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Web serachning tools & techniques


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    • 1. Electronic Searching Tools for Information Access by K.T.S.Pushpakumara Senior Assistant Librarian & Visiting Lecturer Faculty of Medicine University of Ruhuna Galle Sri lanka
    • 2. Outline • • • • Electronic searching tools Web searching techniques OA scholarly Databases Exercises 26/10/2010
    • 3. • “Information is a source of learning but unless it is organized, processed, and available to the right people in a format for decision making, it is a burden, not a benefit.” -Willion Pollard- Sanath Kariyawasam 3
    • 4. Information Literacy……. “ Information literacy enables individuals to recognize when information is needed and gives them the ability to locate, evaluate, and use effectively the needed information” - American Library Association Sanath Kariyawasam 4
    • 5. IL Helps Students to Improve Their Research Skills Sanath Kariyawasam 5
    • 6. “If you give a man a fish He will have a single meal If you teach him how to fish He will eat all his life” (A Chinese proverb)
    • 7. The Changing Research Environment Information Overload and Data Smog
    • 8. Electronic Searching Tools • Search Engines • Specialized Electronic databases (Invisible or Deep Web) • Web directories •General directories •Subject directories • Subject gateways
    • 9. What is a search engine? 26/10/2010
    • 10. Definition: A search engine is a searchable database of Internet files collected by a computer program (called a crawler, robot, worm, spider). Indexing is created from the collected files, e.g., title, full text, size, URL, etc. There is no selection criteria for the collection of files, though evaluation can be applied to ranking schemes that return the results of a query. 26/10/2010 10
    • 11. 1. Individual search engines An individual engine uses a spider to collect its own searchable index. There are two types of individual search engines. a. General Search Engines Ex: Google, AltaVista, HotBot, Cycos b. Subject Specific search engines Ex: MetaPhys, Chritech, Religon Explorer 2. Meta Search Engine A meta engine search multiple individual engines simultaneously. Ex: metacrawler, lxquick, mamma 26/10/2010 11
    • 12. What are some search engines? 26/10/2010 12
    • 13. Search Engines Aeroseek AltaVista Argus Clearinghouse AskJeeves Aviation Search Engine Beaucoup Bing Debriefing Dog Pile Einet Galaxy Excite FinderSeeker Galore 26/10/2010 Google GoTo Highway61 HotBot Inference InfoSeek Internet Sleuth Librarians' Index Ixquick Look Smart Lycos Magellan Mamma MetaCrawler Metafind MetaGopher Northern Lights Opentext Profusion SavvySearch SCIway Search Spaniel Starting Point Verio Metasearch WebCrawler Yahoo Scirus
    • 14. • Google scholar( • Yahoo( • Lycos( • Excite( • Hotbot( • Altavista( • Mamma( • Google ( • Bing ( 26/10/2010 14
    • 15. Search Engine Good For: Precision searches, using named people or organisations, searching quickly and widely, topics which are hard to classify Not Good For: Browsing through a subject area
    • 16. 26/10/2010
    • 17. URL: 26/10/2010 17
    • 18. URL: 26/10/2010 18
    • 19. Sanath Kariyawasam 19
    • 20. URL: 26/10/2010 http:// 20
    • 21. Sanath Kariyawasam 21
    • 22. Sanath Kariyawasam 22
    • 23. URL: 26/10/2010
    • 24. Exercise 1 Searching ppt • • Google Advanced search Sanath Kariyawasam 24
    • 25.
    • 26. Electronic databases Sanath Kariyawasam 26
    • 27. What is a database A database is any organized collection of data. Some examples of databases you may encounter in your daily life are: – – – – – – 26/10/2010 a telephone book T.V. Guide airline reservation system motor vehicle registration records papers in your filing cabinet files on your computer hard drive.
    • 28. Electronic DataBase Database is computerized record keeping system. The important thing is that a database allows storing data and getting it or modifying. There are tow type of databases– • Analytical Databases • Operational Databases
    • 29. Analytical Databases Analytical Databases are primarily static, read only databases , which store archived, historical data used for analysis.
    • 30. Operational Databases Operational databases allow to modify that data. These types of databases are usually used to track real-time information.
    • 31. Database cont….. • A database consists of organized pieces of information. These pieces of information are placed into records. • The electronic databases contain magazine and periodical articles, as well as other types of information.
    • 32. Database cont…… • There are many, many different types of electronic databases in the world today, including; – – – – – full-text databases, bibliographic databases, statistical databases, image databases, and others.
    • 33. Why are electronic databases useful? • Using electronic databases is a very valuable way to conduct research. • Before the advent of electronic databases, research was even more time-consuming and tedious.
