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# Lecture 01

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### Lecture 01

1. 1. Lecture-01 Introduction to Statistics
2. 2. Meaning/ Definition of Statistics <ul><li>The word “Statistics” comes from the latin word ‘status’, means a political state, i.e. the information useful to the state. </li></ul><ul><li>It was previously defined as ‘numerical facts systematically arranged’. Same is referred to data </li></ul><ul><li>May be the example for statistics for prices, road accidents, crimes, births, deaths, etc. </li></ul>
3. 3. Definition of Statistics <ul><li>A discipline that includes procedures and techniques used to collect, process and analyze numerical data to make inferences and to reach decision in the face of uncertainty. </li></ul>
4. 4. Characteristics of Statistics <ul><li>Statistics deals with the behavior of aggregates or large groups of data. </li></ul><ul><li>It deals with aggregates of observations of the same kind rather than isolated figures </li></ul><ul><li>Deals with the variability that obscure underlying patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Deals with uncertainties as every process of getting observations whether controlled or uncontrolled. </li></ul><ul><li>Statistics deals with numeric characteristics either by counts or measurement. </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical laws are valid on the averages or in the long run. </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical results might be misleading and incorrect if sufficient care in collecting, processing and interpreting the data is not exercised. </li></ul>
5. 5. Importance of Statistics <ul><li>Summarizes the larger sets of data into understandable form </li></ul><ul><li>Assists in efficient design of laboratory and field experiments as well as survey </li></ul><ul><li>Assists in making general conclusions and in making predictions </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical techniques are used in alsmost every branch of sciences as a powerful tool for analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical methods are being employed by the industrialists, businessman, banks, insurance companies and Governments </li></ul>
6. 6. Importance of Statistics <ul><li>Any manager leans on statistical data to provide a factual basis for decision </li></ul><ul><li>A politician uses statistics advantageously to lend support and credence to his argument </li></ul><ul><li>A social scientist uses statistical methods in various areas of socio-economic life of a nation </li></ul><ul><li>A social scientist without an adequate understanding of statistics, is often like the blind man groping in the dark room for a black cat that is not there. </li></ul>
7. 7. Populations & Sample <ul><li>A statistical population is a collection or set of all possible observations whether finite or infinite, relevant to some characteristics of interest </li></ul><ul><li>A sample is a part of or a subset of a population. Generally it consists of some of the observations but in certain situation </li></ul>
8. 8. Observations & Variables <ul><li>An observation often means any sort of numerically recording of information, whether it is a physical measurement such as height or weight; </li></ul><ul><li>A characteristics that varies with an individual or an object, is called variable eg. Age, height, are variables </li></ul>
9. 9. Classification of Variables <ul><li>Quantitative Variables </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When a characteristic can be expressed numerically such as age, weight, income, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Qualitative Variables </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If a variable is non-measurable or can not be properly expressed in numbers, as education, gender, eye-colour, quality, intelligence </li></ul></ul></ul>
10. 10. Thanks