ clusterA damaged cluster on a computers disk drive is one that cannot be used due topermanent damage, such as physical damage to the disk surface or failed flashmemory transistors.http://www.howstuffworks.com/
Kinds & Causes of Damaged ClustersThe two kinds of cluster errors aresoft errors and hard errors.The soft error means that themagnetic signal on the drive is weakor the format is messed up, and youcant write to that area or read fromthat area. You can fix a soft error byreformatting the hard drive. E.g.Humidity or dustA hard error is a different story. Ahard error is actual physical damageto the hard drive. If a hard drive isphysically damaged by somethingsuch as a scratch or bump, there is noway to correct it. You cant continueto use that drive.http://computer.howstuffworks.com/
Repairing Bad Clusters1. Click the "Start" button in the bottom left corner of your Microsoft Windows desktop, then click "Run."2. Type "cmd" into the available text field in the Run dialog box.3. Click the "OK" button. A command prompt window will open that allows you to run DOS-based programs.4. Type "chkdsk /r" into the command prompt. A message telling the user that ChkDsk cannot run because the volume is in use will display.5. Press "Y" on the keyboard to schedule the program to run at the next system restart. Press ENTER.6. Close the command prompt window by clicking the "X" in the top right corner and close any programs that you have open.7. Click the "Start" button, click "Turn Off Computer," then choose "Restart" from the system shutdown menu.
How to Use Disk Checkers1) Open “My Computer”2) Right click on your hard disk (e.g. C: drive)3) Choose “properties”
How to Use Disk Checkers4) Click on the “tools” tab5) Under “error checking”, click "check now”6) Check "automatically fix file system errors" or "scan for and attempt recovery of bad sectors" and let the scan run.7) This can take quite awhile, depending on the size of your hard drive.
How to Use Disk CheckersCheck Disk may also be run fromsystem tools or the command prompt inwhich numerous switches are available.As soon as command prompt opens,type “C:” for Local Disk CThen type “chkdsk” and the chkdsk.exeutility will be executed to find potentialerrors
Advantages of disk checkers The purpose of this program is to identify and fix bugs within the hard drive. Check Disk is designed for hard drives with huge storage space and the software expedites the process indefinitely. You can call for this software by commanding the computer “chkdsk” on your DOS system. Check Disk also provides information about the corrupted parts of the hard drive so that your operating system can identify these areas and notify the user.
What is Disk DefragmentationDefragmentation is a process that reduces the amount of fragmentation in file systems.It does this by physically organizing the contents of the disk to store the pieces ofeach file close together and contiguously. The movement of the hard drives read/writeheads over different areas of the disk when accessing fragmented files is slower.Sometimes when you install a program or create a data file, the file ends up choppedup into chunks and stored in multiple locations on the disk. This is calledfragmentation.Disk Defragmenter is a utility which has been developed withthe rapid advance of drive technology.http://www.fast-defrag.com/articles/
Reasons To DefragDisks are hard working, mechanical devices and, like allmechanical devices, prone to failure. A little preventativemaintenance can warn you of potential problems and fix minorglitches before they can do damage to your data.The way files are organised on your drive has a perceptible impacton the performance of your computer. If your files are storedneatly, end-to-end, without fragmentation, reading and writing tothe disk is speedier.http://www.geekgirls.com/windows_defrag.htm
How to Defrag the Hard Disk Click on:1) Start Button2) All Programs3) Accessories4) System Tools5) Disk Defragmenter
How to Defrag the Hard Disk Click on:Defragment Disk
How to Defrag the Hard Disk Disk is being Defragmented
Advantages of Defragmentation Speeds up a slow computer. It takes less time for your PC to gather files, as they are not broken up into pieces. Optimize the time it takes to read and write files to & from the disk by minimizing head travel time and maximizing the transfer rates. For Windows XP, Disk Defragmenter is also used to improve system startup times. Elongates the life span of your drive
Disadvantages of Defragmentation Takes lot of time to complete the defragmentation process because it is a batch process. E.g. It can take a minimum of around 12hours to defragment a 250GB Hard Disk. It does not defragment files residing in the Recycle Bin or files that are in use. In particular, this includes the registry, page file, hibernation file or system files. Only local volumes can be defragmented, network volumes are not supported. A partition must have a certain amount of free space on the drive for the Disk Defragmenter to work properly. E.g. 15% free memory for Microsoft Windows XP You can only run one instance of Disk Defragmenter at a time and your hard disk is temporarily very slow during the defragmentation process.
