WHAT IS BIOMETRICS?
The word biometrics comes from the
Greek words bio and metric,
meaning'' life measurement''. By
measuring something unique about
an individual and using that to
identify them, we can achieve a
dramatic improvement in security of
the key store. Newer biometric
measurements include DNA from
tissue samples, voice pattern, face
pattern or even the arrangement of
blood vessels in the retina or pattern
of coloration in the cornea of the eye.
WHY USE BIOMETRICS?
Only biometrics can verify you as you
Tokens (smartcards, etc.) aren't you and can be:
Passwords aren't you and can be:
SHORT HISTORY OF
Joao de Barros, an explorer and writer, wrote that Chinese
merchants used a form of biometrics by stamping children’s palm
prints and footprints on paper with ink .In doing this, the Chinese
solved a way to distinguish young children from one another. This is
one of the earliest known cases of biometrics .Later an
anthropologist named Alphonse Bertillion sought to fix the problem
of identifying convicted criminals. He found that even if names
changed, even if a person comes in disguise, certain elements of
the body remained fixed” . This led him to form a method of
measuring the distinguishable parts of a person’s body, which never
changed throughout their life . Whenever a new criminal was
caught, instead of taking down their name, the authorities would
measure them and look for a matching card . This system was
adopted by prisons and police stations across the country and
world. As technology gets more and more advanced, the ways to
distinguish the different biometrical signalments become more and
more precise. led to field of biometric technologies that we live in
Biometrics are used in two major ways : Identification and
Identification is determining who a person is. It involves
taking the measured characteristic and trying to find a
match in a database containing records of people and that
characteristic. This method can require a large amount of
processing power and some time if the database is very
large. It is often used in determining the identity 1of a
suspect from crime scene information.
Verification is determining if a person is who they say they
are. It involves taking the measured characteristic and
comparing it to the previously recorded data for that
person. This method requires less processing power and
time, and is often used for accessing places or information.
FINGERPRINT - ANALYZING
Among all the biometric techniques, fingerprint-based
identification is the oldest method, which has been
successfully used in numerous applications. Everyone is
known to have unique, immutable fingerprints.
A fingerprint is made of a series of
ridges and furrows on the surface of the
finger. The uniqueness of a fingerprint
can be determined by the pattern of
ridges and furrows as well as the
DRAW BACKS OF FINGURE PRINT
When hand is injured or burnt and even if we
have slight disturbance in the cuticles also it
will not access the user. So,it’s a failure.
The potential uses for this biometric appear to be limited
only by the willingness of people to use it.
VASCULAR PATTERNS - ANALYZING
Vascular patterns are best described as a picture of
the veins in a person's hand or face. The thickness
and location of these veins are believed to be unique
enough to an individual to be used to verify a
person's identity. The most common form of vascular
pattern readers are hand-based, requiring the user to
place their hand on a curved reader that takes an
infrared scan. This scan creates a picture that can
then be compared to a database to verify the user's
Vascular pattern scanners can be found in testing at
major military installations and is being considered by
some established companies in the security industry
and multi-outlet retailers. advantages over its
counterparts, including the great difficulty in
emulating another person's vein structure, and not
having to worry about rain, glasses, or external
injuries. effects of aging, heart attacks, and medical
problems with one's arteries on the scans has yet to
be determined fully. It also requires a large amount of
space to mount the device is that the entire hand can
be scanned which may restrict its usability. Currently it
is still building acceptance
It cant be used alone.
It should be used with another biometric technique.
FACIAL RECOGNITION MEASURING FACIAL
• User faces the camera, standing about two feet from it. The
system will locate the user's face and perform matches against
the claimed identity or the facial database. It is possible that the
user may need to move and re attempt the verification based on
his facial position. The system usually comes to a decision in less
than 5 seconds.