    • 34. What is a Specialised Database 26/10/2010
    • 35. Specialised Databases • Also known as the “invisible web” or Deep Web • Materials that general search engines cannot or WILL not include in their collection of web pages (indexes) • You cannot find through general search engines • Contains a vast amount of information – much of it authoritative, qualitative – much of it specialized 35
    • 36. Specialised Databases Good For: Gathering specific kinds of data Not Good For: Browsing through a subject area
    • 37. Examples Open Access Scholarly Databases 26/10/2010 37
    • 38. Open Access Scholarly Databases • EThOS-Beta EThOs is an electronic thesis online service from British Library. It provides over 250,000 theses to download freely. 26/10/2010
    • 39. EThOS-Beta URL: 26/10/2010
    • 40. Open Access Scholarly Databases •Directory of Open Access Journals(DOAJ) A service that covers free full text quality controlled scientific and scholarly journals. Currently there are 3940 journals in the directory. 26/10/2010 40
    • 41. DOAJ URL: 26/10/2010 41
    • 42. Open Access Scholarly Databases • Programme for the Enhancement of Research Information (PERI) • Led by INASP • Over 17,000 full-text journals in all disciplines from major publishers (countries select resources) • 100+ eligible countries • National level licenses 26/10/2010 42
    • 43. PERI URL: 26/10/2010
    • 44. Open Access Scholarly Databases • DIGITAL BOOK INDEX  Digital book index provides links to more than 148000 full-text digital books from commercial publishers, universities and various private sites.  More than 120,000 of these books, text and document are available in free while many others are available at very modest cost. 26/10/2010
    • 45. DIGITAL BOOK INDEX 26/10/2010
    • 46. What is a subject directory? Definition: A subject directory is a service that offers a collection of links to Internet resources submitted by site creators or evaluators and organized into subject categories. Directory services use selection criteria for choosing links to include, though the selectivity varies among services. Most directories are searchable.
    • 47. Directories • What is a Directory? – A file used to organize internet resources into categories. – Types of Directories • General– Cover many subjects – Ex: Yahoo • Subject Directories. – Cover specific subjects
    • 48. Subjects Gateways Sanath Kariyawasam 48
    • 49. What is a Subject gateway A subject gateway can be defined as some facility that allows easier access to network-based resources in a defined subject area o The simple types of subject gateways are sets of web pages containing lists of links to resource. • The aim is to help users to locate relevant and high quality resources on the Internet 26/10/2010 • carefully selected by human experts •abstract describing •good subject access •tools for finding Internet resources •especially resources which are -good quality -serious, professional, academic
    • 50. What is a Subject Gateway o Subject gateways are also known as Subject-based information gateways Subject- based gateways Subject index gateways Virtual libraries Subject trees Web portals 26/10/2010 50
    • 51. What’s the difference between a Subject Gateway and a Search Engine? 26/10/2010
    • 52. Subject Gateways Good For: Topics that fall into a thematic area that has a subject directory, guided browsing in your subject area Not Good For: Quickly finding information from widely varying themes
    • 53. An important Information Gateway URL: 26/10/2010 53
    • 54. An Useful Subject Gateway URL: 26/10/2010 54
    • 55. Powerful Subject Gateway for Information URL: 26/10/2010 55
    • 56. Search techniques  Several techniques for database, catalog and Internet searches include: • • • • • • • Guessing URL Phrase searching Truncation Wildcard Field searching Setting Limits Boolean ( AND,OR,NOT)
    • 57. 1. Guessing URL ( Uniform Resource Locator) Sanath Kariyawasam 57
    • 58. Anatomy of URL Web page (document) Protocol World Wide Web Sub folder Domain Name Directory/Folder Sanath Kariyawasam 58
    • 59. • http:// • www. -- Short for Hypertext Transfer Protocol. This indicates a hypertext document or directory This indicates on the World Wide Web. ( Some times “www” is missing) • -- Called the domain name. It often tells you the name of a company, university or organization. • together, these indicate the web server name • services/-- This is directory or folder on the web server that contains a group of related web pages within the website. • reference/-- This is sub directory or sub folder • fag.html– This is a web page inside the folder(the same file can be named as start.html) Note that: A URL does not always indicate the name of the web page. 26/10/2010 59
    • 60. Top level domain by type of organization are; • • • • • • edu: com: gov: mil: net: org: • ac: Educational institutes Commercial business or for profit organization U.S. government organization U.S. military organizations Networking organizations Nonprofit organizations academic institues Top level domains by geographical location include; • • • • • • • ar: au: ca: uk: lk: In: bd: 26/1/2010 Argentina Australia Canada United Kingdom Sri Lanka India Bangladesh 60
    • 61. • BBC ( • Library of Congress ( • Harvard university( • University of Ruhuna (  CNN  NASA  Yale University  Open University of Sri Lanka  Library of University of Ruhuna  University Grants Commission of Sri Lanka  University Grants Commission of India  Open University of Bangladesh 26/10/2010 61
