AGENDA Agenda1. What is a case !2. Why case study research !3. Designing case studies !4. Summary !
How to make a Case Study Format How to write a HR/ Fin/ Mkt case study analysis How to analysis Business Case study How to write a data report How to write critical analysis
CASE STUDY METHOD Interactive Discussion Real life situation in real time Analysis of Situation Immédiate impact Immédiate relevance
UNITS FOR CASE STUDY A person An organization A country An artefact: technology, product
THE FLOW IN CASE Examines the characteristics of a particular entity, phenomenon, or person A comprehensive story of a real situation, decision, event, or managerial process Contains data and information for analysis Contains situations requiring decisions and/or recommendations Simulates real-world experiences
WHY CASE STUDY RESEARCH? Emphasis on (societal, historical) context Trying to reach a full explanation of a phenomenon within a unit of analysis Interpret events, uncovering ‘how’ and ‘why’ questions Problem solving: closeness to practitioners Group Thinking and cross ideas
BEST ADVANTAGE Case studies also allow one to present data collected from multiple methods (i.e., surveys, interviews, document review, and observation)
HOW TO WRITE A CASE STUDY ANALYSIS Investigate and Analyze the Company’s History and Growth Identify Strengths and Weaknesses Within the Company Gather Information on the External Environment Analyze Your Findings Identify Corporate Level Strategy Identify Business Level Strategy Analyze Implementations Make Recommendations
Single instrumental case study focuses on an issue or concern, and then selects one bounded case to illustrate this issue Collective or multiple case study focuses on an issue by analysing multiple cases. This approach uses the logic of replication in which the researcher replicates the procedures for each case Intrinsic case study focuses on the case itself because it presents an unusual or unique situation
PHILOSOPHY OF CASE OBJECTIVESTHEORY BUILDING THEORY TESTINGPROBLEM SOLVING
Real time situation Cause X Effect relationship Complex business administration situation Holistic view of a process Understanding of complex social phenomena & real-life events Suitable for "how" & "why" questions Suitable for analysis of process
THREE TYPES OF CASE STUDY RESEARCH Research questionObservation Theory Problem (Theory) Theory Observation Observation
A Diamond Model for Case Analysis (Van de Ven 2007) Problem/Question n io M at od ul el rm Bu Fo i ld em ngi bl o Pr Case Reality n Pr t io o ua bl em al Ev So el l vi od n M g Solution1. Ground the problem & question in reality.2. Develop a conceptual model to address the question.3. EvaluateSTUDY RESEARCH the model applies to the case. CASE how well4. Implement a solution that solves the problem/question.
Object Case selection Literature review Propositions/hypotheses Data collection Data organization Data analysis Findings and theory building
CASE STUDY RESEARCH DESIGN: THEORY BUILDING Step Activity ReasonGetting Definition of research question Focuses effortsstarted A priori constructs Better grounding for constructs measuresSelecting Neither theory nor hypotheses Retains theoretical flexibilitycases Specified population Constrains extraneous variation & sharpens external validity Theoretical, not random sampling Focuses efforts on theoretically useful casesCrafting Multiple data collection methods Strengthens grounding of theory byinstruments & triangulation of evidenceprotocols Synergistic view of evidence Qualitative & quantitative data combined Fosters divergent perspectives strengthens grounding
Step Activity ReasonEntering the Overlap data collection & Speeds analysis & revealsfield analysis, including field notes helpful adjustments to data Flexible & opportunistic data collection collection methods Allows researcher to take advantage of emergent themes & unique case featuresAnalysing Within case analysis Gains familiarity with data &data preliminary theory generation Cross-case pattern search Forces researcher to look using divergent techniques beyond initial impressions & see evidence through multiple lenses
Step Activity ReasonSharpening Iterative tabulation of evidence Sharpens construct definition,hypotheses for each construct validity and measurability Replication, not sampling, logic Confirms, extends and sharpens across cases theory Search evidence “why” behind relationships Builds internal validityEnfolding Comparison with conflicting Builds internal validity, raisesliterature literature theoretical level, and sharpens construct definitions Comparison with similar literature Sharpens generalizability, improves construct definition and raises theoretical levelReaching Theoretical saturation when Ends process when marginalclosure possible improvements become small
CASE STUDY DATA COLLECTION Field work Real world situation Questionnaire / Schedule Already information / Secondary data Guide to Indian Literature Other collections
SCIENTIFIC METHOD Make an observation Ask a question Formulate a hypothesis Design and conduct an experiment Analyze your results Draw conclusions Test and retest results
BE TRUTHFUL Honest data Time spent Elements to observe Biases Don’t assume Facts as they are
CASE STUDY METHODOLOGY Plan and chart techniques to be used Identify site(s) for access & convenience Schedule data collection Regular review Units to be included Strenght of questionnaire/ schedule
EXAMPLE OF CASE STUDY RESEARCH DESIGN FROM JOHNS & LEE-ROSS (1998) P. 148 In-depth interviews Hackman and Oldhams Job Diagnostic Survey (1980) Results Semi-structured Participant observation interviews Direct output from research method Information for research method formulation
RECORDING Analysis is the key, so don’t gather anything until you know how you will use it Notes vs Audiotape vs videotape: too little data or too much? Investigative journalist in the field: cold scientist out Observe / listen / or what
CONSIDERATIONS Why is this a suitable situation for a case study? Aims & objectives Theoretical basis Appropriateness of data collected Appropriateness of data-gathering methods Credibility/validity/reliability of findings
HOW TO DEVELOP JAIN UNIVERSITY AT GLOBAL LEVEL How do you go about Methodology Case Questions Data Methodology Place of data collection Units Design of questionnaire Analysis/ interpretation
