“I am more afraid of anof 100 sheep led by a lioan army of 100 lions led-Talleyrand.( 1st Prime Minister of France and a great diplomat- 1754-1838 )
What Is Leadership?LeadershipThe ability toinfluence a grouptoward theachievement of avision or set of goals.ManagementUse of authority inherent indesignated formal rank toobtain compliance fromorganizational members.
Trait theoriesTraits Theories ofLeadershipTheories that considerpersonality, social, physical, orintellectual traits to differentiateleaders from nonleaders.Leadership Traits:• Ambition and energy• The desire to lead• Honest and integrity• Self-confidence• Intelligence• High self-monitoring• Job-relevant knowledge
Behavioral TheoriesBehavioral Theories of LeadershipTheories proposing that specificbehaviors differentiate leaders fromnonleaders.• Trait theory:Leaders are born, not made.• Behavioral theory:Leadership traits can be taught.
Initiating StructureThe extent to which a leader islikely to define and structure hisor her role and those ofsubordinates in the search forgoal attainment.ConsiderationThe extent to which a leader islikely to have job relationshipscharacterized by mutual trust,respect for subordinate’s ideas,and regard for their feelings.Ohio State Studies
University of Michigan StudiesEmployee-Oriented LeaderEmphasizing interpersonal relations;taking a personal interest in the needsof employees and accepting individualdifferences among members.Production-Oriented LeaderOne who emphasizes technical or taskaspects of the job.
Contingency TheoriesFiedler’s Contingency ModelThe theory that effective groups depend on a propermatch between a leader’s style of interacting withsubordinates and the degree to which the situation givescontrol and influence to the leader.Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC)QuestionnaireAn instrument that purports to measure whether a personis task- or relationship-oriented.
fiedler’s Model: defining the situationLeader-Member RelationsThe degree of confidence, trust, and respect subordinateshave in their leader.Task StructureThe degree to which the job assignments areprocedurized.Position PowerInfluence derived from one’s formal structural position inthe organization; includes power to hire, fire, discipline,promote, and give salary increases.
Cognitive Resource TheoryCognitive Resource TheoryA theory of leadership that states that stress canunfavourably affect a situation and that intelligence as wellas experience can reduce the influence of stress on theleader.Research Support:• Less intelligent individuals perform better in leadershiproles under high stress than do more intelligentindividuals.• Less experienced people perform better in leadershiproles under low stress than do more experiencedpeople.
LEADERSHIP STYLES AND FOLLOWER READINESS(HERSEY AND BLANCHARD)WillingUnwillingAbleUnableDirectiveHigh TaskandRelationshipOrientationsSupportiveParticipativeMonitoringFollowerReadinessLeadershipStyles
LEADER–MEMBER EXCHANGE THEORYLeaders create in-groups and out-groups,and subordinates with in-group status willhave higher performance ratings, lessturnover, and greater job satisfaction.
PATH-GOAL THEORYThe theory that it is the leader’s job to assistfollowers in attaining their goals and to providethem the necessary direction and/or support toensure that their goals are compatible with theoverall objectives of the group or organization.
FRAMING: USING WORDS TO SHAPE MEANING ANDINSPIRE OTHERSLeaders use framing(selectively includingor excluding facts) toinfluence how otherssee and interpretreality.FramingA way to use language tomanage meaning.
INSPIRATIONAL APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIPCharismatics Influence Followers By:1. Articulating the vision2. Setting high performance expectations3. Conveying a new set of values4. Making personal sacrificesCharismatic Leadership TheoryFollowers make attributions of heroic or extraordinaryleadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors.
KEY CHARACTERISTICS OF CHARISMATIC LEADERS1. Vision and articulation. Has a vision—expressed as an idealizedgoal—that proposes a future better than the status quo; and isable to clarify the importance of the vision in terms that areunderstandable to others.2. Personal risk. Willing to take on high personal risk, incur highcosts and engage in self-sacrifice to achieve the vision.3. Environmental sensitivity. Able to make realistic assessments ofthe environmental constraints and resources needed to bringabout change.4. Sensitivity to follower needs. Perceptive of others’ abilities andresponsive to their needs and feelings.5. Unconventional behavior. Engages in behaviors that areperceived as novel and counter to norms.