    • 62. 2. Phrase Searching o Using quotation marks (“ ”) makes it possible to search for important phrases instead of individual keywords. o Enclose the phrase in “…” or (…) o Phrase: “world health organization” o As Keywords: world and health and Earthquake o Phrase: “Welfare Reform” o As Keywords: Welfare and Reform Instead of American English Try “American English” or (American English)
    • 63. 3. Truncation searching –Use the root of a word to broaden your search responses –allow you to search alternative spellings
    • 64. Type of truncations 1.Right hand truncation Ex: vote votes voting voter voters vot* Sanath Kariyawasam 68
    • 65. oUsing the root Psycholog* will result in the following; o Psychology o Psychological o Psychologist Sanath Kariyawasam 69
    • 66.  Ex:  child* will find Child OR Childs OR Children  parasite* will find parasite OR parasites  manage* will find manager, managers, management, managerial etc. 3/3/2014 70
    • 67. 2. Left hand truncation Ex: vinylchloride polyvinylchloride methylenechloride potassiumchloride sodiumchloride lithiumchloride chloride * Sanath Kariyawasam 71
    • 68. 3. Middle truncation Information Communication Technology In formation Processing Technology Information Systems Technology Information*technology 3/3/2014 72
    • 69. 4. Wildcard searching Wildcard symbols replace a single letter, so can be used to find terms with different spellings. • Alternate spellings: ? Examples: If you want both woman and women Try wom?n  wom?n would search for “woman” and “women” Organi?ation would search for “Organization” and “Organisation”
    • 70. 5. Field Searching – title, author, subject, keyword, all fields, etc. 6. Setting Limits – language, date, region, file format ( Use Advanced search options if the search engine provides) Ex:
    • 71. Click Advanced search
    • 72. Click to view the ppt
    • 73. Click to download
    • 74. Click to download
    • 75. Click to save
    • 76. 7. Boolean Search Boolean search techniques work in databases and on the Internet. Use keywords in a variety of ways to refine your search. A and B stand for key words or phrases. The words “AND,” “OR” and “NOT” are called logical operators.
    • 77. Boolean Search AND: When you use “AND” between two terms, your results will include sources that show the two terms together in a source. OR: Use “OR” to broaden your search by looking for several terms in a source whether they appear together or not. NOT: Allows you to reduce the number of results you get from a search. This can be helpful if you want to exclude results related to your topic but not relevant to your problems.
    • 78. AND Operator (to combine two concepts and narrow a search) the AND operator is used to combine two concepts e.g. “hip” AND “fracture” – in the shaded area; retrieves items containing all the search terms
    • 79. Sanath Kariyawasam 88
    • 80. Africa AND (malaria OR tuberculosis) malaria tuberculosis africa Africa AND (malaria or tuberculosis) – in the shaded area The (OR) operator retains items in each term and the AND operator is used to combine two concepts
    • 81. OR Operator (info containing one or other term; will broaden a search) “renal” OR “kidney” – in the shaded area with the overlap in the middle having both search terms; retrieves items containing either search term or both search terms
    • 82. NOT Operator (in one term or the other - will narrow a search) “pig” NOT “guinea” – in the shaded area; eliminates items in 2nd term (guinea) or both terms
    • 83. Renal OR Kidney results `
    • 84. Search Strategy Putting it together organi?ation* AND (change OR development) AND (health service OR health authorit* OR NHS OR National Health Service) AND (middle manage*)
    • 85. Search Strategy organi?ation* AND (change OR development) AND (health service OR health authorit* OR NHS OR National Health Service) We can find both spellings of organization this way… AND (middle manage*)
    • 86. Search Strategy organi?ation* AND (change OR development) AND (health service OR health authorit* OR NHS OR National Health Service) AND …and we use AND to combine the different concepts so that all of these have to be in the article… (middle manage*)
    • 87. Search Strategy organi?ation* AND (change OR development) AND (health service OR health authorit* OR NHS OR National Health Service) AND …we use OR to combine alternatives for the same concept so that any of these can be in the article… (middle manage*)
    • 88. Search Strategy organi?ation* AND (change OR development) AND (health service OR health authorit* OR NHS OR National Health Service) AND …brackets help to separate the parts of the search to make sure it is clear. (middle manage*)
    • 89. (Dispos* OR Dump* OR Clean* OR Recycle*) AND (“Hazardous waste” OR “Toxic waste” OR “Industrial waste”) AND (Canad* OR Quebec OR “North America”) NOT Radiactive 3/3/2014 11 1
    • 90. Putting it together (Popular OR Common OR Favorite) AND (Method* OR Way* OR Technique*) AND (Los* OR Reduce*) AND (Weight OR Fat OR Diet*) 3/3/2014 112 11 2
    • 91. Search Strategy It may look really complicated, but it is actually quite easy once you get the hang of it… …and it will save you having to look through lots of irrelevant articles.
