Introduction Motivation is one of the important factors whichaffects human behavior. It’s an important factor which encourages employees togive their best performance and help in attainingenterprise goals. It is derived from the word “motive” which means idea,need, emotion, or organism state which promotes aman to an action.
DEFENITIONEdwin B Flippo defines, “Motivation is the process ofattempting to influence others to do their workthrough the possibility of gain or reward”.
CHARECTERISTICS1. Continuous process.Man is full of wants, needs and desires. He wants tofulfill these wants. If one want is satisfied anotherwants arises. That means all the wants can’t besatisfied at one time.2. A psychological phenomenonMotivation is a psychological concept because itarises from inside the individual. It is theinducement of inner feelings of an individual.conti..
3. DynamicMotives of a person today may be different frommotives of tomorrow. His needs, drives, expectationetc. are changing.4. Based on motivesMotivation is based on motives which are internal tothe individual.5. Related with individualMotivation is related with individual.
6. Goal oriented processA person is motivated to achieve something. So it isalways goal oriented.7. Complex processComplexes arise due to the nature of needs and type ofbehavior that is attempted to satisfy those needs.8. Motivation is influenced by social and cultural normsSocial and cultural values, customs and attribute playan important role in motivation.
9. Positive or negativePositive motivation comprises use of incentives such asincrease in pay, reward, promotion, etc. Negativemotivation includes imposition of penalties, threat ofdemotion, fear of loss of job, etc.
IMPORTANCE Effective utilization of human resourcesMotivation induces every individual to perform well. Itresults into enhanced productivity and production. Amotivated employee usually performs well.• Make employee quality orientedA motivated employee is always quality oriented.• Maintain good human relationA high level motivation result in pleasant relationbetween employers and employees. It is very essential tosmooth functioning of an organization.
Better imageMotivation helps in creating better image aboutthe organization among public.• Less absenteeism and turnoverA satisfied employee will not leave the organization. Itwill lead to low turnover and absenteeism.• Improvement of skill and knowledgeMotivation also results in improvement of skill andknowledge of each and every employee. It willenhance the overall efficiency of an organization.
Creates willingness to work.Motivation induces workers to work. Without anymotivation an employee cannot work properly.
MOTIVATION PROCESS Stage 1. Need deficiencyA need always arise in mind. E.g. :-desire to getpromotion.• Stage 2. Selection of the course of actionThe employee is seeking the strategies to satisfy hisneeds and he selects the best strategy for itsfulfillment.• Stage 3. Assessment of employees performance
The supervisor assesses the performance of theemployees.• Stage 4. Reward or punishmentIn the light of employees performance, isrewarded or punished. Getting rewards means, he isable to satisfy his needs.• Stage 5. Re- evaluation of needsIf reward is denied or punishment is given to theemployee will re-evaluate his need. Sometime he maygive up the need.
THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Content Theories1. MASLOW’S NEED HIERARCHY MODELThis theory was proposed by Abraham HaroldMaslow. According to him there are 5 types of needs.Physiological NeedsThis is the most basic and needs for physicalsurvival. This group includes needs for food, drink,oxygen, sleep etc..
Safety NeedsIt also termed as security needs. It act as a motivator.It includes protection from physical harm, ill health,job security etc.Social Needs (Love and Belonging Needs)These needs mainly includes the need forconversation, sociability, exchange of feelings andgrievances etc.
Esteem NeedsThis includes self esteem and public esteem. Selfesteem means esteem in the eyes of self. This includespersonal strength, confidence, independence etc.Self Actualization needsAccording to Maslow self actualization is the desire tobecome everything that one is capable of becoming.
2.HERZBERGS TWO FACTOR THEORY MOTIVATIONAL FACTORSThese are the factors which creates a highlymotivating situation; but its absence does not createsdissatisfaction, e.g.- achievement, recognition. HYGENE FACTORSThe presence of these factors did not significantlymotivate the employees but the absence of such factorscauses serious dissatisfaction. E.g.- salary.
Process theories1. EQUITY THEORYThis theory is worked on the principle “equal pay forequal work”. This theory suggests that there is noinequality among employees in an organization. But oneof the major limitation is comparison is not possible.2. REINFORCEMENT THEORYThere are 3 types of reinforcement
Positive reinforcementPleasant consequence by using rewards toincrease the likelihood that a behavior will berepeated.Negative reinforcementIt means escape from existing unpleasantconsequences. PunishmentApplication of negative outcomes whenever ispossible.