Electronic Searching Tools
for Information Access
by

K.T.S.Pushpakumara
Senior Assistant Librarian & Visiting Lecturer
Fa...
Outline
•
•
•
•

Electronic searching tools
Web searching techniques
OA scholarly Databases
Exercises

26/10/2010
• “Information is a source of learning
but unless it is organized,
processed, and available to the
right people in a forma...
Information Literacy…….
“ Information literacy enables
individuals to recognize when
information is needed and gives
them ...
IL Helps Students to Improve Their
Research Skills

Sanath Kariyawasam

5
“If you give a man a fish
He will have a single meal
If you teach him how to fish
He will eat all his life”
(A Chinese pro...
The Changing Research Environment
Information Overload and Data Smog
Electronic Searching Tools
• Search Engines
• Specialized Electronic databases
(Invisible or Deep Web)
• Web directories
•...
What is a search engine?

26/10/2010
Definition:
A search engine is a searchable
database of Internet files collected by a
computer program (called a crawler,
...
1. Individual search engines
An individual engine uses a spider to collect its own searchable
index. There are two types o...
What are some search engines?

26/10/2010

12
Search Engines
Aeroseek
AltaVista
Argus Clearinghouse
AskJeeves
Aviation Search Engine
Beaucoup
Bing
Debriefing
Dog Pile
E...
• Google scholar(scholar.google.com)
• Yahoo( www.yahoo.com)
• Lycos(www.lycos.com)
• Excite( www.excite.com)
• Hotbot(www...
Search Engine
Good For:
Precision searches, using named people or
organisations, searching quickly and widely,
topics whic...
26/10/2010
URL:

26/10/2010

http://www.alltheweb.com
17
URL: http://www.lycos.com
26/10/2010

18
Sanath Kariyawasam

19
URL:
26/10/2010

http:// www.looksmart.com
20
Sanath Kariyawasam

21
Sanath Kariyawasam

22
URL:
26/10/2010

http://www.mamma.com/
Exercise 1
Searching ppt
• http://www.slideshare.net
• Google Advanced search

Sanath Kariyawasam

24
http://www.slideshare.net
Electronic databases

Sanath Kariyawasam

26
What is a database
A database is any organized collection
of data.
Some examples of databases you may encounter in your da...
Electronic DataBase
Database is computerized record
keeping system. The important thing is
that a database allows storing ...
Analytical Databases
Analytical Databases are
primarily static, read only
databases , which store
archived, historical dat...
Operational Databases
Operational databases
allow to modify that data.
These types of databases
are usually used to track
...
Database cont…..
• A database consists of organized pieces
of information. These pieces of
information are placed into rec...
Database cont……
• There are many, many
different types of electronic
databases in the world
today, including;
–
–
–
–
–

f...
Why are electronic
databases useful?
• Using electronic databases
is a very valuable way to
conduct research.
• Before the...
What is a Specialised Database

26/10/2010
Specialised Databases
• Also known as the “invisible web” or
Deep Web
• Materials that general search engines
cannot or WI...
Specialised Databases
Good For:
Gathering specific kinds of data
Not Good For:
Browsing through a subject area
Examples
Open Access Scholarly Databases

26/10/2010

37
Open Access Scholarly
Databases
• EThOS-Beta
EThOs is an electronic thesis online service
from British Library. It provide...
EThOS-Beta

URL: http://ethos.bl.uk/Home.do
26/10/2010
Open Access Scholarly Databases
•Directory of Open Access
Journals(DOAJ)
A service that covers free full text quality
cont...
DOAJ

URL: http://www.doaj.org
26/10/2010

41
Open Access Scholarly Databases
• Programme for the Enhancement of
Research Information (PERI)
• Led by INASP
• Over 17,00...
PERI

URL:

26/10/2010

http://www.inasp.info/
Open Access Scholarly Databases
• DIGITAL BOOK INDEX
 Digital book index provides links to
more than 148000 full-text dig...
DIGITAL BOOK INDEX

http://www.digitalbookindex.org/_search/search011t-rev.asp
26/10/2010
What is a subject directory?
Definition:
A subject directory is a service
that offers a collection of links to
Internet re...
Directories
• What is a Directory?
– A file used to organize internet resources into
categories.
– Types of Directories
• ...
Subjects Gateways

Sanath Kariyawasam

48
What is a Subject gateway
A subject gateway can be
defined as some facility that
allows easier access to
network-based res...
What is a Subject Gateway
o

Subject gateways are also known as
Subject-based information gateways
Subject- based gatewa...
What’s the difference between
a Subject Gateway
and
a Search Engine?

26/10/2010
Subject Gateways
Good For:

Topics that fall into a thematic area that has
a subject directory, guided browsing in your
su...
An important Information Gateway

URL: www.hw.ac.uk/libWWW/irn/pinakes/pinakes.html
26/10/2010

53
An Useful Subject Gateway

URL:http://infomine.ucr.edu/
26/10/2010

54
Powerful Subject Gateway for Information

URL: http://www.vlib.org.uk
26/10/2010

55
Search techniques
 Several techniques for database,
catalog and Internet searches include:

•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Guessing URL
P...
1. Guessing URL
( Uniform Resource Locator)

Sanath Kariyawasam

57
Anatomy of URL
http://www.lib.utexas.edu/services/reference/fag.html

Web page (document)
Protocol

World Wide Web

Sub fo...
• http://
• www. --

Short for Hypertext Transfer Protocol. This indicates a
hypertext document or directory
This indicate...
Top level domain by type of organization are;

•
•
•
•
•
•

edu:
com:
gov:
mil:
net:
org:

• ac:

Educational institutes
C...
• BBC ( www.bbc.com)
• Library of Congress (www.loc.gov)
• Harvard university(www.harvard.edu)
• University of Ruhuna (www...
2. Phrase Searching
o Using quotation marks (“ ”) makes it possible
to search for important phrases instead of
individual ...
3. Truncation searching
–Use the root of a word to
broaden your search responses
–allow you to search alternative
spelling...
Type of truncations
1.Right hand truncation
Ex:

vote
votes
voting
voter
voters
vot*
Sanath Kariyawasam

68
oUsing the root Psycholog* will result in
the following;
o Psychology
o Psychological
o Psychologist

Sanath Kariyawasam

...
 Ex:
 child*
will find Child OR Childs OR Children
 parasite*
will find parasite OR parasites

 manage*
will find mana...
2. Left hand truncation
Ex:
vinylchloride
polyvinylchloride
methylenechloride
potassiumchloride
sodiumchloride
lithiumchlo...
3. Middle truncation
Information Communication Technology
In formation Processing Technology
Information Systems Technolog...
4. Wildcard searching
Wildcard symbols replace a single letter, so can be used
to find terms with different spellings.

• ...
5. Field Searching
– title, author, subject, keyword,
all fields, etc.

6. Setting Limits
– language, date, region, file
f...
Click Advanced search
Click to view the
ppt
Click to download
Click to download
Click to save
7. Boolean Search
Boolean search techniques work in databases
and on the Internet. Use keywords in a variety
of ways to re...
Boolean Search
AND:
When you use “AND”
between two terms, your results
will include sources that show the
two terms togeth...
AND Operator

(to combine two concepts and narrow a search)

the AND operator is used to combine two
concepts e.g. “hip” A...
Sanath Kariyawasam

88
Africa AND (malaria OR tuberculosis)

malaria

tuberculosis

africa

Africa AND (malaria or tuberculosis) – in the shaded ...
OR Operator

(info containing one or other term; will broaden a search)

“renal” OR “kidney” – in the shaded area with the...
NOT Operator
(in one term or the other - will narrow a search)

“pig” NOT “guinea” – in the shaded area;
eliminates items ...
Renal OR Kidney results

