MM Bagali, emPOWERment, empowerment, HRM, HRD, Research, OB, OD,


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MM Bagali, emPOWERment, empowerment, HRM, HRD, Research, OB, OD,

  1. 1. <ul><li>2nd Conference on </li></ul><ul><li>Management Case Development </li></ul><ul><li>April 8th, 2011 / IBS Bangalore </li></ul><ul><li>Good Afternoon </li></ul>
  2. 2. The Making of an Empowered Workforce: Demystifying a Case of Practising Indian Organization [A Study of Polyhydron Private Limited, Belgaum] M M Bagali, PhD   Dean-MBA programme Professor of SHRM   New Horizon College of Engineering / Marathalli / Outer Ring Road Bangalore 560 087 / Karnataka State / (A Five Star NACC Accredited) Research Student, Management Studies Kousali Institute of Management Studies (KIMS), Karnatak University, Dharwad, Karnataka State
  3. 3. agenda <ul><li>Why such study in empowerment area </li></ul><ul><li>How and what this company uniquely practiced </li></ul><ul><li>Lessons to learn from Research outcomes </li></ul>
  4. 4. HR is an asset <ul><li>“ you can get the workplace systems, style of management, and organize capital and erect building, but it takes people to build a business, and several strategy to develop people ” </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas J WATSON </li></ul><ul><li>Founder of IBM </li></ul>
  5. 5. basis for the present work <ul><li>HR is essential requirement for progress and development of the country </li></ul><ul><li>The front line employees are the KEY cutting edge </li></ul><ul><li>The organisations have to be totally people centric </li></ul><ul><li>A Paradigm shift focusing ‘HR’ is needed </li></ul><ul><li>Infact, empowering employee would be crucial in evolving appropriate strategies, as HR is the single most valuable resources that can make a quantum difference </li></ul>Agenda 01
  6. 6. therefore , the need <ul><li>To look at the Renaissance Strategies for Creating High Performance Workforce </li></ul><ul><li>The syntax of empowerment is simple… give people the freedom and power at workplace, they will surely grow the organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, an enquiry into various empowerment strategies and practices </li></ul>
  7. 7. the vital questions before us <ul><li>What do we mean by empowerment? </li></ul><ul><li>How different is empowerment from other organizational practices? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we empower? </li></ul><ul><li>Can everyone be empowered in the organization? </li></ul><ul><li>What's the Role of leadership in empowerment exercise, and </li></ul><ul><li>What empowerment does to everyone…. Individual; Organisational; and the Leaders </li></ul>
  8. 8. the studies <ul><li>Pati,1997 </li></ul><ul><li>Sengupta and Shaikh,1997 </li></ul><ul><li>Venkatachalam, 1998 </li></ul><ul><li>Dwivedi,1998 </li></ul><ul><li>Mohapatra,1998 </li></ul><ul><li>Tripathy,1999 </li></ul><ul><li>Barnes and Kaftans, 1970, 1985 </li></ul><ul><li>Myron Eichen,1989 </li></ul><ul><li>Marjorie Reynolds, 1991 </li></ul><ul><li>Michael Quarrey, 1992 </li></ul><ul><li>Cyndy Payne,1993 </li></ul><ul><li>Bo Burlingham, 1999 </li></ul>
  9. 9. 85 research work
  10. 10. work of prominence <ul><li>Foundation for Enterprise Development – FED, and Beyster Institute for Entrepreneurial Employee Ownership , USA </li></ul><ul><li>Argyris, Chris (1998):“Empowerment: The Emperor’s new Clothes”, Harvard Business Review, May-June, pp : 98 -105 </li></ul><ul><li>Kantar, R. M , 1977, 1979, 1989,1995 </li></ul><ul><li>Lawler, E. E III , 1986, 1988, 1992, 1994, 1995 </li></ul>
  11. 11. Theoretical and Conceptual framework E M POWER M E N T em-pow-er-ment (im-pau [-] r-ment) Oxford English Dictionary says, to empower is “ to authorize, to enable” Rosabeth Moss Kanter (1977) Professor at Harvard Business School, Ernest L. Arbuckle Professorship “ giving power to people who operate at an advantage in the organization success” Bowen and Lawler (1992) Director, the Centre for Effective Organization, University of Southern California, “ Complete Power to make decisions that influence organizational direction and performance”
  12. 12. essentially, empowerment … <ul><li>it liberates people from constraints such as checking with the boss before taking actions </li></ul><ul><li>absolute control is given up, allowing everyone make decisions, and can set goals </li></ul><ul><li>decision-making authority and responsibility percolates from managers to the employees at the lowest rung </li></ul><ul><li>people are given total freedom to do their job, and are trusted, made accountable and responsible </li></ul>
  13. 13. characteristics of empowered organization shared responsibility individual accountability flat organizational hierarchy autonomous work teams high belief and trust leadership at all levels climate of collaboration atmosphere of openness freedom from all conditions for empowerment Power to act Participation at all levels Way for innovation Transparency in organizational activities Accountability for one’s action Right kind of leadership Autonomy to work Way to release extra energy Proper recognition and appreciation Climate of trust and faith A learning culture