TRANSACTIONAL AND TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP• Contingent Reward• Management by Exception(active)• Management by Exception(passive)• Laissez-Faire• Idealized Influence• Inspiration Motivation• Intellectual Stimulation• Individual ConsiderationTransactional LeadersLeaders who guide or motivate theirfollowers in the direction ofestablished goals by clarifying roleand task requirements.Transformational LeadersLeaders who provide individualizedconsideration and intellectualstimulation, and who possesscharisma.
CHARACTERISTICS OF TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSContingent Reward: Contracts exchange of rewards for effort,promises rewards for good performance, recognizesaccomplishments.Management by Exception (active): Watches and searchesfor deviations from rules and standards, takes corrective action.Management by Exception (passive): Intervenes only ifstandards are not met.
CHARACTERISTICS OF TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSIdealized Influence: Provides vision and sense of mission,instills pride, gains respect and trust.Inspiration: Communicates high expectations, uses symbols tofocus efforts, expresses important purposes in simple ways.Intellectual Stimulation: Promotes intelligence, rationality, andcareful problem solving.Individualized Consideration: Gives personal attention,treats each employee individually, coaches, advises.
TRUST: THE FOUNDATION OF LEADERSHIPTrustA positive expectation thatanother will not—throughwords, actions, ordecisions—actopportunistically.Trust is a history-dependentprocess (familiarity) basedon relevant but limitedsamples of experience (risk).
DIMENSIONS OF TRUST Integrity honesty and truthfulness. Competence an individual’s technical andinterpersonal knowledgeand skills. Consistency an individual’s reliability,predictability, and goodjudgment in handlingsituations. Loyalty the willingness to protectand save face for anotherperson. Openness reliance on the person togive you the full truth.
TRUST AND LEADERSHIPLeadershipTRUSTandINTEGRITY
THREE TYPES OF TRUSTDeterrence-based TrustTrust based on fear of reprisal if the trust is violated.Identification-based TrustTrust based on a mutual understanding of each other’sintentions and appreciation of the other’s wants and desires.Knowledge-based TrustTrust based on behavioralpredictability that comes from ahistory of interaction.
EMPLOYEES’ TRUST IN THEIR CEOSEmployees who believe in senior management:
CONTEMPORARY LEADERSHIP ROLES: MENTORINGMentoring Activities:• Present ideas clearly• Listen well• Empathize• Share experiences• Act as role model• Share contacts• Provide politicalguidanceMentorA senior employee whosponsors and supports aless-experienced employee(a protégé).
CONTEMPORARY LEADERSHIP ROLES:SELF-LEADERSHIPCreating self leaders:• Model self-leadership.• Encourage employees tocreate self-set goals.• Encourage the use of self-rewards.• Create positive thoughtpatterns.• Create a climate of self-leadership.• Encourage self-criticism.Self-LeadershipA set of processesthrough whichindividuals controltheir own behavior.
ONLINE LEADERSHIP Leadership at a Distance: Building Trust The lack of face-to-face contact in electroniccommunications removes the nonverbal cues that supportverbal interactions. There is no supporting context to assist the receiver withinterpretation of an electronic communication. The structure and tone of electronic messages can stronglyaffect the response of receivers. An individual’s verbal and written communications may notfollow the same style. Writing skills will likely become an extension ofinterpersonal skills
CHALLENGES TO THE LEADERSHIP CONSTRUCTQualities attributed to leaders:• Leaders are intelligent, outgoing, have strong verbal skills, areaggressive, understanding, and industrious.• Effective leaders are perceived as consistent and unwavering intheir decisions.• Effective leaders project the appearance of being a leader.Attribution Theory of LeadershipThe idea that leadership is merely an attribution thatpeople make about other individuals.
FINDING AND CREATING EFFECTIVE LEADERS Selection Review specific requirements for the job. Use tests that identify personal traits associated withleadership, measure self-monitoring, and assess emotionalintelligence. Conduct personal interviews to determine candidate’s fit withthe job. Training Recognize that all people are not equally trainable. Teach skills that are necessary for employees to becomeeffective leaders. Provide behavioral training to increase the developmentpotential of nascent charismatic employees.