`
Search Strategy
Putting it together

organi?ation* AND (change OR development)
AND
(health service OR health authorit* OR ...
Search Strategy
organi?ation* AND (change OR development)
AND
(health service OR health authorit* OR NHS
OR National Healt...
Search Strategy
organi?ation* AND (change OR development)
AND
(health service OR health authorit* OR NHS
OR National Healt...
Search Strategy
organi?ation* AND (change OR development)
AND
(health service OR health authorit* OR NHS
OR National Healt...
Search Strategy
organi?ation* AND (change OR development)
AND
(health service OR health authorit* OR NHS
OR National Healt...
(Dispos* OR Dump* OR Clean* OR
Recycle*)
AND
(“Hazardous waste” OR “Toxic waste”
OR “Industrial waste”)
AND
(Canad* OR Que...
Putting it together
(Popular OR Common OR Favorite)
AND
(Method* OR Way* OR Technique*)
AND
(Los* OR Reduce*)
AND
(Weight ...
Search Strategy
It may look really complicated, but
it is actually quite easy once you
get the hang of it…
…and it will sa...
To prepare Search Strategy;
•Use keywords, not sentences
•List your keywords in order of priority
•Don’t use plurals

•Avo...
Searching techniques
• To find FEWER results,
– Search in specific fields (title,
abstract, subject, keywords, etc.)
– Add...
Searching techniques
• To find MORE results,
– Use truncation or wildcard
characters (* or ?)
– Include more synonyms (usi...
Basic Searching Techniques
• To find more RELEVANT results,
– Use NOT to exclude unwanted terms
– Search specific fields (...
If you received no results at all
DON’T WORRY!
 Check your search strategy again
and
 Change the search engine you used.
Images strategy
•
•

AltaVista – choose the “Image” tab
Google Images
Search engine search with
description of image and (...
images

Sanath Kariyawasam

120
Sanath Kariyawasam

121
images

Sanath Kariyawasam

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Popular vs. Scholarly Sources
Popular:

Scholarly:

For general readers
 Glossy, colourful
 No abstracts
 No reference...
Exercise
on
Searching techniques
1.

Female engineering professionals with
specialization in electrical of
Sri Lanka.
Answer:
(female OR wom?n) AND engineeringAND
(professional OR expert) AND
(Speciali?ation OR interest) AND electrical
AND ...
2.
Water pollution or soil erosion in
Pakistan and Sri Lanka
Answer:
[(Water AND pollution) OR (soil AND
erosion)] AND (Pakistan OR Sri Lanka)
3.
The effect of media violence on children
Answer:
(effect OR result OR impact) AND (media
OR television OR radio OR newspaper)
AND “violence” AND (child* OR teen*)
4.

Development of a system to
study the motors efficiency and
reduce kWh usage

Sanath Kariyawasam

136
Answer
(Development OR growth) AND
(system OR structure) AND motor*
AND (efficiency OR effectiveness)
AND reduce AND (kWh ...
5.

Stress monitoring of civil engineers
during work and leisure time.
6.
Leadership and management skills of
engineering professionals in Sri Lanka
7.
Job satisfaction of engineers of Sri Lanka
8.
The brain drain of engineers

Sanath Kariyawasam

141
9.
Solar thermal energy for Sri Lanka

Sanath Kariyawasam

142
10.
Electrical conductivity of silver metavandate

Sanath Kariyawasam

143
11.
A quantitative study of the direct use
of kerosene for lighting in Sri Lankan
household

Sanath Kariyawasam

144
12.
Information technology development
in Sri Lanka

Sanath Kariyawasam

145
13.
use atomic energy for the generation
of electric power in Sri Lanka

Sanath Kariyawasam

146
14.
Energy resources in Sri Lanka and
supply options for the future

Sanath Kariyawasam

147
15.
A study on transformer losses and to
reduce energy loss

Sanath Kariyawasam

148
Thank you
If you wish to do something for the community,
build a road
If you wish to do something better for the
community...
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  • URL: http://www.hw.ac.uk/libWWW/irn/pinakes/pinakes.html
  • Web serachning tools & techniques