To prevent a fake face or mold from faking out the system, many
systems now require the user to smile, blink, or otherwise move
in a way that is human before verifying. Up to 128 Eigen vectors
are created for each person in order to achieve unmistakable
identification. Facial Recognition System (FRS) is combined with
other suitable biometric technologies to reduce nuisance and
false alarm rates. In a controlled environment with proper
lighting and choke points, the system can be combined with
access control systems to limit access through particular
Iris recognition is a method of
biometric uses pattern recognition
techniques based on high-resolution
images of the irides of an individual's
eyes. unique structures converted into
digital templates, provide
mathematical representations of the
iris that yield unambiguous positive
identification of an individual.
Advantages of iris recognition
ITS STABLITY, OR TEMPLATE LONGEVITY
AS, BARRING TRAUMA, A SINGLE
ENROLLMENT CAN LAST A LIFETIME
You can cheat the iris scanner by putting on lens
RETINAL SCAN - ANALYZING BLOOD
VESSELS IN THE EYE
Oldest biometrics as 1930's research
suggested Scanning involves using a
low-intensity light source and an
optical coupler and can read the
patterns at a great level of accuracy.
It does require the user to remove
glasses, place their eye close to the
device, and focus on a certain point.
that the patterns of blood vessels on
the back of the human eye were
unique to each individual
There is no known way to replicate a retina, and a retina from a dead person
would deteriorate too fast to be useful, so no extra precautions have been
taken with retinal scans to be sure the user is a living human being. The
difficulty in fooling such a device also make it a great long-term, high-security
DNA - ANALYZING GENETIC MAKEUP
DNA evidence play a big part in many nations'
criminal justice systems. It has been used to prove
that suspects were involved in crimes and to free
people who were wrongly convicted.It has been
integral to several high-profile criminal cases. Most
people have a basic idea of what DNA is. It's
essentially an instruction manual and blueprint for
everything in your body. A DNA molecule is a long,
twisting chain known as a double helix.
DNA is tightly wrapped into 23 pairs of chromosomes. This is what makes DNA
evidence so valuable in investigations -- it's almost impossible for someone
else to have DNA that is identical to yours.
SPEAKER RECOGNITION ANALYZING VOCAL BEHAVIOR
Voice authentication, also known as “speaker verification”, is
defined as the automated verification of a person’s claimed
identity, based on unique characteristics of their voice. A
simple microphone is enough to record the voice, and then
most of the algorithm are analyzing the voice spectrum.
Voice and speech can be combined to get a better system:
To prevent recorded voice use, most devices require the high and low
frequencies of the sound to match, which is difficult for many recording
instruments to recreate well. Also, some devices generate random number
sequences for each verification.
SIGNATURE - ANALYZING
Handwriting recognition system's sensors can include a
touch-sensitive writing surface or a pen that contains
sensors that detect angle, pressure and direction. The
software translates the handwriting into a graph and
recognizes the small changes in a person's handwriting
from day to day and over time.
Specific details recorded by signature-scan may include the total time
taken to sign, the ration of pen-up to pen-down time, the speed of the
strokes, the pressure applied, the number and direction of the strokes,
and the total size of the signature, among other variables". So a forger
would have to recreate your signature within some window of time while
applying the correct pressure, except for 'pressure applied'.
Biometrics has all of the desirable characteristics that we described in the
beginning.we might develop an automated biometrics-based
identification/verification system like Vein pattern , Ear shape , Body odor ,
Body salinity (salt) , Electronic nose The next few years you will see just about
every thing come with biometric protection. Mobile phones, MP3 players,
cars, laptop computers, building access, locker access.
Biometrics is a very interesting and exciting field that
has be growing exponentially in recent years . The
wide variety of physically unique traits our bodies give
us will soon allow us to live in a very secure passwordless world. As the demands for high-performance and
highly reliable biometrics-based
identification/verification systems increase, more
hybrid biometrics-based systems are expected to be
developed to meet the ever-increasing needs for
automated personal identification.
“ IN FUTURE BIOMETRICS WILL BE THE
DOOR WAY TO ALL THE ACCESABLE