Presentation Study on CMM And Application
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Featured Study on CMM and its application.study of different sensors and laser sensor technology applications

Featured Study on CMM and its application.study of different sensors and laser sensor technology applications

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    Presentation Study on CMM And Application Presentation Study on CMM And Application Presentation Transcript

    • A graduate research project on PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF COORDINATE MEASURING MACHINES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS SANDEEP Y. BAGUL December 2009
    • Table of Contents
      • Introduction
      • Components of Coordinate Measuring Machine
      • The Fundamental Elements of the Coordinate Measuring Machine
      • CMM Mechanical Structure
      • The Sensors
      • Laser Scanner Technology CMM Application
      • Long Range Terrestrial Laser Scanner
      • 3D image Recording of Human Face
      • Laser Tracker
      • Handy Scan Laser Scanner
      • Long Range Surveying
      • 3D Laser Scanning Robot
      • Software
      • Conclusion
      • Future Work
      • References
    • Introduction
      • Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) is a measuring device to find the coordinates of point on a work surface by gradual movement of a measuring probe.
      • CMMs have four major components: machine, the probe contact or non-contact, the computer control system, and the software.
      • Measure profiles, orientation, digitizing, shaft, depth-mapping and angularity measurement.
      • The position on worktable is determined from X,Y,Z coordinates by the measuring probe.
      • CMMs are also considered as transducers that can convert physical measurements into electrical signals.
      • These measuring probes are available in touch-trigger or contact probes and laser scanning probes or non-contact probes. 
      •  
    • Introduction A Typical CMM
    • Components of Coordinate Measuring Machine
      • CMM, based on your hardware configuration and software and the operational context using different activities are called “Applications”.
      • The main applications carried out with the CMMs are
      • Gauging
      • Scanning
      • Scribing
      • Light drilling
    • Components of Coordinate Measuring Machine Gauging:
      • This activity is carried out to verify the status of a physical object with respect to its theoretical definition, the latter expressed either by means of a drawing or a mathematical model.
      • The parameters taken into consideration to compare the object feature to its nominal description are “Dimension, Form, Orientation and Position”.
      Gauging of part using a continuous sensor fitted on index able wrist
    • Components of Coordinate Measuring Machine Digitizing:
      • The procedure, carried out with a CMM, in order to define the mathematical model of a part with theoretically unknown surface is called “Digitizing”.
      • In Digitizing, two kind of design: the “functional” and the “creative” design.
      • Functional design based on “experience/knowledge”
      • Creative design based on the “aesthetic” aspect.
      • By means of digitizing sessions X, Y and Z co-ordinates of the points on surface can be known.
      • It allows the generation of the “surface entity” of the digitized model.
    • Components of Coordinate Measuring Machine Digitizing: Part scanning on a Traveling Bridge CMM
    • Components of Coordinate Measuring Machine Scribing:
      • This activity consists of scribing physical lines (or other 2D geometric elements) on the surface of the part to be analyzed.
      • Part is painted with special colors (either blue or white)
      • By means of hard cutting mechanical devices, fitted on the probe holder of the CMM, lines representing characteristic elements of the part are engraved on the paint.
      • The line scribing is made along two Cartesian axes.
      • Determine the third dimension at the intersection point of two scribed lines.
      • Scribing can be used to determine material allowance.
      • Number of tool to carry out scribing operations, such as:
      • Reference plates, High gauge Squares, Compasses and Scribing tools.
    • Components of Coordinate Measuring Machine Scribing: Scribing a part by means of an Horizontal Arm CMM
    • Components of Coordinate Measuring Machine Light milling:
      • The milling on CMM is carried out in styling studios in order to reproduce scaled models or to modify the models themselves.
      • It Support light mechanical stress.
      • light milling operations on relatively soft materials, such as: Clay, Polystyrene, Aluminum.
      • The maximum power applicable on the spindle is of about 150÷200W.
      • Higher powers on big milling machine is numerically controlled; range of about 1.5KW may be obtained.