    • 92. To prepare Search Strategy; •Use keywords, not sentences •List your keywords in order of priority •Don’t use plurals •Avoid “stop” words (words that many search engines do not search for: a, an, and, as, be, by, from, how, I, the, to, we, when, where, with, etc.)
    • 93. Searching techniques • To find FEWER results, – Search in specific fields (title, abstract, subject, keywords, etc.) – Add or change search limits (date, language, etc.) – Add more search terms (using AND) – Use phrase searching instead of AND – Use specific subject headings instead of common language words – Decrease search terms connected with OR
    • 94. Searching techniques • To find MORE results, – Use truncation or wildcard characters (* or ?) – Include more synonyms (using OR) – Search “all fields” rather than in specific fields – Remove search limits (e.g. date, language, etc.) – Use AND instead of phrase searching – Use broader subject headings
    • 95. Basic Searching Techniques • To find more RELEVANT results, – Use NOT to exclude unwanted terms – Search specific fields (title, abstract, subject/descriptor, etc.) – Use AND instead of OR 117
    • 96. If you received no results at all DON’T WORRY!  Check your search strategy again and  Change the search engine you used.
    • 97. Images strategy • • AltaVista – choose the “Image” tab Google Images Search engine search with description of image and (.jpg or .gif or .bmp, etc.)
    • 98. images Sanath Kariyawasam 120
    • 99. Sanath Kariyawasam 121
    • 100. images Sanath Kariyawasam 126
    • 101. Popular vs. Scholarly Sources Popular: Scholarly: For general readers  Glossy, colourful  No abstracts  No references  Not peer reviewed  For academic readers  Complex vocabulary  Have abstracts  Have references  Articles peer reviewed Examples: National Geographic New Scientist Examples: JAMA NEJM 26/10/2010
    • 102. Exercise on Searching techniques
    • 103. 1. Female engineering professionals with specialization in electrical of Sri Lanka.
    • 104. Answer: (female OR wom?n) AND engineeringAND (professional OR expert) AND (Speciali?ation OR interest) AND electrical AND Sri Lanka
    • 105. 2. Water pollution or soil erosion in Pakistan and Sri Lanka
    • 106. Answer: [(Water AND pollution) OR (soil AND erosion)] AND (Pakistan OR Sri Lanka)
    • 107. 3. The effect of media violence on children
    • 108. Answer: (effect OR result OR impact) AND (media OR television OR radio OR newspaper) AND “violence” AND (child* OR teen*)
    • 109. 4. Development of a system to study the motors efficiency and reduce kWh usage Sanath Kariyawasam 136
    • 110. Answer (Development OR growth) AND (system OR structure) AND motor* AND (efficiency OR effectiveness) AND reduce AND (kWh OR energy) AND usage Sanath Kariyawasam 137
    • 111. 5. Stress monitoring of civil engineers during work and leisure time.
    • 112. 6. Leadership and management skills of engineering professionals in Sri Lanka
    • 113. 7. Job satisfaction of engineers of Sri Lanka
    • 114. 8. The brain drain of engineers Sanath Kariyawasam 141
    • 115. 9. Solar thermal energy for Sri Lanka Sanath Kariyawasam 142
    • 116. 10. Electrical conductivity of silver metavandate Sanath Kariyawasam 143
    • 117. 11. A quantitative study of the direct use of kerosene for lighting in Sri Lankan household Sanath Kariyawasam 144
    • 118. 12. Information technology development in Sri Lanka Sanath Kariyawasam 145
    • 119. 13. use atomic energy for the generation of electric power in Sri Lanka Sanath Kariyawasam 146
    • 120. 14. Energy resources in Sri Lanka and supply options for the future Sanath Kariyawasam 147
    • 121. 15. A study on transformer losses and to reduce energy loss Sanath Kariyawasam 148
    • 122. Thank you If you wish to do something for the community, build a road If you wish to do something better for the community, build a bridge -Chinese Proverb Libraries build roads to information and bridges to knowledge 26/10/2010