  14. 14. the phd work <ul><li>Workers Empowerment : A Case Study of Polyhydron Private Limited, Belgaum, Karnataka State, India </li></ul><ul><li>Established in 1981-82 </li></ul><ul><li>Address:80, Machhe Industrial Estate, Machhe, Belgaum- 590014. Karnataka State </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>research objectives </li></ul><ul><li>to understand factors that contribute to empowerment--the systems, practices, policy and the leadership </li></ul><ul><li>to understand management practices impacting on employee behavior, thus empowering employees </li></ul><ul><li>made to understand all factors that contributed to empowerment--the systems, practices, policy and leadership </li></ul><ul><li>an effort was also made to see how these management practices impacted upon employee behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting Objectives : </li></ul><ul><li>Do we really need empowered people? Is empowerment something that can be done to some one, or is it something a person must choose? What role does the person in the top have to play in this exercise? With all these objectives, the genesis of empowerment is probed at a macro level. </li></ul>
  16. 16. participation Total 73 Responded 60
  17. 17. areas of enquiry <ul><li>Accountability / Bureaucracy / Culture / Leadership/ Management Style and approach / Structure / liberty / Communication / Decision Making / Discipline/ Ethos / Industrial Democracy / Knowledge Sharing / Ownership Culture / Organizational Health / Power Distribution/ Responsibility Sharing / Transparency / Information sharing / Degree of trust & loyalty………. </li></ul><ul><li>total of 75 areas </li></ul>
  18. 18. data collection Pre Pilot Observation Observed the System Questionnaire Administered Case-by-Case discussion Discussion with CEO Pooling all the responses The format of Data collection from Employees
  19. 19. <ul><li>An in-formal observation over a period </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion with CEO at one-one level </li></ul><ul><li>The opinions of CEO and system interfaced </li></ul><ul><li>All the collected data of CEO through opinions were observed, verified case by case with each employees </li></ul><ul><li>The opinions / views of employees were put back to CEO / MD for discussion, and </li></ul><ul><li>Open House </li></ul>Observed the system Discussion with CEO System/ Practices interface Case by case discussion Back to CEO Pooling all responses in presence of all The format of Data collection from CEO / MD
  20. 20. what we saw at ppl <ul><li>Estd 1981-82 </li></ul><ul><li>Conventional way of Management 1982-1988 </li></ul><ul><li>Visit to SEMCO, Sau Paulo, Brazil 1988 </li></ul><ul><li>Changed People practices 1988-1996 </li></ul><ul><li>Empowered People practices 1996 onwards </li></ul>Agenda 02
  21. 21. [email_address] <ul><li>The HR practices </li></ul><ul><li>The Culture, and the </li></ul><ul><li>The Leadership </li></ul>
  22. 22. changed workplace empowerment@work: the making of an empowered workforce Conventional Present Do what is told Do what is required Liberty misused Liberty made use to fullest extent Not my job attitude Its everyone's job Commitment level low High commitment Boundary defined No Boundary Lack of scope for improvement High scope for improvement Various committees / councils Never a designated committee Trust level low Trust is core Supervised work No Supervision Freedom restricted More freedom / liberty Closed behavior Transparent behavior Apply for leave / off Decide on leave / off
  23. 23. <ul><li>Value given to Human beings </li></ul><ul><li>Each is accountable / responsible for his actions and can’t blame others </li></ul><ul><li>All information is open and shared </li></ul><ul><li>Each is boss in himself </li></ul><ul><li>Common rooms are shared </li></ul><ul><li>Suggestions are given regularly and open </li></ul><ul><li>Management is open to ideas and more information sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Every one can have own objectives, mission, and goals; </li></ul><ul><li>No Security or guard </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>the culture the hr practices Complete Freedom Total Transparency Complete Shared Responsibility Accountability for ones actions Liberty to decide course of actions Involvement / Participation Transparent feedback Delegated authority No hidden Agenda Complete Autonomy Power to take decisions