    • Components of Coordinate Measuring Machine Light milling: Light milling of a part by Horizontal Arm CMM
    • CMM MECHANICAL STRUCTURE
      • CMM is an operating unit “Manually” or “Numerically” controlled, capable of positioning the sensorial element in any point of its working volume in an extremely repeatable mode.
      • Generally referred to as “machine”, the mechanical structure is just one of the four fundamental modules of a CMM.
      • Parameters included in Mechanical Structure are
      • Dimensions: determine the “Measuring Volume” of the structure.
      • Architecture: designed to optimize “Dynamics” (speed of the CMM)
      • Some of the consolidated architectures for CMM are:
      • Cantilever with fixed table
      • Moving Bridge and Fixed bridge
      • Gantry
      • Moving ram horizontal arm
      • Articulated arm
      • 3 D Laser Scanning
    • CMM MECHANICAL STRUCTURE Cantilever with fixed table
      • This is a CMM employing three components moving along guide ways perpendicular to one another, with the probing system attached to the first component, which is carried on, and moves vertically in relation to, the second.
      • The combined assembly of the first and the second components moves horizontally relative to the third.
      • The third component is supported at one end only, cantilever fashion, and moves horizontally relative to the machine base, on which the work piece is supported.
    • CMM MECHANICAL STRUCTURE Cantilever with fixed table Cantilever Architecture Schematic Machine base Sensor Z Y X Guide ways Axis 1 o 2 o 3 o
    • CMM MECHANICAL STRUCTURE Moving Bridge and Fixed Bridge
      • For the Moving Bridge CMM employing three components moving along guide ways perpendicular to one another, with the probing system attached to the first component, which is carried on, and moves vertically in relation to, the second.
      • The combined assembly of the first and the second components moves horizontally relative to the third.
      • The third component is supported on two legs which descend on opposite sides of the machine base and moves horizontally relative to the base, on which the work piece is supported.
      • For the Fixed Bridge, The combined assembly of the first and the second components moves horizontally along a bridge structure above, and rigidly attached at each end of, the machine base, with the work piece mounted on the third component.
    • CMM MECHANICAL STRUCTURE Moving Bridge and Fixed Bridge Moving Bridge and Fixed Bridge Architecture Schematics
    • CMM MECHANICAL STRUCTURE Articulated Arm
      • kind of architecture: anthropomorphic robot;
      • Controls in articulated arms is manual.
      • Portable in physically moving the machine where the part to be measured is located.
      • dimensional metrology operations on the welding fixtures for car body and relevant parts assembling.
      • portability and easy handling characteristics determined the diffusion of the articulated arms.
      “ Articulated Arm” Architecture CMM “
    • 3D Laser Scanner
      • 3D Laser Scanner CMM determines laser cloud point data samples from the object surface capturing work piece physical shape.
      • A digital CAD model is made.
      • A Laser Scanner is like spray painting of an object.
      • Painting goes with laser scanner. hence difficult when sprayed deep.
      • Advantages:
      • Throughout fast
      • Accurate
      • Covers all the parts.
      • It is repeatable
      • It is a non contact
      • User friendly based Windows System
      3D Laser Scanning integrated with CMM System
    • Sensors
      • The function of a CMM is to acquire information about the measurand, usually in the form of Cartesian coordinates. The devices used to explore the area to generate this information are the "sensors".
      • Two types of sensors:
      • “ Tactile” sensors.
      • “ Noncontact” sensors or "optoelectronic" sensors
      • Tactile sensors distinguish:
      • “ Rigid” sensors.
      • “ Point to point” sensors.
      • “ Continuous” sensors
      • In non contact sensors ,Two main principles are used:
      • Triangulation 3D
      • Time of Flight
    • Sensors Tactile Sensor Characteristic elements of a generic, tactile, fixed probing system 1. Co-ordinate measuring machine ram (or spindle). 2. Probe extension. 3. Probe changing system. 4. Probe. 5. Stylus changing system 6. Stylus extension 7. Stylus shaft. 8. Stylus. 9. Stylus tip. 10. Tip diameter. 11. Generic, fixed probing system. 12. Stylus system (composed of stylus system components).