    1. 1. Electronic Searching Tools for Information Access by K.T.S.Pushpakumara Senior Assistant Librarian & Visiting Lecturer Faculty of Medicine University of Ruhuna Galle Sri lanka sanathka@lib.ruh.ac.lk
    2. 2. Outline • • • • Electronic searching tools Web searching techniques OA scholarly Databases Exercises 26/10/2010
    3. 3. • “Information is a source of learning but unless it is organized, processed, and available to the right people in a format for decision making, it is a burden, not a benefit.” -Willion Pollard- Sanath Kariyawasam 3
    4. 4. Information Literacy……. “ Information literacy enables individuals to recognize when information is needed and gives them the ability to locate, evaluate, and use effectively the needed information” - American Library Association Sanath Kariyawasam 4
    5. 5. IL Helps Students to Improve Their Research Skills Sanath Kariyawasam 5
    6. 6. “If you give a man a fish He will have a single meal If you teach him how to fish He will eat all his life” (A Chinese proverb)
    7. 7. The Changing Research Environment Information Overload and Data Smog
    8. 8. Electronic Searching Tools • Search Engines • Specialized Electronic databases (Invisible or Deep Web) • Web directories •General directories •Subject directories • Subject gateways
    9. 9. What is a search engine? 26/10/2010
    10. 10. Definition: A search engine is a searchable database of Internet files collected by a computer program (called a crawler, robot, worm, spider). Indexing is created from the collected files, e.g., title, full text, size, URL, etc. There is no selection criteria for the collection of files, though evaluation can be applied to ranking schemes that return the results of a query. 26/10/2010 10
    11. 11. 1. Individual search engines An individual engine uses a spider to collect its own searchable index. There are two types of individual search engines. a. General Search Engines Ex: Google, AltaVista, HotBot, Cycos b. Subject Specific search engines Ex: MetaPhys, Chritech, Religon Explorer 2. Meta Search Engine A meta engine search multiple individual engines simultaneously. Ex: metacrawler, lxquick, mamma 26/10/2010 11
    12. 12. What are some search engines? 26/10/2010 12
    13. 13. Search Engines Aeroseek AltaVista Argus Clearinghouse AskJeeves Aviation Search Engine Beaucoup Bing Debriefing Dog Pile Einet Galaxy Excite FinderSeeker Galore 26/10/2010 Google GoTo Highway61 HotBot Inference InfoSeek Internet Sleuth Librarians' Index Ixquick Look Smart Lycos Magellan Mamma MetaCrawler Metafind MetaGopher Northern Lights Opentext Profusion SavvySearch SCIway Search Spaniel Starting Point Verio Metasearch WebCrawler Yahoo Scirus
    14. 14. • Google scholar(scholar.google.com) • Yahoo( www.yahoo.com) • Lycos(www.lycos.com) • Excite( www.excite.com) • Hotbot(www.hotbot.com) • Altavista(www.altavista.com) • Mamma(www.mamma.com) • Google (www.google.com) • Bing ( www.bing.com) 26/10/2010 14
    15. 15. Search Engine Good For: Precision searches, using named people or organisations, searching quickly and widely, topics which are hard to classify Not Good For: Browsing through a subject area
    16. 16. 26/10/2010
    17. 17. URL: 26/10/2010 http://www.alltheweb.com 17
    18. 18. URL: http://www.lycos.com 26/10/2010 18
    19. 19. Sanath Kariyawasam 19
    20. 20. URL: 26/10/2010 http:// www.looksmart.com 20
    21. 21. Sanath Kariyawasam 21
    22. 22. Sanath Kariyawasam 22
    23. 23. URL: 26/10/2010 http://www.mamma.com/
    24. 24. Exercise 1 Searching ppt • http://www.slideshare.net • Google Advanced search Sanath Kariyawasam 24
    25. 25. http://www.slideshare.net
    26. 26. Electronic databases Sanath Kariyawasam 26
    27. 27. What is a database A database is any organized collection of data. Some examples of databases you may encounter in your daily life are: – – – – – – 26/10/2010 a telephone book T.V. Guide airline reservation system motor vehicle registration records papers in your filing cabinet files on your computer hard drive.