  24. 24. <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>Freedom to do work in one’s own way No Supervision/ Foreman No Bureaucratic and Administrative interference No Red-tapism Sharing Common Platform Trusting each persons actions No restrictions for new inventions One can fail, no punishment Suggestions are part of daily work Accepts critics Open House leadership employee traits Open and Transparent Positive Approach No defined mind set Free from Bias No scapegoat attitude High Commitment Disciplined Trustworthy Enjoys the work Loyal and Truthful Work that extra mile
  25. 25. ceo’s reactions <ul><li>you have done a mistake and let us all look at it; </li></ul><ul><li>my door is always open for discussions; </li></ul><ul><li>let us all discuss on your idea; </li></ul><ul><li>how to solve your problem…. your problem is our problem; </li></ul><ul><li>any ideas from your side to contribute; </li></ul><ul><li>I look for everyone in joining hands with me; </li></ul><ul><li>you have done a good work, let us all learn lessons from you; </li></ul><ul><li>please teach me the new techniques that you have learnt; </li></ul><ul><li>let me announce your achievements to others; </li></ul><ul><li>You will arrange a programme for sharing your successful story. </li></ul>
  26. 26. [email_address] My door is open to you Let us all discuss on the idea Your problem / issue is our concern Let us join hands together Kindly teach me the new technique Let us all announce your achievement
  27. 27. outcome of such practices <ul><li>Engagement with Organsiation </li></ul><ul><li>Product Innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Profits and Income Scaled </li></ul><ul><li>Turnover and loyalty </li></ul><ul><li>Reputation and Customers </li></ul><ul><li>Market Standing </li></ul><ul><li>NO IR issues </li></ul><ul><li>Employer BRANDING </li></ul>
  28. 28. drawbacks <ul><li>Why power to me </li></ul><ul><li>Is it the game plan of management </li></ul><ul><li>Its not my job to have power </li></ul><ul><li>Its not my job to decide </li></ul><ul><li>I am not the right person to have power </li></ul><ul><li>My me as leader and decision maker </li></ul>
  29. 29. the impressions <ul><li>Adi Godrej, </li></ul><ul><li>Chairman and MD, Godrej Soaps ltd,1992 </li></ul><ul><li>“ It has opened my eyes in best people management practices” </li></ul><ul><li>Ricardo F Semler, </li></ul><ul><li>Chairman, SEMCO, Brazil, 1994 </li></ul><ul><li>“ I have seen an exceptionally empowerment practiced at workplace” </li></ul><ul><li>Sri Sharadrao Pawar, </li></ul><ul><li>Ex-CM, present Cabinet Minister, GOI,1997 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Congrats for good work done in people management strategies” </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Platform for Empowerment / create conditions for empowerment </li></ul><ul><li>Prioritise the area </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudinal Surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Accountability </li></ul><ul><li>Define the Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Open Door Policy and Transparency </li></ul><ul><li>Ownership Culture </li></ul>Ideas for practices: lessons to learn Don’t hold unto data Informal Relations Create Opportunity Desired Future Education the gains Time to empower or not to empower Can’t empower areas Don’t impose empowerment Power of Empowerment Fun at workplace Agenda 03
  31. 31. academic discussion <ul><li>OB </li></ul><ul><li>HR practices </li></ul><ul><li>HRM / SHRM </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Change </li></ul><ul><li>Restructuring / OD </li></ul><ul><li>Sociology of Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Change Management </li></ul><ul><li>advantage corporate </li></ul><ul><li>CEO </li></ul><ul><li>HR Chief </li></ul><ul><li>Chief Peoples Officer </li></ul><ul><li>Dean and Directors of MBA </li></ul><ul><li>MDP’s </li></ul>
  32. 32. At IBS Institute <ul><li>Courses in </li></ul><ul><li>OB/ HR </li></ul><ul><li>Basics in Management </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Group Dynamics </li></ul>
  33. 33. future research <ul><li>Compare empowerment with less / no empowerment organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Compare empowerment strategies amongst male and female </li></ul><ul><li>Compare with Public X Private sector company </li></ul><ul><li>Compare with Small x Medium X Large </li></ul><ul><li>Retired / leftover employees survey or opinion can also be had </li></ul>
  34. 34. thank you / [email_address]
  35. 35. About PhD <ul><li>At MBA dept, Karnatak University, Dharwad, Karnataka State / 5 Star NACC graded </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. A H Chachadi, Professor, Guide </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluated by XLRI and IIM-K Professors </li></ul><ul><li>Between 2000-2008 work undertaken </li></ul><ul><li>299 pages total </li></ul><ul><li>311 references </li></ul><ul><li>Awarded on 16th March, 2008 </li></ul>
