An electronic integrated circuit which transforms a signal from analog (continuous) to digital (discrete) form. Analog signals are directly measurable quantities. Digital signals only have two states. For digital computer, we refer to binary states, 0 and 1.
Microprocessors can only perform complex processing on digitized signals. When signals are in digital form they are less susceptible to the deleterious effects of additive noise. ADC Provides a link between the analog world of transducers and the digital world of signal processing and data handling.
ADC are used virtually everywhere where an analog signal has to be processed, stored, or transported in digital form. Some examples of ADC usage are digital volt meters, cell phone, thermocouples, and digital oscilloscope. Microcontrollers commonly use 8, 10, 12, or 16 bit ADCs, our micro controller uses an 8 or 10 bit ADC.
Dual Slope A/D Converter Successive Approximation A/D Converter Flash A/D Converter Delta-Sigma A/D Converter Other Voltage-to-frequency, staircase ramp or singleslope, charge balancing or redistribution, switchedcapacitor, tracking, and synchro or resolver
The general smart concept was narrowed down to a specific goal: to improve the performance of a high-speed, high-resolution ADC in terms of the speed/power/accuracy trade-off. Two key-factors were investigated that have the potential to enable high-performance AD converters for high-speed/high-resolution applications, namely: Open-loop circuitry. Time-interleaving.
In electronics, a digital-to-analog converter (DAC or D-to-A) is a device that converts a digital (usually binary) code to an analog signal (current, voltage, or electric charge). An analog- to-digital converter (ADC) performs the reverse operation. Signals are easily stored and transmitted in digital form, but a DAC is needed for the signal to be recognized by human senses or other non-digital systems. A common use of digital-to-analog converters is generation of audio signals from digital information in music players.
A simplified functional diagram of an 8-bit DAC
The pulse-width modulator, the simplest DAC type. A stable current or voltage is switched into a low- pass analog filter with a duration determined by the digital input code. This technique is often used for electric motor speed control, but has many other applications as well.
Resolution: Maximum sampling rate Monotonicity: THD+N : Dynamic range:
The smart concept was applied to DA converters with as aim to minimize the analog area as much as possible, and to use digital processing instead to solve the related accuracy problem.