    • Sensors The Rigid Sensor
      • Rigid sensor: “Touch finger” constituted by a shaft for the fitting of the touch finger in the CMM probe holder.
      • On the opposite extremity has either a sphere or a cone.
      Point measurement by means of a spherical rigid sensors
    • Sensors Point to Point Tactile Sensors
      • The point to point type of measurement determines the position of points by bringing in physical contact the tip of the sensors with the part and then retracting.
      • The point to point measurement represents a fast ideal solution to define Dimension and Position.
      Probing (point measurement) sequences
        • Legend :
        • 1 ......: Starting point.
        • 2 ......: Point probing.
      • 3 ......: Disengagement
      • after point probing
    • Sensors Point to Point Tactile Sensors
      • Tactile sensors for point to point measurement are based on “Isostatic support” concept.
      • The spring still keeps the contact closed. the force of contact balances the force of the spring itself.
      • Just before that the balance between the forces is reached, the force of contact between part and sensor causes a slight displacement of the stylus and the contact is opened.
      Isostatic support tactile sensor
    • Continued…
      • A signal is generated that allows the recording of the co-ordinates of the sphere centre at the moment of contacting the part surface. The point has been measured.
      • The CMM starts to decelerate, while the spring preloaded mechanism follows the machine movement with a slight over-travel.
      • Finally the machine retracts and the Isostatic support assumes its resting position in an extremely repeatable mode, ready to measure more points.
    • Sensors Continuous Tactile Sensors
      • In the point to point measurement the sensor gets in contact with the part to be measured.
      • In continuous measurement the sensor remains in contact with the part
      • follows its profile and measuring points according to pre-determined laws in a single measuring path.
      • Very accurate and relatively larger than point to point, the continuous sensors, can supply very complete information on the form of the measured feature.
      Probing sequence in continuous measurement
    • Sensors Non Contact Sensors
      • The non-contact sensors are based on optoelectronic techniques. These types of sensors can measure an object without physical contact with it.
      • the non-contact measurement technology allows:
      • To measure very small pieces not otherwise measurable.
      • For a faster measurement than a touch sensor.
      • To measure very soft pieces of material not otherwise measurable.
      • Noncontact sensors are based on two principles
      • 3D Triangulation Principle
      • Time of Flight Principle
    • Sensors Non contact sensor:3D Triangulation Principle
      • It is a principle based on noncontact sensor.
      • When object point C is lit by the laser, the point becomes visible to the camera. Distance d between the laser source and the camera .
      • the orientation a of the laser are known.
      • line CB is determined by connecting the lens center to the image of point C in the image plane and finding its angle with line AB.
      • In triangle ABC, by knowing d and angles a and b the position of point C on the object can be determined.
      • Increasing angle g will increase depth accuracy, but that will increase self-occlusion, making determination of depth impossible.
      The triangulation principle.
    • Continued…
      • Angle gamma determines the quantization accuracy of the scanner.
      • When this angle is small (when the laser source is near the camera or the object is very far from the camera), the quantization step in depth will be large.
      • When this angle is zero, objects at different depths cannot be distinguished from each other.
      • As this angle increases, the quantization step in depth decreases, enabling accurate depth.
    • Sensors Non contact sensor: Time of Flight Principle
      • The Time of Flight scanner is used to scan and investigate with laser light.
      • The scanner rangefinder determines the distance from work surface by noting down the timing of round trip of the light pulse.
      • The laser when emits light pulse detector has timed the reflected light.
      • If c is known speed of light. If round-trip time t is known, then distance is (c* t)/2.
      • This scanner has precise accuracy measuring time t: 3.3 picoseconds (approx.) and time for light traveling will be 1mm.
      • The distance of a point in the direction of your point of view is detected by laser range finder only.
      line of reference shown applications
    • LASER SCANNER TECHNOLOGY CMM APPLICATION
      • Laser Scanner is used in various applications for scanning the desired subject.
