sing the PDCA method, your company will discover what processes need to improve..... from what we “think” are the problems to what we “know” are the problems. Through use of flowcharts and root cause analysis you will determine where the waste is, implement the changes, and set up measurement systems to create greater efficiencies and reduce the areas of waste.
Standard defined problem solving methodology should be applied on the basis of the complexity of the task since it requires high amount of manpower and time.
PDCA has a laid a systematical background to the problem solving but there are many problem solving tools :8DDMAICTRIZ ( German Standard for inventive problem solving) Rapid problem resolution (IT)Grow ( Goal, reality, obstacles and way forward) Math approachKepner-TregoeDMADV- Define, measure, Analyse, Design and VerifyLean Kaizen Six sigma tool box: Kano Model-customer requirement structuring
The PDCA Cycle (figure 4) was originally conceived by Walter Shewhart(1930), and is often referred to as "the Shewhart Cycle". It was lateradopted and promoted for quality purposes very effectively by the famousQuality Management authority, W. Edwards Deming. The model provides aframework for the improvement of a process or system and is shaped byfours main steps: plan, do, check and act.
D0-Gathered very shortly after defect was found ( info lost with time) like: m/c, operator, batch details, time of failure, processing conditions and special circumstances. 8D is extensively used when there is a defect. Application: AutoManfHealth careData processingSoftware developmentFinancial Services
Gemba is a japanese word means the real place or job floor or production floor where the value addition activity wrt the customer takes place.
e.g. specifications, training manuals, or “mistake proofing” the process
8D problem solving
Problem solving techniquesSandeep Bangera17th May 20138D- Methodology
15/2/2012Gap between existing state and the desired stateQualityproblemsDesignProduct ProcessesPerformanceConformanceProblemEfficiencyproblemUnstructuredperformanceproblemSource: Quality management journal, Fall 1994Figure 1: Problem in Quality managementProblemProblem Problem solving 8D Conclusion 8D-template8D Methodology 2 17/05/2013
Low risk High riskSimpleWhen do we apply structured problem solving methods??Highly ComplexBuying BreadBaking BreadPlaying BlackjackDeciding where tobuild a factoryFigure 2: Risk and complexity analysisProblem SolvingProblem Problem solving 8D Conclusion8D Methodology 38D-template17/05/2013
Figure 3: Shewhart Cycle or Deming’s CycleSource: Quality management handbook, pg. 41, Dec . 2005Problem Solving stepsProblem Problem solving 8D Conclusion8D Methodology 48D-template17/05/2013
Source: Quality management, 2nd edition, Pearson education, upper saddle river, NJFigure 4: Deming’s cycle with toolsProblem Solving steps with toolsProblem Problem solving 8D Conclusion8D Methodology 58D-template17/05/2013
1974: Used by US Defence Department in a military standard.1987: Ford company popularised the 8D concepts• Preliminary data of the problemD0• Establishing the TeamD1• Problem descriptionD2• Containment actionD3• Identify the root causeD4• Identify Permanent Corrective actionD5• Validating the corrective actionD6• Prevent recurrenceD7• Verify and congratulate teamD8Figure 5: 8D MethodologyProblem Solving Methodology8DProblem Problem solving 8D Conclusion8D Methodology 68D-template17/05/2013
D1Interdisciplinary team with:-• Right skills• Experience• AuthorityObjective of team Captain:• Common goalEstablishing the teamPicture: The zenith of enthusiasm: The strength of team workFigure 6: Team formationProblem Problem solving 8D Conclusion8D Methodology 78D-template17/05/2013
D2 Problem Description“ A problem well described is half solved”Problem must be:• Clearly described• Scale of problem• Place of occurrence• Measurable• Well communicated• Tools -WWWWWH, Pareto & control charts• Mapping out the process with a sketchFigure 7: Pareto chartFigure 8: WWWWWHProblem Problem solving 8D Conclusion8D Methodology 88D-template17/05/2013
D3 Containment actionImplement containment actions to prevent non-conformance products.• Company’s end of the line• Customer side of the line• Customer stock• Company’s stock.D4 Root cause analysisWhy?To ensure effective corrective action aimed at permanent solution.How?Using appropriate systematic approach:-brainstorming, FMEA, 5 why’s, CE , Is or Is not analysis etc. to identify root causeCheck sheet, histogram, comparison plots etc. to evaluate stratification factorsProblem Problem solving 8D Conclusion8D Methodology 98D-template17/05/2013
• Project management schedule• Validation of PCA using SPC and FMEA under real test condition.• If not, revisit step D2-D5.D5 Identify permanent corrective action (PCA)• Identify PCA on basis of the root cause analysis.• Preparation of feasibility study for the PCAHow?• Solution on basis of root cause.• Statistical process control (SPC)• FMEAD6 Implement & Validating corrective actionProblem Problem solving 8D Conclusion8D Methodology 118D-template17/05/2013
D7 Prevent recurrence• Revise the system flow and procedures• Make system changes to prevent recurrence• Standardize the new practices• Notify all departments of the resolution• Document lesson learnt and archive the documentD8 Congratulate team• Celebrate your team successProblem Problem solving 8D Conclusion8D Methodology 128D-template17/05/2013
Conclusion•8D methodology is a structured approach of problem solving for quality problems.•Model can used to solve problems in business operations, Customer complaint,internal complaints, complaints lodged on the supplier.• Model raises the level of quality thus reducing the costs of defects.8DProblem Problem solving 8D Conclusion8D Methodology 138D-templateFigure 11: 8D methodology17/05/2013
8D Methodology 148D template of company ABBProblem Problem solving 8D Conclusion 8D-template17/05/2013
Problem Problem solving 8D Conclusion8D Methodology 15References• Gerald F Smith, Quality problem solving, American society of quality, 1998.• 6ixsigma.org, 8D book,Available at: http://6ixsigma.org/8d-book.aspx [Accessed: 25 Apr 2013]• Problem solving, Quality Management handbook, December 2005.• Uzair Rajput, 8D- problem solving method, Quality management handbook• Fideltronik, 8D-problem solving methodology• Marjanca Krajnc, 8D-methodology, Journal of universal excellence, October 2012.• Bill Arnott, 8D-problem solving methodology, Canada.• ABB, 8D problem solving template, http://www05.abb.com/global[Accessed: 25 Apr 2013]17/05/2013