Introduction by each team mate. Good afternoon everyone, our presentation today is on the classical theory of motivation, it has been prepared by D.N, Z.T & M.C.
Content : NaikoProcess: ManishClassical : Zoul
Zoul – Followed by Question : “ But naiko, if the classical theory into the management field at a later stage, how was management before the Classical theory in the 1800?
Naiko will ask clarification on Rule of thumb
Manish – only first 2 point3rd point - Naiko
Naiko – will ask wuestion about rabble theory
Manish – To elaborate on each pointNaiko will ask question to Zoul about Soldiering
Manish – Naiko ask question to Zoul
Zoul, Followed by Naiko’s question1st point – reducing unit cost
Zoul – Zoul’ Conclusion
There were many who came after but some were more famous than the other - Zoul
Therefore, as conclusion, we could say…1st – Manish2nd – Zoul3rd –Naiko4th – Manish5th - Naiko
Question to be answered by any.
Zoul will say bottom line. END
Classical theory of motivation by Deepraj Naiko, Manish Cushmagee & Zouleikha Toorawa
Bachelor in Business Management Students; Proudly Present
What is Motivation? Motivation is what drives a person into doing something. It is the expectation of a potential reward that inspires a person into accomplishing a specific task. (Grazier P, n.d, Team Building) Motivation can also be defined as the devotion of considerable effort into achieving something that a person values. It is usually goal-oriented. (C.Dorman and P.Gaudiano, Brain Theory and Neural Networks, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press) Motivation is an internal process that energizes people to engage in certain types of behaviours (Gokhool D. n.d., Organisation and Management, MGT 1111, University of Mauritius) Each day brings with it an endless list of decisions to be made. The process of making those decisions is driven, in large part, by the hope of a benefit which triggers the motivation process. (Stewart W., 2004, A Study of the Motivations for Members of St. John Ambulance)
Three main categories of motivation Co n te n t th e o r i e s o f m o t i va t i o n ; [ B a s e d o n t h e i d e a t h a t p e o p l e e xp e r i e n ce a n u m b e r o f s p e c i f i c a c t iv i t i e s to f u l f i l l t h e i r needs] P ro c e s s th e o r i e s o f m o t i va t i o n ; [ G o e s a s te p f u r t h e r a n d e xp l a i n s h ow b e h av i o u r i s a ro u s e d a n d e n e rg i ze d ] C l a s s i ca l th e o r y o f m o t i va t i o n ; [ P ro p a g a te s t h a t p e o p l e n e e d to wo rk l i ke m a c h i n e s a n d b e c l o s e l y m o n i to re d fo r i n c re a s e d o u t p u t ]
Classical Theory of Motivation People need to be controlled, are basically lazy and are not to be trusted. People should be controlled like machines to get the best out of them. Create efficient work processes so that each one knows exactly what he has to do. Maximize outputs and control inputs for increased profits.
Management in the early 1800’s Success depended entirely on the workmen, whatsoever be his speed of work. The workman chose his own work and trained himself as he could. Most of the work & greater part of the responsibility were thrown upon men. The workers had a notable advantage in that their superiors had no idea how long a job should take. Was following the “Rule-of-Thumb” Method
What is the Rule-of-Thumb Method? The expression rule of thumb has been recorded since 1692. It basically meant some method or procedure that comes from practice or experience, without any formal basis or training, just as mothers for generations have tested the temperature of the baby’s bath water with their elbows. (http://www.wikipedia.com/rule-of-thumb.htm/) It is much more likely that it comes from the ancient use of body parts to make measurements, such as the unit of the foot for measuring distance.
How Classical Theory Immerged? The management world was stricken by the publication of “The Principles of Scientific Management” in 191o. It included time studies, standardization of tools and implements, standardization of work methods and other experiments which laid the groundwork for the principles of scientific management. It all started when a simple man, armed with a stopwatch, set out to study people’s work by examining exactly what was taking place and how long it took. He was, Frederick Winslow Taylor…
Who was Frederick Winslow Taylor? He was born in Germantown, Pennsylvania, on March 20, 1856. Taylor began his working life as an apprentice at the William Sellers Company in Philadelphia. In twelve years at Midvale, from 1878 to 1889, he was clerk, labourer, keeper of tool cribs, assistant foreman, foreman, master mechanic, director of research, and finally chief engineer of the entire plant .