      • Based on Time of Flight Principle, Terrestrial Laser Scanner scans long range terrestrial surfaces and Long range surveying, Accident Investigations, Dental Laser Scanner, Laser Radars, and Laser Scanning Robot to scan mines.
      • Based on Triangulation 3D Principle, we can scan and record Human Face,
      • Multi modal Tracking of Commuters, 3D Graphics, Reverse Engineering, Metrology Inspection, Physical Analysis of Artifacts, Image Processing, and Handy scan 3D Laser scanner.
    • LASER SCANNER TECHNOLOGY CMM APPLICATION Long range Terrestrial laser Scanner
      • TLS is the distance measuring laser instrument and scanner
      • the scanner needs a mechanism to explore in different directions to cover a large area for each scan.
      • A rotating mirror polygon deflect the laser beam to different directions or rotate the entire body of the scanner.
      • the vertical field of view is usually achieved by rotating, while the horizontal deflection mirror can be obtained by any method.
      • Range (1000m) and accuracy (4mm).
      A Diagram for the Terrestrial 3D Laser Scanners
    • LASER SCANNER TECHNOLOGY CMM APPLICATION
      • The unit consists of circuits ranging signal detection to determine the distances and angles.
      • control and data logging operation.
      • TLS improvement in parametric studies of falling rocks:
      • high resolution developed by TLS, useful for rock fall inventory, control the mass of the evolution and simulation of rock fall trajectories of sand speeds.
      Study area in Spain, dotted line shows Pilot
    • Continued…
      • Moreover, reconstruction data recovered by TLS gives geometry of the set and estimate the block quantity falling for slope steep towards rocks being inaccessible
      • It digitizes whole scene and paramount objects. Figure Study area in Spain, dotted line shows Pilot
      • The rock fall is free fall relative from cliff bedrock or steep slope.
      • To analyze the susceptibility of rock fall and modeling the trajectory of the 3D rock slope
    • LASER SCANNER TECHNOLOGY CMM APPLICATION 3D Image Recording of Human Face
      • The VIVID 910 model of Konica Minolta :auto focus, portability, three interchangeable lenses, auto-focus, and color images that have a 24-bit color depth familiar to a digital camera.
      • Format export files into: VRML, DXF, STL, ASCII, OBJ points.
      • Specification:
      • Three lenses (telephoto, medium, wide angle)
      • High Speed: Scan 307,000 points in only 2.5 seconds.
      • Scan 77,000 points in 0.3 seconds.
      VI 910 3D Scanners
    • Continued…
      • Applications:
      • Reverse Engineering: create CAD legacy data from master parts
      • Archiving: Museums, Artifact cataloging, Archeology,Anthropology research
      • Quality Control Inspection of parts.
      • design studies into CAD database.
      • Computer graphics: Animation, Computer Simulations
      • First Article Inspection; Tool and Die Verification
      • Medical Applications: Surgical Planning (maxillofacial, dental and orthopedic)
      • Rapid Prototyping Input
      • Web content creation/ on-line product database creation
      • 3-D shape capture for Computer Aided Engineering Analysis (CAE and FEA)
      • Orthotics and prosthetics, plastic surgery, anthropometric measurements.
    • LASER SCANNER TECHNOLOGY CMM APPLICATION 3D Image Recording of Human Face
      • Scanning face to generate a 3D view
      • Konica Minolta Vivid 910 generate virtual complete image of several shots.
      • Take face from scanned five test persons to calculate composite image.
      • A virtual 3D models created from several taken views of compounded face of the scanned view face.
      • All models were taken and formed by combining two camera shot from angles of oblique mirror between sagittal plane from two or one scanner.
      Landmark Location on face of test person
    • Continued…
      • Two camera shots along with third layer of setting of a sagittal plane with camera in face.
      • the completed set using rotary table, six shells used in calculating the models by a face where 360-degree tilt goes along fixed scanner.
      • generated view protocol.