INTERVIEW AS A TOOLBe alert for openings in responses to probe moredeeply, starting with mundane questions andgradually easing into more sensitive and morecomplex questions
INTERVIEW DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES lnclude taking notes during the interview notes after the interview Tape recording Writing and transcribing the interview (the transcript is a “verbatim”) verbatim
INTERVIEW DO’S AND DON’TS...Do listen more and talk lessDo follow up on what is not clear and probe more deeply into what is revealedDon’t use leading questions; do use open- ended questions (“probes”) probesDon’t interrupt; do wait
Do keep interviewee(s) focusedDo ask for concrete detailsDo tolerate silence and space between interviewee’s responses; doallow the interviewee time to thinkDon’t be judgmental about or react to an interviewee’s opinions, views,or beliefs Don’t engage in debate with an interviewee Do record everything the interviewee says and note
SYNTHESIS AND INTERPRETATION OF THE MEANINGS OF FIELD DATA... a formidable task because data are thick and deep as well as voluminous and unorganized (“field notes”) notes involves a systematic and iterative process of searching, categorizing, and integrating data (“managing data”) data
Classifying the data, including categorization, coding, andgrouping into thematic unitsInterpreting and synthesizing the organized data into general conclusions orunderstandings
DESIGNING CASE STUDIES SAMPLING Sampling: Statistical generalization (cases are representative for a wider population: sample -> population) Analytical generalization (adequacy of theoretical inferences): replication logic of sampling (multiple case studies) Select contrasting cases (independent/dependent variables): counterfactual Select similar cases: saturation
SYNOPSIS/EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Outline the purpose of the case study Describe the field of research – this is usually an overview of the company Outline the issues and findings of the case study without the specific details Identify the theory that will be used. Here, the reader should be able to get a clear picture of the essential contents of the study. Note any assumptions made
FINDINGS Identify the problems found in the case. Each analysis of a problem should be supported by facts given in the case together with the relevant theory and course concepts. • This section is often divided into sub-sections, one for each problem.
DISCUSSION Summarise the major problem/s Identify alternative solutions Briefly outline each alternative solution and then evaluate it in terms of its advantages and disadvantages No need to refer to theory or coursework here.
CONCLUSION Sum up the main points from the findings and discussion
RECOMMENDATIONS Choose which of the alternative solutions should be adopted Briefly justify your choice explaining how it will solve the major problem/s This should be written in a forceful style as this section is intended to be persuasive Here integration of theory and coursework is appropriate
IMPLEMENTATION Explain what should be done, by whom and by when If appropriate include a rough estimate of costs (both financial and time).
REFERENCES Make sure all references are sited correctly
APPENDICES (IF ANY) Note any original data that relates to the study but which would have interrupted the flow of the main body.
FACTORS FOR JUDGING A GOOD CASE RESEARCH What is new? So what? Why so? Well done? Done well? Why now? Who cares?
SUMMARY All research includes cases, but not everything is case study research Focus on context: uniqueness + analytical generalization 3 types: theory building, theory testing, problem solving Design choices: nr of cases, timeframe, type of data
HOW TO OUTLINE A CASE STUDY Instructions 1 State the problem in the first line of the outline. Create subheadings under the problem statement to explain parts of the problem that might not be self-evident. 2 Write the thesis statement as the next major point. The thesis statement is the purpose of the paper. In this case, it should outline the solution to the case study problem. Create subheadings under the thesis statement to explain any parts of the thesis that are not self- evident. 3 List the theories relevant to the case study and thesis statement. Each theory should be its own main point. Create subheadings under each theory to explain key parts or terms.
4 Explain your method of research in three or four main points. This describes how you went about the case study. Explain any variables or constants. 5 Write the main findings of the case study in two or three points. These findings should be a direct result of applying the theories to the case study. They should support your thesis statement. Use subheadings to explain each point, if necessary. 6 Summarize the problem, thesis statement and theories in one or two points. This effectively wraps up your paper and details any further research that should take place.
WEAKNESSES Disadvantages of Cashflow, start-up cash- proposition? drain? Gaps in capabilities? Continuity, supply chain robustness? Lack of competitive strength? Effects on core activities, Reputation, presence and distraction? reach? Reliability of data, plan Financials? predictability? Own known vulnerabilities? Morale, commitment, Timescales, deadlines and leadership? pressures? Accreditations, etc? Processes and systems, etc?
OPPORTUNITIES Market developments? Niche target markets? Competitors vulnerabilities? Geographical, export, import? Industry or lifestyle trends? Market need for new USPs? Technology development and Market response to tactics, e.g innovation? surprise? Global influences? Major contracts, tenders? New markets, vertical, Business and product horizontal? development? Market volume demand Information and research? trends? Partnerships, agencies, Seasonal, weather, fashion distribution? influences?
THREATS Political effects? Vital contracts and partners? Legislative effects? Obstacles faced? Environmental effects? Insurmountable weaknesses? IT developments? Employment market? Competitor intentions - Financial and credit various? pressures? Market demand? Economy - home, abroad? New technologies, services, Seasonality, weather effects? ideas?