Then, after he left Midvale and accepted a job at Bethlehem Steel, he developed the Taylor-White Process for treating tool steel, which revolutionized metal cutting techniques. Taylor toiled, using time and motion studies to determine the most efficient method for performing each work task, a piece-rate system of compensation to maximize employee work effort, and the selection and training of employees based on a thorough investigation of their personalities and skills.
He spread the idea of a fair day’s pay for a fair day’s work. He set all his beliefs and observations based upon his “Rabble Hypothesis”.
What was Taylor’s Rabble Hypothesis? 1. Natural society consists of a horde of unorganized individuals. 2. Every individual acts in a manner calculated to secure his self-interest. Taylor portrayed that crafty workers tried to squeeze more money for less effort. 3. Every individual thinks logically, to the best of his ability, in the service of this aim. This is why the best incentive to induce workers to work harder is money. (http://courses.bus.ualberta.ca/org417-reshef/taylor.htm)
What is Scientific Management? Scientific Management is a philosophy and a set of principles an organization uses to make the most of workers physical capabilities. (http://courses.bus.ualberta.ca/org417-reshef/taylor.htm) Scientific Management creates an organization that struggles for maximum interchangeability of personnel with minimum training to reduce its dependence on the availability, ability, or motivation of individuals. (Yonatan R., 2001, Taylor’s Principles of SM, University of Alberta)
Scientific Management Select specific workers to do specific tasks. Observe them and then note the key elements. Record the time taken to do each part of the task. Train all workers to do the task in the quickest way. Pay workers on the basis of results. Supervise workers to avoid soldiering.
What is Soldiering according to Taylor? Experience, both as a worker and as a manager, had convinced him that very few workers put more than the minimal effort into their daily work. He described this tendency as “soldiering”. (Datamatics Centre, n.d., Practice & Principle of Management, Courseware) Even those employees who wanted to perform to the best of their capabilities were forced to conform to an informal, group-made norm that was always lower than their optimal performance, thus the whole shop conspired to restrict production. (http://courses.bus.ualberta.ca/org417-reshef/taylor.htm)
Scientific Management evolved from Taylorism Considered money to be the main motivator for workers. Extreme division of labour - Train & give workers a smaller number of tasks to complete. Payment by results - Earnings related to Productivity. Tight management control Reduction in ‘unit costs’
Scientific Management v/s Old Management Strategies Scientifically selected and then trained, taught, and developed the workman, whereas in the past he chose his own work and trained himself as he could. There is an almost equal division of the work and the responsibility between the management and the workmen. while in the past almost all of the work and the greater part of the responsibility were thrown upon the men.
How Far was Scientific Management Convincing? He described Scientific Management as “75% science and 25% common sense”. Taylor carried out the Schmidt Experiment to support his Scientific theory so as to convince people that he was right. Mr Schmidt, a little Pennsylvania Dutchman, was in fact a pig iron handler. Taylor calculated & proved that Schmidt could load 47 tons a day rather than the usual 12½ tons if he was motivated with an increase in his pay, from $1.15 to $1.85
Advantages of Scientific Management Increased profits to the firms. Got rid of unions and prevented any prospective rebellion. Increased the thrift & value of the working classes Rise in productivity led to mass production, which resulted in high consumption by all classes. No wastage of resources as workers were being closely monitored.
Where was Scientific Management Adopted? Taylor’s ideas were to start mass production. Henry Ford was one of the first to use his methods with the production of the ‘Model T Ford’. Henry Ford famously said ‘“The man who puts in a bolt does not put on the nut; the man who puts on the nut does not tighten it.” (Drucker P., 1989, The Practice of Management, Heinemann, Oxford) Taylorism provided the technological and intellectual foundations for Fordism -- a system whereby giant factories employ thousands of mainly unskilled workers and specialized machines to turn out huge quantities of a single product
The Watertown Arsenal reduced the labour cost of making certain moulds for the pommel of a packsaddle from $1.17 to 54 cents through Taylorism. The labour cost of building a six-inch gun carriage fell from $ 10,229 to $ 6,950 with Taylor’s Scientific Strategies. As a result of Taylor’s beliefs, jobs were simplified, categorised and narrowed in a fairly rigid, formal autocratic and highly rational manner, which was a success for a period of time. (M.Lab - The Management Laboratory, n.d.)