      • A total of 345 distances and angles of 322 were determined in order to capture the complex nature of 3D surface of face.
    • Laser Tracker
      • Faro Laser Tracker uses the Time of Flight Principle.
      • determines two angle along with distance.
      • The laser beam is send by tracker to a retro reflecting object targeted against the measure.
      • The targeted path retracts back to the respective tracker in same position as the left.
      • popular wise Retro reflector (SMR). is ball mounted.
      • As the light comes back on the tracker, the distance measured in meter away from respective SMR. Following distance meter can be absolute distance meter (ADM).
      • Laser tracker offers very high levels of accuracy and measurement ranges at higher.
      Faro Laser Trackers
    • Continued…
      • Collecting data coordinates at high speed and requiring just operator. 
      • Applications:
      • Alignment: adjusted feedback objects position.
      • The Installation: foundation level of machine
      • Survey Part: Digital recording of actual data against
      • nominal
      • Construction tool: Establish and review tools for only person
      • For Reverse engineering: Acquisition of high digital precise scanned data.
    • Handy scan Laser Scanner
      • Specification:
      • Resolution: 0.1 mm in Z
      • Number of Cameras: 2
      • Package Software:  ZScan Lite
      • Exported File formats: .ZPR, .FBX, .MA, .OBJ, .PLY, .STL, .TXT, .WRL,.X3D, X3DZ, .DAE,
      • Regulatory Compliance: CE
      • Resolution up to 0.1 mm
      • ZScanners capture and scans data in continuous manner, hence hours of processing time is eliminated.
      • One scan is completed in less than minutes count
      • the scanner paints the subject with laser beam crosshair combined with binocular cameras.
      • With ZScanner software, the device will create a mesh of surface of our scanned object in real-time.
      • Applications: design; manufacturing and cultural heritage  
      Portable 3D Laser Scanner from Z Corporation
    • Long Range Surveying
      • specifications:
      • Maximum distance of 2000 m at least 10 m.  
      • Scan speed :1 to 4 points per second
      • Range scan angle = 135 ° to -60 ° vertical angle of 360 ° horizontal 
      • It analyzes different points through different view data finder Rotating through rotation mirrors by rotating range finder, thus changing direction of view range finder.
      • maximum accuracy
      • Application:
      • Slope stability and geo-technical studies survey 
      • laser mapping
      • Long distance and detection Monitoring.
      • Visual impact studies, Rock face profiles 
      • Volcanic surveillance activities 
      • Modeling of surface and volume calculations 
      Onsite 3D surveying scanner
    • 3D Laser Scanning Robot
      • 3D Laser Mapping created 3D map of San Jose silver mine in Mexico using a laser scanning robot.
      • Use of wireless communications and robotic technology known as 3D-R1
      • 3D-R1 speeds in capturing data, safety and coverage measurement of survey
      • It took 3 ½ days capturing data elements for project completion.
      • Covering 2.2 kms of underground drives,
      • 80 scans per day collecting 99.36 million individual data points having more than 5 gb of data
      3D Laser Scanning Robot Maps Mexican Silver Mine
    • Continued…
      • Software used includes Data mine, Micro mine and Vulcan.
      • topographic aerial photographs and contour maps of the mine.
      • Includes long range 3D laser scanner, software and an integrated camera, high-resolution digital.
      • The time required for each pulse of laser returning and the known speed of the system gives the calculated distance of the function of the unit.
      • Data is high in depth and accurate in 3D models
    • Softwares
      • Scanner software moves laser sensor over the bedded surface of scanner digitizer.
      • 3D point coordinates are located on bedded surface of object using parameters set by and scan density.
      • coordinate locator’s converts into IGES or ASCII file format input for CAD/CAM system.
      • A Laser triangulation uses 3D data collector finds the distance.
      • laser scan software convert multiple view points into a data set.softwares to convert the point cloud data into IGES, STEP and Solid Works.
      • Companies work on CAD packages delivering results to client.
