Nanotechnology by sanchit sharma


Published on

impact of nanotechnology in our world

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • The transmission electron microscope is one that utilizes a high-energy electron beam that probes sample materials with a thickness less than 100 nanometers (nm). While some electrons are either absorbed or bounced of the material, others pass through it creating a magnified image as the one shown in the example. Current TEMs use digital cameras placed behind the material to capture and record images, magnifying images up to 30 million times. The TEM is the most popular microscope used the make images published in scientific journals on nanocrystals found in semiconductors.
  • The atomic force microscope (AFM) uses a small silicon tip as a probe to make images of sample material. While the probe move along the surface of the sample, the electrons of the atoms in the material begin to repel the electrons of the probe. The AFM then adjusts the height of the probe to keep the force of the sample constant. A mechanism records the movement of the probe and sends this information to a computer that will generate a three-dimensional image as shown in the slide. The image will show the exact topography of the surface.
  • A scanning tunneling microscope (STM) uses a wavelike property of electrons known as tunneling , which allows electrons emitted from a probe to penetrate, or tunnel into, the surface of the examined object. The electrons generate a tiny electric current that the STM measures. Similar to the atomic force microscope, the height of the probe in the STM is adjusted constantly to keep the current constant. In doing, so a detailed map of the material’ surface is produced as the example in this slide shows.
  •   New solar cells are based on nanoparticles of semi conductors, nanofilms and nanotubes by embedding in a charge transfer medium. Films formed by sintering of nanometric particles of TiO2 (diameter 10-20 nm) combine high surface area, transparency, excellent stability and good electrical conductivity and are ideal for photovoltaic applications. Non porous oxide films are highly promising material for photovoltaic applications.
  • Nanotechnology by sanchit sharma

    2. 2. Technology which we want <ul><li>Every new Technology which develop in today life scenario is based on 3 E(EEE) principle. </li></ul><ul><li>First E tends for Economical. </li></ul><ul><li>Second E tends for Eco-Friendly. </li></ul><ul><li>And last E tends for Efficiency. </li></ul>
    3. 3. History Of Nanotechnology <ul><li>The amount of space available to us for information storage (or other uses) is enormous. As first described in a lecture titled, 'There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom' in 1959 by Richard P. Feynman, there is nothing besides our clumsy size that keeps us from using this space. In his time, it was not possible for us to manipulate single atoms or molecules because they were far too small for our tools. </li></ul><ul><li>He described how the laws of physics do not limit our ability to manipulate single atoms and molecules. Feynman explored the possibility of manipulating the materials at a scale of individual atoms and molecules, imagining the whole of the encyclopedia Britannica written on the head of the pin. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Contd… <ul><li>Prof. Feynman described such atomic scale fabrication as a bottom-up approach, as opposed to the top-down approach that we are accustomed to. </li></ul><ul><li>Top-down Manufacturing :- It involves the construction of parts through methods such as cutting, carving and molding. Using these methods, we have been able to fabricate a remarkable variety of machinery and electronics devices. </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom-up manufacturing :- On the other hand, would provide components made of single molecules, which are held together by covalent forces that are far stronger than the forces that hold together macro-scale components. Further more, the amount of information that could be stored in devices build from the bottom up would be enormous </li></ul>
    5. 5. What is nanotechnology <ul><li>Nanotechnology is engineering at the molecular (groups of atoms) level. It is the collective term for a range of technologies, techniques and processes that involve the manipulation of matter at the smallest scale (from 1 to 100 nm 2 ). </li></ul><ul><li>1 nm = 0.000000001 m </li></ul>
    6. 6. Goals <ul><li>The goal of nanotechnology is to control individual atoms and molecules to create computer chips and other devices that are thousands of times smaller than current technologies permit. </li></ul><ul><li>Nanotechnology is the technology of preference to make things small, light and cheap, nanotechnology based manufacturing is a method conceived for processing and rearranging of atoms to fabricate custom products </li></ul>
    7. 7. What is Nanoscale 12,756 Km 22 cm 0.7 nm Fullerenes C60 10 millions times smaller 1 billion times smaller
    8. 8. Nanoscale Materials <ul><li>Nanoscale materials have feature size less than 100 nm – utilized in nanoscale structures, devices and systems </li></ul>Gold nanoparticles Silver nanoparticles A stadium shaped “quantum corral” made by positioning iron atoms on a copper surface
    9. 9. Nanoscale Size Effect <ul><li>The classical laws of physics and chemistry do not readily apply at this very small scale for two reasons. </li></ul><ul><li>Firstly, the electronic properties of very small particles can be very different from their larger cousins. </li></ul><ul><li>Secondly, the ratio of surface area to volume becomes much higher, and since the surface atoms are generally most reactive, the properties of a material change in unexpected ways. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, when silver is turned into very small particles, it takes on anti-microbial properties while gold particles become any colour you choose. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Melting Point of Gold Melting point - 1064  C