What are Disk CleanersDisk Cleanup (cleanmgr.exe) is a computer maintenance utility included in MicrosoftWindows designed to free up disk space on a computers hard drive. The utility firstsearches and analyzes the hard drive for files that are no longer of any use, and thenremoves the unnecessary files. It also helps for the following functions: Remove Files Stored on Your Hard Disk Remove Windows Components Remove Installed Programs Remove Restore PointsThe Elder Geek on Windows XP - Disk Cleanup Utility
Functions of Disk Cleaner Clear cookies that enter your system when you are on the internet. Clear history of recent file that you have accessed. Clear history of recent sites you have accessed. Clean the disk from the unwanted files that take up space on your drive.
Uses & Examples of Disk CleanersDisk Cleanup (cleanmgr.exe) from the diskproperties window, is a computermaintenance utility included in MicrosoftWindows designed to free up disk space ona computers hard drive.
Uses & Examples of Disk CleanersCcleaner (formerly Crap Cleaner),supports the cleaning of temporary orpotentially unwanted files left by certainprograms, including Firefox, Opera,Internet Explorer,, Windows MediaPlayer, Microsoft Office, Nero, and otherapplications along with browsing history,cookies, Recycle bin, memory dumps, filefragments, log files, system caches,application data, auto complete formhistory, and various other data.Theprogram also includes a registry cleanerto locate and correct problems in theWindows registry, such as missingreferenceshttp://www.piriform.com/ccleaner
Uses & Examples of Disk CleanersAbsolute Shield Disk Cleaner :Protects your privacy by cleaning up all the tracks of your Internet and computeractivities. The tool is integrated with IE and it can erase the browser cache, history,cookies, typed URLs, autocomplete list, and other tracks, all with a single click.Advanced Disk Cleaner:Every day the programs on your computer create temporary and garbage files andleave them behind on your hard disk. These files build up over time, taking upvaluable hard disk space and slowing your system down.Advanced Disk Cleaner is a free program which makes it easy to quickly find andwipe away all the garbage files on your computer. It scans your disks quickly andthen displays the garbage files so you can decide which of them you want removed.The program accurately detects and identifies only the garbage files.http://www.softcrazy.com
How to use Disk Clean Up 1) Choose Start 2) All Programs 3) Accessories 4) System Tools 5) Disk Cleanup
How to use Disk Clean Up4) Choose the type of files to delete by checking the proper box on the left hand side.5) Click on “Clean up system files to clean the unwanted files.
Advantages of Disk Cleaners Helps to maintain privacy of data accessed Helps to free up memory space by getting rid of cookies Optimize the processing capability of the computer because there is less redundant data to be catered for. It cleans up the hard disk quicker than someone deleting each item one at a time manually.
Disadvantages of Disk Cleaners Need to be cautiously used if doing research for assignments. E.g. forgetting to bookmark an important webpage. Disk cleaners deletes the history. The manager of firms cannot know what are the sites that the subordinates are accessing. Sites like facebook or rogues sites are prohibited in some firms.
Simulation 007Miss Moneypenny who works at the MI-6office of M, stores a list of all the agents.The list has all confidential details of thereal identities of the agents from 001 to050, including the famous 007.She sees that her computer is really slowand takes loads of time to access the file ofpersonal details of the agents. The storagemedium is her hard disk.Being a computer-literate secretary, shededuces that her system must be havingsome bad clusters. So she runs the diskchecker to scan her hard disk afterbacking up her important files in asecondary memory such as a flash disk.
Simulation 007Her hard disk is scanned and the utility detects some anomalies with herdisk. She then uses the disk cleaner to clean up her disk from the unwantedfiles that have filled her system from the daily use of all types of networks tocontact all the agents on mission all across the globe.But she still finds that the hard disk properties is displaying 80% full whenshe knows that there is only 65% of the disk full. Then she uses the DiskDefragmenter to defrag her disk and recuperate the maximum memorypossible.So these four Utilities enabled Miss Moneypenny to rely only on herselfrather than depending on Q to handle her computer System.
References Early IBM disk storage - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.mht http://computer.howstuffworks.com/ http://dictionary.babylon.com/ http://en.wikipedia.org/ http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/ http://support.dell.com/ http://wiki.answers.com/ http://www.adrc.com/ http://www.fast-defrag.com/ http://www.geek.com/ http://www.geekgirls.com/ http://www.howstuffworks.com http://www.piriform.com/ http://www.techterms.com/ http://www.wordiq.com/ The Elder Geek on Windows XP - Disk Cleanup Utility