      • Cortona VRML plug-in is used to view VRML files in your web browser
    • Continued…
      • Cosmo Player VRML plug-in is used to examine VRML files in one’s web
      • Browser.
      • Declam gives a free translator which converts Unigraphics, Solid Works,
      • Pro/E 2000i,Para solid and CATIA files to IGES.
      • Deskproto helps to convert STL files into machining paths for CNC machines
      • Easy3DScan is a package used for automating the scan process using Minolta
      • FarField Technology helps to provide an advanced technique for modeling scattered 2D and 3D data.
      • Surface models (IGES and STEP formats) are workhorse file format for reverse engineering.
    • CONCLUSION
      • Tough trigger probes: They detect single points with high accuracy, for instance in holes, to determine the diameter, the position of the centre and the axis.
      • more points can be taken for getting errors.
      • Scanning probes: are able to take points of short distance in short time
      • used to measure. the flatness of planes, roundness and cylindricity of holes, curves, gears turbine blades, dies.
      • Optical triangulation sensors: are offered as trigger and measuring sensors.
      • They measure the distance to a plane in one direction without contact.
      • Image analysis sensors: they work non contact.
      • detects many points out of the projection of an edge on a CCD sensor.
    • Continued…
      • Typical application are tool measurements, edges of sheet metal parts.
      • A lot of applications are in the electromechanically industry.
      • Multisensortechnology: If a work piece needs various sensors to be measured,
      • they can be used in a cmm with more than one shaft, each carrying sensor.
      • By controlling, CMM is divided into three groups:
      • Manual handling in the shaft or on the sensor.
      • Short measurement tasks often use machines touch trigger probes.
      • Axis motorized by joysticks is used for large CMM.
      • CMM with the drive shaft and the CNC control, automatically runs the pre- programmed measurement cycle.
    • Future Work
      • Acquisition speed, accessibility of technology and the Simplification of technology will undoubtedly be of three major improvements in the future .
      • Also open to world of 3D scanning to the common people and future can have mobile phone with a 3D scanner.
      • The 3D scanners can give information on what you are scanning.
      • We already have the geometry and color of the object but could probably add the information to speculate (completed) and material objects for multimedia applications.
      • Geometry and forms of recognition of simple or more complex features, such as human faces would be incredible for the automatic alignment of inspection or design applications.
      • You might even get to the GPS location for the archaeological exploration or something like 3D Geotracking.
      • In the field of multimedia and entertainment, begins by 3D scanning to integrate life-like objects in movies and video games. For example, the integration of the exploration of the face in his favorite video game (like World of War craft) or a special object that is at home in Second Life.
    • Continued…
      • In the medical fie scanner create Custom made prosthetics. A person may choose to explore its full body and save the data as a backup to undergo plastic surgery after an accident.
      • The customer can also choose from a selection of body parts of his favorite movie star or a doctor can use an analysis of the 25-year-old version that has been scanned for 20 years.
      • 3D scanners are used in modeling 3D models for 3D rendering. 3D Handy scan in fact portable handheld scanners that offer the scientific innovations and offers competent functionalities
      • Surveyor 3D scanning systems for laser quickly and correctly measure the pieces of the entire sizes, especially for composite geometry. Fast inspection and confirmation applications, including sequence control and in order inspection of being a consumer of systems in the future prospect.
      • Reverse engineering / rapid prototyping and industrialized applications
      • Since versatility of the expertise, a number of custom application have developed, and software packages.
      • Data Sculpt Image ware allowed for fast and versatile data collection and manipulation of data for all applications.
    • References
      • [1] Introduction of Coordinate Measuring Machine (October 6 2009). Retrieved, from the World Wide Web: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coordinate measuring_machine
      • [2] Introduction to Coordinate Measuring Machine (October 5,2009) Retrieved, from the World Wide Web: http://www.msi-viking.com/cmm_coordinate_measuring_machine
      • [3] Parts of Coordinate Measuring Machine (October 6 2009). Retrieved, from the World Wide Web: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coordinate-measuring_machine
      • [4] Description and Components of Coordinate Measuring Machine. Retrieved, from the World Wide Web: http://www.iacmm.org/en/5636.aspx
      • [5] The Fundamental Elements of the Coordinate Measuring Machine (October 6 2009).Retrieved,from the World Wide Web:http://resources.renishaw.com/download/(547f2e5fa31a490ea90c47a6c8da4181)?
