ATTITUDESAn attitude is a predisposition to act orfeel a certain way towards a person orthing.
Representations of Attitude Attitude and Opinion Attitude and Beliefs Attitude andValues
Formation of Attitude Direct personal Experience Association Family and peer groups Neighborhood Economic status and occupation Mass communication
FACTORS THAT DETERMINEOUR ATTITUDE1. ENVIRONMENT2. EXPERIENCE3. EDUCATIONIn a positive environment, a marginalperformer’s output goes up. And in anegative environment, a goodperformer’s output goes down.
TYPES OF ATTITUDE1. POSTIVE [MENTAL] ATTITUDE.2. NEGATIVE [MENTAL] ATTITUDE.
FEW BENEFITS OF POSITIVE ATTITUDE1. INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY.2. FOSTER TEAM WORK.3. SOLVES PROBLEMS.4. IMPROVES QUALITY.5. MAKES A CONGENIAL ATMOSPHERE.6. BREEDS LOYALTY.7. INCREASE PROFITS.9. REDUCES STRESS.10. HELPS A PERSON BECOME CONTRIBUTINGMEMBER OF A FAMILY & SOCIETY. BECOMES ANASSET TO THEIR COUNTRY.11. ABOVE ALL, MAKES A PLEASING PERSONALITY.
CONSEQUENCES OF NEGATIVE ATTITUDE1. BITTERNESS.2. RESENTMENT.3. A PURPOSELESS LIFE.4. ILL HEALTH.5. HIGH STRESS LEVEL FORHIMSLEF/HERSELF OR OTHERS.6. CREATE NEGATIVE ENVIRONMENT ATHOME AND WORK PLACE ANDBECOME A LIABILITY TO SOCIETY.
Four Basic AttitudeFunctions utilitarian what it will do for you ego defensive function helps protect customer self image value expressive reflects customers general values, lifestyle orattitude knowledge cater to customer need to know
The ABC model• Affect - how a consumer feels about an attitude object.• Behaviour - the consumer’s intention to do somethingwith regard to an attitude object.• Cognition - the beliefs a consumer has about an attitudeobject.The model emphasises the interrelationships betweenknowing, feeling, and doing.
Levels of commitment to an attitude• Lowest level: compliance. This attitude is formed as ithelps in gaining rewards or avoiding punishments.• Identification - formation of attitudes in order for theconsumer to be similar to another person.• Highest level: internalisation - deep seated attitudeswhich become part of a consumer’s value system.
Cognitive consistency and dissonanceCognitive consistency - where consumers valueharmony among their thoughts, feelings and behaviours,and are motivated to maintain uniformity among these.Cognitive dissonance - where consumers areconfronted with situations where there is some conflictbetween their attitudes and behaviours. Dissonancereduction occurs by eliminating, adding, or changingelements.
Other theories (1 of 2)Self perception theory - assumes that consumers useobservations of their own behaviour to determine whattheir attitudes are, in the same way as we know theattitudes of others by watching what they do.Social judgement theory - assumes that peopleassimilate new information about attitude objects in thelight of what they already know or feel. The initialattitude acts as a frame of reference, and newinformation is categorised in terms of this standard.
Other theories (2 of 2)Balance theory - considers relations among elements aconsumer might perceive as belonging together. Thisperspective involves relations among three elements.• A person and his/her perceptions.• An attitude object.• Some other person or object.The theory specifies that consumers desire relations amongelements in the triad to be harmonious or balanced.
THEORY OF TRYING-TO-CONSUME MODEL This theory is designed to account for the manycases in which the action or outcome is notcertain but instead reflects the consumer’sattempts to consume.In trying to consume, here are often personalimpediment,e.g., a consumer is trying to lose weight but loveschocolates bars.