    28. 28. Electronic DataBase Database is computerized record keeping system. The important thing is that a database allows storing data and getting it or modifying. There are tow type of databases– • Analytical Databases • Operational Databases
    29. 29. Analytical Databases Analytical Databases are primarily static, read only databases , which store archived, historical data used for analysis.
    30. 30. Operational Databases Operational databases allow to modify that data. These types of databases are usually used to track real-time information.
    31. 31. Database cont….. • A database consists of organized pieces of information. These pieces of information are placed into records. • The electronic databases contain magazine and periodical articles, as well as other types of information.
    32. 32. Database cont…… • There are many, many different types of electronic databases in the world today, including; – – – – – full-text databases, bibliographic databases, statistical databases, image databases, and others.
    33. 33. Why are electronic databases useful? • Using electronic databases is a very valuable way to conduct research. • Before the advent of electronic databases, research was even more time-consuming and tedious.
    34. 34. What is a Specialised Database 26/10/2010
    35. 35. Specialised Databases • Also known as the “invisible web” or Deep Web • Materials that general search engines cannot or WILL not include in their collection of web pages (indexes) • You cannot find through general search engines • Contains a vast amount of information – much of it authoritative, qualitative – much of it specialized 35
    36. 36. Specialised Databases Good For: Gathering specific kinds of data Not Good For: Browsing through a subject area
    37. 37. Examples Open Access Scholarly Databases 26/10/2010 37
    38. 38. Open Access Scholarly Databases • EThOS-Beta EThOs is an electronic thesis online service from British Library. It provides over 250,000 theses to download freely. 26/10/2010
    39. 39. EThOS-Beta URL: http://ethos.bl.uk/Home.do 26/10/2010
    40. 40. Open Access Scholarly Databases •Directory of Open Access Journals(DOAJ) A service that covers free full text quality controlled scientific and scholarly journals. Currently there are 3940 journals in the directory. 26/10/2010 40
    41. 41. DOAJ URL: http://www.doaj.org 26/10/2010 41
    42. 42. Open Access Scholarly Databases • Programme for the Enhancement of Research Information (PERI) • Led by INASP • Over 17,000 full-text journals in all disciplines from major publishers (countries select resources) • 100+ eligible countries • National level licenses 26/10/2010 42
    43. 43. PERI URL: 26/10/2010 http://www.inasp.info/
    44. 44. Open Access Scholarly Databases • DIGITAL BOOK INDEX  Digital book index provides links to more than 148000 full-text digital books from commercial publishers, universities and various private sites.  More than 120,000 of these books, text and document are available in free while many others are available at very modest cost. 26/10/2010
    45. 45. DIGITAL BOOK INDEX http://www.digitalbookindex.org/_search/search011t-rev.asp 26/10/2010
    46. 46. What is a subject directory? Definition: A subject directory is a service that offers a collection of links to Internet resources submitted by site creators or evaluators and organized into subject categories. Directory services use selection criteria for choosing links to include, though the selectivity varies among services. Most directories are searchable.
    47. 47. Directories • What is a Directory? – A file used to organize internet resources into categories. – Types of Directories • General– Cover many subjects – Ex: Yahoo • Subject Directories. – Cover specific subjects
    48. 48. Subjects Gateways Sanath Kariyawasam 48
    49. 49. What is a Subject gateway A subject gateway can be defined as some facility that allows easier access to network-based resources in a defined subject area o The simple types of subject gateways are sets of web pages containing lists of links to resource. • The aim is to help users to locate relevant and high quality resources on the Internet 26/10/2010 • carefully selected by human experts •abstract describing •good subject access •tools for finding Internet resources •especially resources which are -good quality -serious, professional, academic
