Lecture 01
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    Lecture 01 Lecture 01 Presentation Transcript

    • Lecture-01 Introduction to Statistics
    • Meaning/ Definition of Statistics
      • The word “Statistics” comes from the latin word ‘status’, means a political state, i.e. the information useful to the state.
      • It was previously defined as ‘numerical facts systematically arranged’. Same is referred to data
      • May be the example for statistics for prices, road accidents, crimes, births, deaths, etc.
    • Definition of Statistics
      • A discipline that includes procedures and techniques used to collect, process and analyze numerical data to make inferences and to reach decision in the face of uncertainty.
    • Characteristics of Statistics
      • Statistics deals with the behavior of aggregates or large groups of data.
      • It deals with aggregates of observations of the same kind rather than isolated figures
      • Deals with the variability that obscure underlying patterns
      • Deals with uncertainties as every process of getting observations whether controlled or uncontrolled.
      • Statistics deals with numeric characteristics either by counts or measurement.
      • Statistical laws are valid on the averages or in the long run.
      • Statistical results might be misleading and incorrect if sufficient care in collecting, processing and interpreting the data is not exercised.
    • Importance of Statistics
      • Summarizes the larger sets of data into understandable form
      • Assists in efficient design of laboratory and field experiments as well as survey
      • Assists in making general conclusions and in making predictions
      • Statistical techniques are used in alsmost every branch of sciences as a powerful tool for analysis
      • Statistical methods are being employed by the industrialists, businessman, banks, insurance companies and Governments
    • Importance of Statistics
      • Any manager leans on statistical data to provide a factual basis for decision
      • A politician uses statistics advantageously to lend support and credence to his argument
      • A social scientist uses statistical methods in various areas of socio-economic life of a nation
      • A social scientist without an adequate understanding of statistics, is often like the blind man groping in the dark room for a black cat that is not there.
    • Populations & Sample
      • A statistical population is a collection or set of all possible observations whether finite or infinite, relevant to some characteristics of interest
      • A sample is a part of or a subset of a population. Generally it consists of some of the observations but in certain situation
    • Observations & Variables
      • An observation often means any sort of numerically recording of information, whether it is a physical measurement such as height or weight;
      • A characteristics that varies with an individual or an object, is called variable eg. Age, height, are variables
    • Classification of Variables
      • Quantitative Variables
          • When a characteristic can be expressed numerically such as age, weight, income, etc.
      • Qualitative Variables
          • If a variable is non-measurable or can not be properly expressed in numbers, as education, gender, eye-colour, quality, intelligence
    • Thanks