    11. 11. How These Stuff Work <ul><li>In 1959 Richard Feynman, the Nobel prize winning physicist, said that nothing in the laws of physics prevented us from arranging atoms the way we want </li></ul><ul><li>  If we rearrange the atoms in coal, we get diamonds. </li></ul><ul><li>If we rearrange the atoms in sand (and add a pinch of impurities) we get computer chips. </li></ul><ul><li>If we rearrange the atoms in dirt, water and air we get grass. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Tools In Nanotechnology <ul><li>The main tools used in nanotechnology are three main microscopes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Transmission Electron Microscope <ul><li>Uses high-energy electron beam to probe material with thickness < 100 nm. </li></ul><ul><li>Some electrons are absorbed or bounced off object; some pass through the object and make magnified images </li></ul><ul><li>Digital camera records images. </li></ul><ul><li>The TEM is the most popular microscope used the make images published in scientific journals on nanocrystals found in semiconductors. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Atomic Force Microscope <ul><li>Use small silicon tip as probe to make images of sample material </li></ul><ul><li>Probe moves along surface </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons of atoms in sample repel those in probe </li></ul><ul><li>Creates 3-D images </li></ul><ul><li>The image will show the exact topography of the surface . </li></ul>
    15. 15. Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) <ul><li>Uses nanosized probe to scan objects and materials </li></ul><ul><li>Uses tunneling to detect surface and creates a map of surface </li></ul><ul><li>Rate of electrons that tunnel from probe to surface related to distance between probe and surface </li></ul>
    16. 16. Nanotechnology Applications Categories Information Technology Energy Medicine Consumer Goods <ul><li>Smaller, faster, more energy efficient and powerful computing and other IT-based systems </li></ul>Cancer treatment Bone treatment Drug delivery Appetite control Drug development Medical tools Diagnostic tests Imaging <ul><li>More efficient and cost effective technologies for energy production </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuel cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Batteries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bio fuels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Foods and beverages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-Advanced packaging materials, sensors, and lab-on-chips for food quality testing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Appliances and textiles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-Stain proof, water proof and wrinkle free textiles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Household and cosmetics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-Self-cleaning and scratch free products, paints, and better cosmetics </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Impact of Nanotechnology <ul><li>Computing and Data Storage </li></ul><ul><li>Materials and Manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Health and Medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Energy and Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>National Security </li></ul><ul><li>Space Exploration </li></ul>
    18. 18. Nanotechnology Benefit In Electronics And Computing <ul><li>• Processors with declining energy use and cost per gate, thus increasing efficiency of computer by 10 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Small mass storage devices: multi-tera bit levels </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated nanosensors: collecting, processing and communicating massive amounts of data with minimal size, weight, and power consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Higher transmission frequencies and more efficient utilization of optical spectrum to provide at least 10 times the bandwidth </li></ul><ul><li>• Display technologies </li></ul><ul><li>• Quantum computing </li></ul>
    19. 19. Health And Medicine <ul><li>Expanding ability to characterize genetic makeup will revolutionize the specificity of diagnostics and therapeutics </li></ul><ul><li>Nanodevices can make gene sequencing more efficient </li></ul><ul><li>Effective and less expensive health care using remote and in-vivo devices </li></ul><ul><li>New formulations and routes for drug delivery, optimal drug usage </li></ul><ul><li>More durable, rejection-resistant artificial tissues and organs </li></ul><ul><li>Sensors for early detection and prevention </li></ul>
    20. 20. Material And Manufacture <ul><li>Ability to synthesize nanoscale building blocks </li></ul><ul><li>with control on size, composition etc. further assembling into larger structures with designed properties will revolutionize materials manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing metals, ceramics, polymers, etc. at exact shapes without machining </li></ul><ul><li>Lighter, stronger and programmable materials </li></ul><ul><li>Lower failure rates and reduced life-cycle costs </li></ul><ul><li>Bio-inspired materials </li></ul><ul><li>Multifunctional, adaptive materials </li></ul><ul><li>Self-healing materials </li></ul>
    21. 21. Energy And Environment <ul><li>Energy Production- </li></ul><ul><li>Clean, less expensive sources enabled by novel nanomaterials and processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Utilization- </li></ul><ul><li>High efficiency and durable home and industrial lighting. </li></ul><ul><li>Solid state lighting can reduce total electricity consumption by 10% and cut carbon emission by the equivalent of 28 million tons/year (Source: Al Romig, Sandia Lab). </li></ul>
    22. 22. Nanotechnology In Transportation <ul><li>Thermal barrier and wear resistant coatings </li></ul><ul><li>High strength, light weight composites for increasing fuel efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>High temperature sensors for ‘under the hood’ </li></ul><ul><li>Improved displays </li></ul><ul><li>Battery technology </li></ul><ul><li>Wear-resistant tires </li></ul><ul><li>Automated highways </li></ul>
    23. 23. National Security <ul><li>Very high sensitivity, low power sensor for detecting the chem/bio/nuclear threats. </li></ul><ul><li>Light weight military platforms, without sacrificing functionality, safety and soldier security </li></ul><ul><li>-Reduce fuel needs and logistical requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce carry-on weight of soldier gear </li></ul><ul><li>-Increased functionality per unit weight </li></ul>