    50. 50. What is a Subject Gateway o Subject gateways are also known as Subject-based information gateways Subject- based gateways Subject index gateways Virtual libraries Subject trees Web portals 26/10/2010 50
    51. 51. What’s the difference between a Subject Gateway and a Search Engine? 26/10/2010
    52. 52. Subject Gateways Good For: Topics that fall into a thematic area that has a subject directory, guided browsing in your subject area Not Good For: Quickly finding information from widely varying themes
    53. 53. An important Information Gateway URL: www.hw.ac.uk/libWWW/irn/pinakes/pinakes.html 26/10/2010 53
    54. 54. An Useful Subject Gateway URL:http://infomine.ucr.edu/ 26/10/2010 54
    55. 55. Powerful Subject Gateway for Information URL: http://www.vlib.org.uk 26/10/2010 55
    56. 56. Search techniques  Several techniques for database, catalog and Internet searches include: • • • • • • • Guessing URL Phrase searching Truncation Wildcard Field searching Setting Limits Boolean ( AND,OR,NOT)
    57. 57. 1. Guessing URL ( Uniform Resource Locator) Sanath Kariyawasam 57
    58. 58. Anatomy of URL http://www.lib.utexas.edu/services/reference/fag.html Web page (document) Protocol World Wide Web Sub folder Domain Name Directory/Folder Sanath Kariyawasam 58
    59. 59. • http:// • www. -- Short for Hypertext Transfer Protocol. This indicates a hypertext document or directory This indicates on the World Wide Web. ( Some times “www” is missing) • lib.utexas.edu/ -- Called the domain name. It often tells you the name of a company, university or organization. • www.lib.utexas.edu-- together, these indicate the web server name • services/-- This is directory or folder on the web server that contains a group of related web pages within the website. • reference/-- This is sub directory or sub folder • fag.html– This is a web page inside the folder(the same file can be named as start.html) Note that: A URL does not always indicate the name of the web page. 26/10/2010 59
    60. 60. Top level domain by type of organization are; • • • • • • edu: com: gov: mil: net: org: • ac: Educational institutes Commercial business or for profit organization U.S. government organization U.S. military organizations Networking organizations Nonprofit organizations academic institues Top level domains by geographical location include; • • • • • • • ar: au: ca: uk: lk: In: bd: 26/1/2010 Argentina Australia Canada United Kingdom Sri Lanka India Bangladesh 60
    61. 61. • BBC ( www.bbc.com) • Library of Congress (www.loc.gov) • Harvard university(www.harvard.edu) • University of Ruhuna (www.ruh.ac.lk)  CNN  NASA  Yale University  Open University of Sri Lanka  Library of University of Ruhuna  University Grants Commission of Sri Lanka  University Grants Commission of India  Open University of Bangladesh 26/10/2010 61
    62. 62. 2. Phrase Searching o Using quotation marks (“ ”) makes it possible to search for important phrases instead of individual keywords. o Enclose the phrase in “…” or (…) o Phrase: “world health organization” o As Keywords: world and health and Earthquake o Phrase: “Welfare Reform” o As Keywords: Welfare and Reform Instead of American English Try “American English” or (American English)
    63. 63. 3. Truncation searching –Use the root of a word to broaden your search responses –allow you to search alternative spellings
    64. 64. Type of truncations 1.Right hand truncation Ex: vote votes voting voter voters vot* Sanath Kariyawasam 68
    65. 65. oUsing the root Psycholog* will result in the following; o Psychology o Psychological o Psychologist Sanath Kariyawasam 69
    66. 66.  Ex:  child* will find Child OR Childs OR Children  parasite* will find parasite OR parasites  manage* will find manager, managers, management, managerial etc. 3/3/2014 70
    67. 67. 2. Left hand truncation Ex: vinylchloride polyvinylchloride methylenechloride potassiumchloride sodiumchloride lithiumchloride chloride * Sanath Kariyawasam 71