  36. 36. Endorsement on the Work <ul><li>XLRI Editor, </li></ul><ul><li>when published in XLRI-Management and Labour Studies Journal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The article printed below is a truly extraordinary example of employee empowerment. The methods followed by the organisation studied would be considered revolutionary anywhere in the world and even more so in India. Infact, one sometimes wonders how the whole effort did not end in chaos. The company has apparently succeeded in developing a work force and a leadership almost devoid of the foibles of most other humans. (Printed on the Article XLRI-Management and Labour Studies, 26,2,April, 2001, pp .109-119) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Executive Director, </li></ul><ul><li>Indian Journal of Training and Development, ISTD, India </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The article published in the area of Empowerment in ISTD has been adjudged as the Best Paper published during the year-2001. Kindly accept our Heartiest C ongratulations. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(22July, 2002 / Through Personal Letter) </li></ul>
  37. 37. Yoon, Jeong (2001).“The role of structure and motivation for workplace empowerment: The case of Korean employees”, Social Psychology Quarterly, 64 (2); pp. 195 – 206 Yoon, Jeong, Professor of ob and hr, AJOU university, South Korea
  38. 38. 2003, September Presentation to Senior HR Managers, of SHRI on Empowerment , part of present work
  39. 39. Polyhydron Mission We will nurture an Ethically Managed Organisation. We will not exploit our Customer, Employees, Suppliers, Government, Society and Nature Polyhydron Vision We will create an island of Excellence through focus on Customer, Employee Empowerment and continuous improvement.
  40. 40. PPL
  41. 41. Harvard Business Review <ul><li>HBR, July-August, 2010, p:57 </li></ul><ul><li>When workers are made to feel empowered, the whole organization wins </li></ul><ul><li>Roger L MARTIN, </li></ul><ul><li>Dean, Rotman School of Management </li></ul><ul><li>University of Toronto, Canada </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>General Overview and Teaching Plan </li></ul>
  43. 43. Teaching Notes <ul><li>Goals of the Case: </li></ul><ul><li>The goal of the present case discussion is to drive in understanding the importance of Employee Empowerment. </li></ul><ul><li>Further, how can such practices be undertaken and what should be the methodology. </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, to prepare the HR Manager / Executive to look at empowerment as the big step for People Management, per se. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Pedagogical Objectives of the Case <ul><li>To understand the importance of people management </li></ul><ul><li>2. How can HR be innovatively developed, managed and nurtured </li></ul><ul><li>3. Crystallizing the reasons as to “Why top companies” are different </li></ul><ul><li>4. To explore and analyze conditions that makes workplace empowered </li></ul><ul><li>5. The role of HR / CEO in changing the workplace towards empowerment </li></ul>
  45. 45. Questions to prepare for in-class discussion <ul><li>What is your definition of Empowerment? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the traits that need to be developed in employees? </li></ul><ul><li>How to create an Empowerment culture and strategies in Organisation (the steps involved)? </li></ul><ul><li>The area (scope) of Empowerment practices (the boundaries to be defined) </li></ul><ul><li>What is the out-come of Empowerment (How to measure the after-math of such practices)? </li></ul>
  46. 46. Questions to advance discussion during the sessions: <ul><li>What should be the degree of freedom in an empowered organisation? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the characteristics of an empowered person? </li></ul><ul><li>Do we really want empowered people? </li></ul><ul><li>How do people develop a sense of empowerment? </li></ul><ul><li>What organizational characteristics facilitate employee empowerment? </li></ul>
  47. 47. Suggested Sequence and Time Frame for the case discussion <ul><li>Few sessions on the concept along with the best HR practices </li></ul><ul><li>Open class discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into 3-4 students team </li></ul><ul><li>Theory part on empowerment </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiating strategies between the various human resource strategies adopted in empowering employees </li></ul><ul><li>Case may take full length of 4-5 sessions </li></ul><ul><li>Handouts and ppt / along with blackboard management </li></ul><ul><li>At end, conclude with possible difficulties/ drawback/and any other issues </li></ul>
  48. 48. Assignment and Pre-preparations: <ul><li>Home Assignment and small level projects in the area of HR practices, leadership, and culture change </li></ul><ul><li>Quiz </li></ul><ul><li>Reading Material and Source of Collecting Case Material / Bibliography to use </li></ul>
  49. 49. <ul><li>Thank You </li></ul>