    24. 24. Examples of exciting applications of nanotechnology <ul><li>Nanopowders — the unusual properties of particles less than 100 nm allow a range of new and improved materials with a breadth of applications, such as plastics that behave like ceramics or metals; new catalysts for environmental remediation; improved food shelf-life and packaging; and novel drug delivery devices . </li></ul>The scale of nanopowders Porous metallic ‘nanocubes’ store large amounts of H2
    25. 25. Carbon Nanotube <ul><li>Carbon nanotubes — Carbon nanotubes were demonstrated in 1991. </li></ul><ul><li>In this graphite can be rolled into a cylinder with a diameter of about 1 nm. These strong but light ‘carbon nanotubes’ are being developed for a raft of uses, such as sensors, fuel cells, computers and televisions. </li></ul>
    26. 26. Properties Of CNT <ul><li>The strongest and most flexible molecular material because of C-C covalent bonding and seamless hexagonal network architecture. </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum strain ~10% much higher than any material </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal conductivity ~ 3000 W/mK in the axial direction with small values in the radial direction. </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical conductivity six orders of magnitude higher than copper. </li></ul><ul><li>Very high current carrying capacity. </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent field emitter; high aspect ratio and small tip radius of curvature are ideal for field emission. </li></ul>
    27. 27. Quantum Computer <ul><li>Quantum computing and quantum computers are in advanced stages of development due to recent nanotechnology. </li></ul><ul><li>Quantum computer technology involves the use of the quantum particle as a replacement for the bit of today's computers. </li></ul><ul><li>Paul Benioff, a physicist at the Argonne National Laboratory, who used the concept of the Turing machine as a model for the quantum computer. </li></ul><ul><li>The quantum computer uses quantum particles </li></ul>
    28. 28. Contd… <ul><li>a quantum computer will store information as quantum bits which can hold more than two values. </li></ul><ul><li>Quantum computers will also be able to utilize one other important characteristic of quantum particles known as entanglement. The property of entanglement makes it possible to assign and determine the value or the spin of a quantum particle by introducing an outside force. </li></ul>
    29. 29. Nanomembrane filtration systems <ul><li>Nanotechnology can address one of the most pressing issues of the 21st Century — safe, clean and affordable water. </li></ul><ul><li>Nanomembrane filtration devices that ‘clean’ polluted water, sifting out bacteria, viruses, heavy metals and organic material. </li></ul><ul><li>The key to lowering the energy demand and improving throughput for desalination is in understanding how to selectively separate small molecules, and package these technologies for exploitation. </li></ul>
    30. 30. Molecular electronic ‘cross bar latches <ul><li>Hewlett-Packard believes that silicon computer chips will probably reach a technical dead end in about a decade, to be replaced by tiny nanodevices described as ‘cross bar latches’. </li></ul><ul><li>The new device consists of a wire that is crossed by two other wires. The resulting junctions serve as switches that are only a few atoms across and can be programmed by a repeatable set of electrical pulses. </li></ul>
    31. 31. Growth
    32. 32. Future Trends <ul><li>Solar Cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nanotechnology opens the opportunity to produce cheaper and friendlier solar cells. Nanoparticles are perfect to absorb solar energy and they can be used in very thin layers on conventional metals to absorb incident solar energy. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nanofibres </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nanofibres offers the potential of using the woven reinforcement as body armor.  The future soldier’s uniform would incorporate soft woven ultra strong fabric with capabilities to become rigid when protect him against pollution, poisoning and enemy hazards. </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Contd.. <ul><li>Sensors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nanotechnology offers unlimited opportunities to produce new generation pressure, chemical, magneto resistive and anti-collision automobile sensors. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ultra Light Weight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nanotechnology is viewed as a key technology for the development of ultra light materials which would result in energy, fuel and materials savings. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>National Security </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nanotechnology also concerned in national security protecting from nuclear, chemical and other bio hazardous attack. </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Contd.. <ul><li>Nanobots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>  Nanobots will be the next generation of nanomachines. Advanced nanobots will be able to sense and adapt to environmental stimuli such as heat, light, sounds, surface textures, and chemicals; perform complex calculations; move, communicate, and work together; repair or even replicate themselves </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Disadvantages <ul><li>The engineered robots will perform jobs instead of people which will result in a loss of jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>The wastes released while making the materials for nanotechnology are released into the atmosphere and can even penetarte human and animal cells and effect their performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural countries will lose their income as nanotechnology will take over. </li></ul><ul><li>It has very high initial investment costs along with high manufacturing costs. </li></ul><ul><li>If any damage is done at the molecular level then it is not possible to revert it. </li></ul>
    36. 36. Thank You