      • lang=gen&inline=true
      • [6] Coordinate Measuring Machine Mechanical Structure (October 08 2009). Retrieved, from the World Wide Web: http://www.iacmm.org/en/5636.aspx
      • [7] Characteristics of CMM Metrology (October 07 2009). Retrieved, from the World Wide Web: www.hexagonmetrology.com
      • [8] Cantilever with Fixed Table. Retrieved, from the World Wide Web:www.mitutoyo.de
      • [9] Architecture of the CMM (October 7 2009). Retrieved, from the World Wide Web: www.zeiss.de/imt
      • [10] Articulated Arm (October 20 2009). Retrieved, from the World Wide Web:
      • http://www.faro.com/content.aspx?ct=di&content=pro&item=2
      • [11] 3D Laser Scanning integrated with CMM System (October 20 2009). Retrieved, from the World Wide Web: http://www.gks.com/upload/images/laser-design-partners-with-wenzel_thumbnail.JPG
      • [12] Non Contact Sensors (October 24 2009). Retrieved, from the World Wide Web: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3D_scanner 3D Laser Scanning Robot Maps Mexican Silver Mine (October 29 2009). Retrieved, from the World Wide Web: http://www.geoconnexion.com/geouk_news_article/3D-Laser-Scanning-Robot- Maps-Mexican-Silver-Mine/3331
      • [13] Data Handling and Control System (October 20 2009). Retrieved, from the World Wide Web: http://www.iacmm.org/en/5636.aspx
      • [14] Control System (October 21 2009). Retrieved, from the World Wide Web: http://www.wenzel-cmm.com/wpgroup/100_de/10_home/index_wpgroup.html
      • [15] The Sensors (October 20 2009). Retrieved, from the World Wide Web:
      • http://resources.renishaw.com/download/(61399dfdc531447fae2365c7d50e1aac)?lang=en&inline=true
    • References
      • [16] Tactile Probing System (October 21 2009). Retrieved, from the World Wide Web http://www.renishaw.com/en/1030.aspx
      • [17] Point to Point Measurement (October 21 2009). Retrieved, from the World Wide Web: http://www.trimek.com/en/index.php
      • [18] Piezoelectric Tactile Sensor based on Isostatic Support Mechanism (October 22 2009). Retrieved, from the World Wide Web: http://www.zettmess.de/content/ startseite
      • [19] Continuous Tactile Sensors / Scanning Sensors (October 21 2009). Retrieved from the World Wide Web: http://www.mitutoyo.com/ProductTypeResultForm.aspx?type=101
      • [20] Optoelectronic Sensor (October 23 2009). Retrieved, from the World Wide Web:http://www.walter-tools.com/de
      • [21] Non-contact Measurement Sensors (October 25 2009). Retrieved, from the World Wide Web: http://www.vis.uky.edu/~realtime3d/
      • [22] Triangulation and Time of Flight Principle (October 26 2009). Retrieved, from the World Wide Web: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3D_scanner
      • [23] Terrestrial 3D Laser Scanner (October 28 2009). Retrieved, from the World Wide Web: http://www.riegl.com/uploads/tx_pxprieglproductscore/poo_vz-400_01.jpg
      • [24] A.Abellan, J. M. V., J. Martinez. (2006). Application of a long-range Terrestrial Laser Scanner to a detailed rockfall study at Vall de Núria (Eastern Pyrenees, Spain). Engineering Geology(88), 136-148.
      • [25] KonicaMinolta VI 910 3D Scanners (October 28 2009). Retrieved, from the World Wide Web: http://www.konicaminolta.com/sensingusa/products/3d
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    • ?
      • Thank U