    68. 68. 3. Middle truncation Information Communication Technology In formation Processing Technology Information Systems Technology Information*technology 3/3/2014 72
    69. 69. 4. Wildcard searching Wildcard symbols replace a single letter, so can be used to find terms with different spellings. • Alternate spellings: ? Examples: If you want both woman and women Try wom?n  wom?n would search for “woman” and “women” Organi?ation would search for “Organization” and “Organisation”
    70. 70. 5. Field Searching – title, author, subject, keyword, all fields, etc. 6. Setting Limits – language, date, region, file format ( Use Advanced search options if the search engine provides) Ex: www.google.com
    71. 71. Click Advanced search
    72. 72. Click to view the ppt
    73. 73. Click to download
    74. 74. Click to download
    75. 75. Click to save
    76. 76. 7. Boolean Search Boolean search techniques work in databases and on the Internet. Use keywords in a variety of ways to refine your search. A and B stand for key words or phrases. The words “AND,” “OR” and “NOT” are called logical operators.
    77. 77. Boolean Search AND: When you use “AND” between two terms, your results will include sources that show the two terms together in a source. OR: Use “OR” to broaden your search by looking for several terms in a source whether they appear together or not. NOT: Allows you to reduce the number of results you get from a search. This can be helpful if you want to exclude results related to your topic but not relevant to your problems.
    78. 78. AND Operator (to combine two concepts and narrow a search) the AND operator is used to combine two concepts e.g. “hip” AND “fracture” – in the shaded area; retrieves items containing all the search terms
    79. 79. Sanath Kariyawasam 88
    80. 80. Africa AND (malaria OR tuberculosis) malaria tuberculosis africa Africa AND (malaria or tuberculosis) – in the shaded area The (OR) operator retains items in each term and the AND operator is used to combine two concepts
    81. 81. OR Operator (info containing one or other term; will broaden a search) “renal” OR “kidney” – in the shaded area with the overlap in the middle having both search terms; retrieves items containing either search term or both search terms
    82. 82. NOT Operator (in one term or the other - will narrow a search) “pig” NOT “guinea” – in the shaded area; eliminates items in 2nd term (guinea) or both terms
    83. 83. Renal OR Kidney results `
    84. 84. Search Strategy Putting it together organi?ation* AND (change OR development) AND (health service OR health authorit* OR NHS OR National Health Service) AND (middle manage*)
    85. 85. Search Strategy organi?ation* AND (change OR development) AND (health service OR health authorit* OR NHS OR National Health Service) We can find both spellings of organization this way… AND (middle manage*)
    86. 86. Search Strategy organi?ation* AND (change OR development) AND (health service OR health authorit* OR NHS OR National Health Service) AND …and we use AND to combine the different concepts so that all of these have to be in the article… (middle manage*)
    87. 87. Search Strategy organi?ation* AND (change OR development) AND (health service OR health authorit* OR NHS OR National Health Service) AND …we use OR to combine alternatives for the same concept so that any of these can be in the article… (middle manage*)
    88. 88. Search Strategy organi?ation* AND (change OR development) AND (health service OR health authorit* OR NHS OR National Health Service) AND …brackets help to separate the parts of the search to make sure it is clear. (middle manage*)
    89. 89. (Dispos* OR Dump* OR Clean* OR Recycle*) AND (“Hazardous waste” OR “Toxic waste” OR “Industrial waste”) AND (Canad* OR Quebec OR “North America”) NOT Radiactive 3/3/2014 11 1
    90. 90. Putting it together (Popular OR Common OR Favorite) AND (Method* OR Way* OR Technique*) AND (Los* OR Reduce*) AND (Weight OR Fat OR Diet*) 3/3/2014 112 11 2
    91. 91. Search Strategy It may look really complicated, but it is actually quite easy once you get the hang of it… …and it will save you having to look through lots of irrelevant articles.
