Conflict and NegotiationConflict and Negotiation
CONFLICTCONFLICTConflict is an interpersonal process that arises fromdisagreements over the goals to attain or the methodsto be used to accomplish those goalsConflict can occur in any situation in which two or moreparties feel themselves in opposition.Encompasses a wide range of conflicts that peopleexperience in organizations• Incompatibility of goals• Differences over interpretations of facts• Disagreements based on behavioral expectations
Changes in Conflict ThoughtChanges in Conflict ThoughtCauses:• Poor communication• Lack of openness• Failure to respond toemployee needsCauses:• Poor communication• Lack of openness• Failure to respond toemployee needsTraditional View of ConflictThe belief that all conflict is harmful and must beavoided.
Changes in Conflict Thought (cont’d)Changes in Conflict Thought (cont’d)Human Relations View of ConflictThe belief that conflict is a natural and inevitableoutcome in any group.Interactionist View of ConflictThe belief that conflict is not only apositive force in a group but that itis absolutely necessary for agroup to perform effectively.
Functional versus Dysfunctional ConflictFunctional versus Dysfunctional ConflictFunctional ConflictConflict that supports the goals ofthe group and improves itsperformance.Dysfunctional ConflictConflict that makes itmore difficult for groupperformance.
Types of ConflictTypes of ConflictTask ConflictConflicts over content andgoals of the work.Relationship ConflictConflict based oninterpersonal relationships.Process ConflictConflict over how work gets done.
Stage I: Potential Opposition or IncompatibilityStage I: Potential Opposition or Incompatibility Communication– Semantic difficulties, misunderstandings Structure– Size and specialization of jobs– Jurisdictional clarity/ambiguity– Member/goal incompatibility– Leadership styles (close or participative)– Reward systems (win-lose)– Dependence/interdependence of groups Personal Variables– Differing individual value systems– Personality types
Stage II: Cognition and PersonalizationStage II: Cognition and PersonalizationPositive FeelingsPositive FeelingsPositive FeelingsPositive FeelingsNegative EmotionsNegative EmotionsNegative EmotionsNegative EmotionsConflict DefinitionConflict DefinitionConflict DefinitionConflict DefinitionPerceived ConflictAwareness by one or moreparties of the existence ofconditions that createopportunities for conflict toarise.Felt ConflictEmotional involvement in aconflict creating anxiety,tenseness, frustration, orunfriendly.
Stage III: IntentionsStage III: IntentionsCooperativeness:• Attempting to satisfy the other party’sconcerns.Assertiveness:• Attempting to satisfy one’s own concerns.Cooperativeness:• Attempting to satisfy the other party’sconcerns.Assertiveness:• Attempting to satisfy one’s own concerns.IntentionsDecisions to act in a given way.
Dimensions of Conflict-Handling IntentionsDimensions of Conflict-Handling Intentions
Stage III: Intentions (cont’d)Stage III: Intentions (cont’d)CompetingA desire to satisfy one’s interests, regardless of theimpact on the other party to the conflict.CollaboratingA situation in which the parties to a conflict eachdesire to satisfy fully the concerns of all parties.AvoidingThe desire to withdraw from or prevent a conflict.
Stage III: Intentions (cont’d)Stage III: Intentions (cont’d)AccommodatingThe willingness of one party in a conflict to place theopponent’s interests above his or her own.CompromisingA situation in which each party to a conflict iswilling to give up something.
Stage IV: BehaviorStage IV: BehaviorConflict ManagementThe use of resolution and stimulation techniques toachieve the desired level of conflict.
Conflict Management TechniquesConflict Management TechniquesConflict Resolution Techniques• Problem solving• Superordinate goals• Expansion of resources• Avoidance• Smoothing• Compromise• Authoritative command• Altering the human variable• Altering the structural variablesConflict Resolution Techniques• Problem solving• Superordinate goals• Expansion of resources• Avoidance• Smoothing• Compromise• Authoritative command• Altering the human variable• Altering the structural variables
Stage V: OutcomesStage V: Outcomes Functional Outcomes from Conflict– Increased group performance– Improved quality of decisions– Stimulation of creativity and innovation– Encouragement of interest and curiosity– Provision of a medium for problem-solving– Creation of an environment for self-evaluation andchange Creating Functional Conflict– Reward dissent and punish conflict avoiders.
