DIRECTINGEvery decision taken must be properly implemented,otherwise it is of no use. Direction is required foreffective implementation of a decision. Everymanager in an organization gives direction to hissubordinates as a supervisor and every managerreceives direction as subordinate from his superior.
MEANINGDirection is a managerial function performed byall the managers at all levels of the organisation.Direction is a continuous function of everymanager. Direction is a function of managementwhich is related with instructing, guiding andinspiring human factor in the organisation toachieve the objectives of the organisation. Thethree important elements in direction arecommunication, leadership and supervisionand motivation. Direction is an action initiatingfunction of management.
DEFINITIONAccording to Koontz and O’Donnel :“Directing is a complex function that includes allthose activities which are designed to encouragesubordinates to work effectively and efficiently inboth the short and long-run.”
FEATURESInitiates actionSuperior – Subordinate RelationshipContinuous FunctionInitiates at the Top LevelKills two birds
PRINCIPLES OF DIRECTION(A) Principles relating to the purpose ofdirectionPrinciple of maximum individual contributionPrinciple of harmony of objectivesPrinciple of efficiency of direction
(B) Principles relating to direction processPrinciple of Unity of CommandPrinciple of Appropriateness of Direction TechniquePrinciple of Managerial CommunicationPrinciple of ComprehensionPrinciple of use of informal organizationPrinciple of leadershipPrinciple of efficient controlPrinciple of Follow Through
STEPS IN DIRECTIONSetting and Defining the ObjectivesOrganising the EffortsMeasuring the workDeveloping the people
IMPORTANCEInitiates ActionIntegrates Employees EffortsGets maximum out of individualsFacilitates Organisation ChangesProvides Stability and Balance in the organisation
CO-ORDINATINGCo-ordination is the process of linking orconnecting the various activities of anorganisation. Every department in an organisationfunctions independently. But, the activities of onedepartment, influences or affects the activities ofanother department.For eg. The activities of the production departmentinfluence or affects the activities of marketingdepartment and vice-versa.
Likewise, the activities of the purchase departmentaffects the activities of production department, theactivity of finance department affects the activities ofthe purchase department. Thus, it becomes clear thatthe various departments in an organisation are inter-related and interdependent. Co-ordination is onlyconcern with the task of establishing a link betweenthe activities of the different departments.
Every department has its own goals. But, what isimportant is the contribution of the variousdepartments to the goal of the organisation. Co-ordination ensures that all the departmentscontribute to the achievement of the goal or theobjective of the organisation.Co-ordination is concerned with the task of unifyingthe activities of the departments of an organisation,in order, to achieve the common goal.
DEFINITIONAccording to J. D. Mooney and A. C. Railey :“Co-ordination is the orderly arrangement of groupefforts to provide unity of action in the pursuit of acommon purpose.”
FEATURESThe need for co-ordination arises due to inter-dependenceIt aims at achieving the common goalIt is the duty of every managerContinuous ProcessRequired in group ActivityDeliberate EffortCo-ordination is different from co-operation
IMPORTANCEIntegration of Group EffortsFacilitates Mutual DependenceMotivates SubordinatesDevelopment of team spiritBetter RelationsHigher EfficiencyReduces WastagesCorporate Image
TECHNIQUESClearly defined goals/ Well – defined objectivesClear Lines of Authority and Responsibility /Effective Chain of CommandPrecise, Comprehensive and Well-understood,Programmes and Policies (Plans)Effective Communication ChannelsEffective Leadership and supervisionCommon NomenclatureVoluntary Teamwork
CO-ORDINATION AS AN ESSENCE OFMANAGEMENTCoordination through PlanningCoordination through organizingCoordination through staffingCoordination through directingCoordination through controllingCoordination and CommunicationCoordination and MotivationCoordination and Decision-Making
PRINCIPLESPrinciple of Direct ContactPrinciple of Early StartPrinciple of Reciprocal RelationshipPrinciple of ContinuityPrinciple of Self-Coordination