    92. 92. To prepare Search Strategy; •Use keywords, not sentences •List your keywords in order of priority •Don’t use plurals •Avoid “stop” words (words that many search engines do not search for: a, an, and, as, be, by, from, how, I, the, to, we, when, where, with, etc.)
    93. 93. Searching techniques • To find FEWER results, – Search in specific fields (title, abstract, subject, keywords, etc.) – Add or change search limits (date, language, etc.) – Add more search terms (using AND) – Use phrase searching instead of AND – Use specific subject headings instead of common language words – Decrease search terms connected with OR
    94. 94. Searching techniques • To find MORE results, – Use truncation or wildcard characters (* or ?) – Include more synonyms (using OR) – Search “all fields” rather than in specific fields – Remove search limits (e.g. date, language, etc.) – Use AND instead of phrase searching – Use broader subject headings
    95. 95. Basic Searching Techniques • To find more RELEVANT results, – Use NOT to exclude unwanted terms – Search specific fields (title, abstract, subject/descriptor, etc.) – Use AND instead of OR 117
    96. 96. If you received no results at all DON’T WORRY!  Check your search strategy again and  Change the search engine you used.
    97. 97. Images strategy • • AltaVista – choose the “Image” tab Google Images Search engine search with description of image and (.jpg or .gif or .bmp, etc.)
    98. 98. images Sanath Kariyawasam 120
    99. 99. Sanath Kariyawasam 121
    100. 100. images Sanath Kariyawasam 126
    101. 101. Popular vs. Scholarly Sources Popular: Scholarly: For general readers  Glossy, colourful  No abstracts  No references  Not peer reviewed  For academic readers  Complex vocabulary  Have abstracts  Have references  Articles peer reviewed Examples: National Geographic New Scientist Examples: JAMA NEJM 26/10/2010
    102. 102. Exercise on Searching techniques
    103. 103. 1. Female engineering professionals with specialization in electrical of Sri Lanka.
    104. 104. Answer: (female OR wom?n) AND engineeringAND (professional OR expert) AND (Speciali?ation OR interest) AND electrical AND Sri Lanka
    105. 105. 2. Water pollution or soil erosion in Pakistan and Sri Lanka
    106. 106. Answer: [(Water AND pollution) OR (soil AND erosion)] AND (Pakistan OR Sri Lanka)
    107. 107. 3. The effect of media violence on children
    108. 108. Answer: (effect OR result OR impact) AND (media OR television OR radio OR newspaper) AND “violence” AND (child* OR teen*)
    109. 109. 4. Development of a system to study the motors efficiency and reduce kWh usage Sanath Kariyawasam 136
    110. 110. Answer (Development OR growth) AND (system OR structure) AND motor* AND (efficiency OR effectiveness) AND reduce AND (kWh OR energy) AND usage Sanath Kariyawasam 137
    111. 111. 5. Stress monitoring of civil engineers during work and leisure time.
    112. 112. 6. Leadership and management skills of engineering professionals in Sri Lanka
    113. 113. 7. Job satisfaction of engineers of Sri Lanka
    114. 114. 8. The brain drain of engineers Sanath Kariyawasam 141
    115. 115. 9. Solar thermal energy for Sri Lanka Sanath Kariyawasam 142
    116. 116. 10. Electrical conductivity of silver metavandate Sanath Kariyawasam 143
    117. 117. 11. A quantitative study of the direct use of kerosene for lighting in Sri Lankan household Sanath Kariyawasam 144
    118. 118. 12. Information technology development in Sri Lanka Sanath Kariyawasam 145
    119. 119. 13. use atomic energy for the generation of electric power in Sri Lanka Sanath Kariyawasam 146
    120. 120. 14. Energy resources in Sri Lanka and supply options for the future Sanath Kariyawasam 147
    121. 121. 15. A study on transformer losses and to reduce energy loss Sanath Kariyawasam 148
    122. 122. Thank you If you wish to do something for the community, build a road If you wish to do something better for the community, build a bridge -Chinese Proverb Libraries build roads to information and bridges to knowledge 26/10/2010
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