Nuclear catastrophe

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Brief description of Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear disaster.

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Nuclear catastrophe

  1. 1. Nuclear Catastrophe<br /> Chernobyl and Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster<br />
  2. 2. Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster<br /><ul><li>Occurred on 26 April 1986 at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine.
  3. 3. An explosion and fire released large quantities of radioactive contamination into the atmosphere, which spread over much of Western USSR and Europe.</li></li></ul><li>Causes<br /><ul><li>Operator error initially faulted</li></ul> The operator error was probably due to their lack of knowledge of nuclear physics and engineering, as well as lack of experience and training.<br /><ul><li>Operating instructions and design deficiencies found
  4. 4. The reactor had a dangerously large positive void coefficient. The void coefficient is a measurement of how a reactor responds to increased steam formation in the water coolant.
  5. 5. A more significant flaw was in the design of the control rods that are inserted into the reactor to slow down the reaction.
  6. 6. Other deficiencies besides these were noted in reactor design, as were its non-compliance with accepted standards and with the requirements of nuclear reactor safety
  7. 7. Lacking a containment vessel.</li></li></ul><li>Impact on People<br /><ul><li>Immediate Impact
  8. 8. 203 people were hospitalized immediately. 31 of them eventually died. Most of these people were workers in the plant or local firefighters.
  9. 9. Evacuation of people from the affected zones.
  10. 10. Radiation/Health Impact
  11. 11. Increase in incidence of cancer and leukemia.
  12. 12. Increase in congenital birth deformities.
  13. 13. Increase in suicide in the contaminated zones.
  14. 14. Increase in risk to mental health.
  15. 15. Psychological Impact</li></ul>People have been led to think of themselves as victims over the years, and are therefore more apt to take a passive approach toward their future rather than developing a system of self-sufficiency.<br />
  16. 16. Impact on People (contd.)<br /><ul><li>Economic impact
  17. 17. Removal of radiation affected agricultural and forest land from production.
  18. 18. Hugh amount of money in Belarus and Ukraine used for Chernobyl related benefits .
  19. 19. Agricultural production costs have increased due to the need for special cultivation techniques, fertilizers and additives.</li></li></ul><li>Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster<br /><ul><li>The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster is a series of equipment failures, nuclear meltdowns, and releases of radioactive materials at the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant, following the 9.0 magnitude Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011.
  20. 20. Experts consider it to be the second largest nuclear accident after the Chernobyl disaster, but more complex as multiple reactors are involved.
  21. 21. The severity of the nuclear accident is provisionally rated 7 on the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES)</li></li></ul><li>Causes<br /><ul><li>Earthquake and tsunami are consider to be the immediate culprit, since he plants shut down as they were designed to do following the earthquake. When the tsunami hit an hour later, it damaged the site infrastructure, he said. So while the earthquake had cut the reactors' external power supply, which is needed to keep coolant pumps doing their job, the tsunami killed the diesel backup generators needed to provide power for the cooling system. Batteries provided power for only up to eight hours.
  22. 22. Poor communication with the public
  23. 23. But it is still too early to know what sequence of events led to what outcome.</li></li></ul><li>Impact on people<br />Immediate Impact<br /><ul><li>Two worker dies due to radiation and blood loss
  24. 24. Humans were evacuated from within a 20-kilometre radius of the earthquake-damaged Fukushima nuclear reactor complex soon after the overheated reactors and spent fuel ponds began leaking radiation.
  25. 25. Problem of containment debris</li></ul>Economic Impact<br /><ul><li>Food grown in the area was banned from sale.
  26. 26. Radioactive impact on milk and other food products (seafood).
  27. 27. Major loss of agriculture land</li></ul>Health Impact<br /><ul><li>Immediate radiation impact on humans and animals are monitored.</li></li></ul><li>Coping with Nuclear Disaster<br /><ul><li>Fire containment.
  28. 28. Construction of shelter to contain damaged reactor.
  29. 29. Removal of radioactive debris.
  30. 30. Early evacuation from the affected areas.
  31. 31. Regular monitoring of radiation level.
  32. 32. Follow the local authorities instructions.
  33. 33. Proper communication between authorities and locals during crisis.</li>

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