Stage V: OutcomesStage V: Outcomes Dysfunctional Outcomes from Conflict– Development of discontent– Reduced group effectiveness– Retarded communication– Reduced group cohesiveness– Infighting among group members overcomes groupgoals
NegotiatioNNegotiatioNNegotiationThe process of making joint decisions when the partiesinvolved have different preferences.
Different Strategies involved in NegotiationDifferent Strategies involved in NegotiationDistributive BargainingNegotiation that seeks to divide up a fixed amount ofresources; a win-lose situation.Integrative BargainingNegotiation that seeks one or more settlements thatcan create a win-win solution.
Distributive Versus Integrative BargainingDistributive Versus Integrative BargainingBargaining Distributive IntegrativeCharacteristic Characteristic CharacteristicAvailable resources Fixed amount of Variable amount ofresources to be divided resources to be dividedPrimary motivations I win, you lose I win, you winPrimary interests Opposed to each other Similar with each otherFocus of relationships Short term Long term
Issues in NegotiationIssues in Negotiation The Role of Personality Traits in Negotiation– Traits do not appear to have a significantly direct effecton the outcomes of either bargaining or negotiatingprocesses. Gender Differences in Negotiations– Women negotiate no differently from men, althoughmen apparently negotiate slightly better outcomes.– Men and women with similar power bases use thesame negotiating styles.– Women’s attitudes toward negotiation and theirsuccess as negotiators are less favorable than men’s.
Third-Party NegotiationsThird-Party NegotiationsMediatorA neutral third party who facilitates a negotiatedsolution by using reasoning, persuasion, andsuggestions for alternatives.ArbitratorA third party to a negotiationwho has the authority to dictatean agreement.
Third-Party Negotiations (cont’d)Third-Party Negotiations (cont’d)ConsultantAn impartial third party, skilledin conflict management, whoattempts to facilitate creativeproblem solving throughcommunication and analysis.ConciliatorA trusted third party who provides an informalcommunication link between the negotiator and theopponent.
Conflict-Handling Intention: CompetitionConflict-Handling Intention: Competition When quick, decisive action is vital (inemergencies); on important issues. Where unpopular actions need implementing (incost cutting, enforcing unpopular rules,discipline). On issues vital to the organization’s welfare. When you know you’re right. Against people who take advantage ofnoncompetitive behavior.
Conflict-Handling Intention: CollaborationConflict-Handling Intention: Collaboration To find an integrative solution when both sets ofconcerns are too important to be compromised. When your objective is to learn. To merge insights from people with differentperspectives. To gain commitment by incorporating concernsinto a consensus. To work through feelings that have interferedwith a relationship.
Conflict-Handling Intention: AvoidanceConflict-Handling Intention: Avoidance When an issue is trivial, or more important issuesare pressing. When you perceive no chance of satisfying yourconcerns. When potential disruption outweighs the benefitsof resolution. To let people cool down and regain perspective. When gathering information supersedesimmediate decision. When others can resolve the conflict effectively When issues seem tangential or symptomatic ofother issues.
Conflict-Handling Intention: AccommodationConflict-Handling Intention: Accommodation When you find you’re wrong and to allow a betterposition to be heard. To learn, and to show your reasonableness. When issues are more important to others than toyourself and to satisfy others and maintaincooperation. To build social credits for later issues. To minimize loss when outmatched and losing. When harmony and stability are especiallyimportant. To allow employees to develop by learning frommistakes.
Conflict-Handling Intention: CompromiseConflict-Handling Intention: Compromise When goals are important but not worth the effortof potential disruption of more assertiveapproaches. When opponents with equal power are committedto mutually exclusive goals. To achieve temporary settlements to complexissues. To arrive at expedient solutions under timepressure. As a backup when collaboration or competition isunsuccessful.