Was Everyone Satisfied with Taylorism? Much later, Taylor himself found that many of the wide-ranging changes he implemented were both unsuccessful and unpopular. There was also resistance to Taylor’s ideas from both management and workers in certain firms. Resistance had its roots in power struggles as younger managers tried to implement reform without the willing consent of their older colleagues.
Opposition of labour was, typically, more intense. If the first task of Taylor in the shop was “to break the power of the foremen”, the immediate response of the foremen was “mass resignation, violence, and threats of violence”. This approach eventually lost importance as employees became increasingly dissatisfied and developed some understanding of the human being and its needs, which resulted in the Human Relations Approach
Was Taylorism followed by all? Henry Ford followed Taylorism even to the extent to fire his managers who tried to bring innovative changes in his way of doing business by spying on them with the help of Ford Police. This led to the near-collapse of the Ford Empire after the death of his only son, Edsel Ford. (Drucker P., 1989, The Practice of Management, Heinemann, Oxford) The revival of Ford Motor(1944) is one of the epics of American business. His 25-year old grandson, Henry Ford II revived Ford with building and organisation of management. He did not follow Taylorism at all. (Drucker P., 1989, The Ford Story , Heinemann, Oxford)
Disadvantages of Scientific Management Boring and repetitive jobs were attributed to the workers. Lack of skills required led to loss of skills in the workforce as they were all dependant on the machines that did most of the jobs. Led to low morale amongst the workforce as they were not given any importance.
Taylor didn’t see workers as people, but rather machines that should be run at maximum speed. This approach neglected job satisfaction, proper working conditions, and human feelings. Elton Mayo, of Harvard University, used the Hawthorne Studies to prove that not all people work for money. People want to feel valued and important as well as recognised for their works.
What happened after Taylorism?1. Abraham Maslow (1908 – 1970) contributed to motivationand management thinking through the ‘Hierarchy of Needs’which suggested that we all have different needs apart frommoney.(Evolution of a Motivation Theory, 2006, Result Plus Pty Ltd)
2. Frederick Herzberg (1923 – 2000) proposed a two-factorapproach; the being what he calls “Satisfiers” or MotivatingFactors, and the second being what he calls “Dissatisfiers” orHygiene Factors.(Evolution of a Motivation Theory, 2006, Result Plus Pty Ltd)
Is Taylorism Still Present Today? Taylorism is still very much with us. Taylor’s influence is omnipresent. It’s his ideas that determine how many burgers McDonald’s expects its flippers to flip. (Brent Schlender, “The Businessman of the Century”, Fortune, 22 November 1999) It’s Taylorism that elaborates how many callers the phone company expects its operators to assist.
References C.Dorman and P.Gaudiano, Brain Theory and Neural Networks, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (Gokhool D., n.d., Organisation and Management, MGT 1111, University of Mauritius) Stewart Watkiss, A Study of the Motivations for Members of St. John Ambulance, 2004 (Drucker P., 1989, The Practice of Management, Heinemann, Oxford) Frederick Winslow Taylor, The Principles of Scientific Management, 1910 M.Lab- The Management Laboratory National Humanities Center, Research Triangle Park, NC. 2005 Thomas A. Stewart, Alex Taylor, Peter Petre, and Brent Schlender, “The Businessman of the Century”, Fortune, 22 November 1999. Taylor’s Scientific Management - Yonatan Reshef, Faculty of Business, University of Alberta. http://courses.bus.ualberta.ca/orga417-reshef/taylor.htm Evolution of a Motivation Theory, Result Plus Pty Ltd, 2006 www.resultplus.com.au Levenhagen M., 2005, Five Secrets of Motivation,