The goal is to produce a signal that can be transmitted easily and decoded to reproduce the original digital data
We basically have three modulation techniques-
Working of a MODEM MODEM DATA COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT DATA TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TRANSMIT REQUEST TO SEND RECIEVE DATA TERMINAL READY CARRIER DETECT DATA SET READY CLEAR TO SEND
Registered Jack 45 (RJ-45)
An 8-wire connecter, used to connect various Computer systems to LANs
RJ45 is used almost exclusively to refer to Ethernet (type of LAN system that uses bus or star topology for data sharing) -type computer connectors.
The RJ-45 connector is commonly used for network cabling and for telephony applications.
Most widely used LAN technology
Developed by Xerox Corp
Typically uses coaxial cables and special grades of twisted pair cables
Ethernet was named by Robert Metcalfe, one of its developers, for the passive substance called "luminiferous (light-transmitting) ether" that was once thought to pervade the universe, carrying light throughout. Ethernet was so- named to describe the way that cabling, also a passive medium, could similarly carry data everywhere throughout the network.
A device used to connect several computers together
Is a fairly unsophisticated device as it doesn’t manage the traffic through it
There are two types of hubs
1) Active Hub
2) Passive Hub
Functioning of a Hub
Receives a data packet
Forwards it to all the remaining ports
A device used to segment networks into sub-networks, which prevents traffic overloading in network
It is a sophisticated device, is responsible for filtering and forwarding data
In environments where there is a need for a great deal of analysis of network performance and security, there is a provision of a firewall, network intrusion detection and performance analysis modules that can plug into switch ports.
What does it do?
It establishes a
the source and the destination and then terminates the connection when conversation is done
A device used to expand the boundaries of a wired or wireless LAN.
Amplify the data signals before sending them on to the uplinked segment, thereby countering signal decay that occurs over extended lengths of wire.
Receives a signal and retransmits it at a higher level and/or higher power, or onto the other side of an obstruction, so that the signal can cover longer distances.
Over distance, cables connecting a network lose the signal transmitted. If it degrades too much, it fails to reach its destination.
These are of 2 types:
Connects multiple network segments.
Similar to repeaters or network hubs, however, can manage data from one network rather than simply rebroadcast to adjacent network segments.
Analyze incoming data packets to determine if the bridge is able to send the given packet to another segment of the network.
Advantages and Disadvantages ADVANTAGES OF BRIDGES DISADVANTAGES OF BRIDGES Simple bridges are inexpensive Does not scale to extremely large networks LANs interconnected are separate Buffering and processing introduces delays Helps minimize bandwidth usage Bridges are more expensive than repeaters or hubs
Device that interconnects two or more computer networks, and selectively interchanges packets of data between them
It works like a bridge but can handle diff. protocols
Each data packet contains address information that a router can use to determine if the source and destination are on the same network, or if the data packet must be transferred from one network to another
In case of an unknown destination, a router sends the traffic to another router
Has the ability to connect dissimilar networks
Acts as an entrance to a network
Generally, a gateway node is often also acting as a proxy server and a firewall server, blocking an unauthorized access to or from a private network.