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Marble Mining and Processing in Southern Rajasthan, Impact on the Environment leading to Degradation of  the Aravalis
Marble Mining and Processing in Southern Rajasthan, Impact on the Environment leading to Degradation of  the Aravalis
Marble Mining and Processing in Southern Rajasthan, Impact on the Environment leading to Degradation of  the Aravalis
Marble Mining and Processing in Southern Rajasthan, Impact on the Environment leading to Degradation of  the Aravalis
Marble Mining and Processing in Southern Rajasthan, Impact on the Environment leading to Degradation of  the Aravalis
Marble Mining and Processing in Southern Rajasthan, Impact on the Environment leading to Degradation of  the Aravalis
Marble Mining and Processing in Southern Rajasthan, Impact on the Environment leading to Degradation of  the Aravalis
Marble Mining and Processing in Southern Rajasthan, Impact on the Environment leading to Degradation of  the Aravalis
Marble Mining and Processing in Southern Rajasthan, Impact on the Environment leading to Degradation of  the Aravalis
Marble Mining and Processing in Southern Rajasthan, Impact on the Environment leading to Degradation of  the Aravalis
Marble Mining and Processing in Southern Rajasthan, Impact on the Environment leading to Degradation of  the Aravalis
Marble Mining and Processing in Southern Rajasthan, Impact on the Environment leading to Degradation of  the Aravalis
Marble Mining and Processing in Southern Rajasthan, Impact on the Environment leading to Degradation of  the Aravalis
Marble Mining and Processing in Southern Rajasthan, Impact on the Environment leading to Degradation of  the Aravalis
Marble Mining and Processing in Southern Rajasthan, Impact on the Environment leading to Degradation of  the Aravalis
Marble Mining and Processing in Southern Rajasthan, Impact on the Environment leading to Degradation of  the Aravalis
Marble Mining and Processing in Southern Rajasthan, Impact on the Environment leading to Degradation of  the Aravalis
Marble Mining and Processing in Southern Rajasthan, Impact on the Environment leading to Degradation of  the Aravalis
Marble Mining and Processing in Southern Rajasthan, Impact on the Environment leading to Degradation of  the Aravalis
Marble Mining and Processing in Southern Rajasthan, Impact on the Environment leading to Degradation of  the Aravalis
Marble Mining and Processing in Southern Rajasthan, Impact on the Environment leading to Degradation of  the Aravalis
Marble Mining and Processing in Southern Rajasthan, Impact on the Environment leading to Degradation of  the Aravalis
Marble Mining and Processing in Southern Rajasthan, Impact on the Environment leading to Degradation of  the Aravalis
Marble Mining and Processing in Southern Rajasthan, Impact on the Environment leading to Degradation of  the Aravalis
Marble Mining and Processing in Southern Rajasthan, Impact on the Environment leading to Degradation of  the Aravalis
Marble Mining and Processing in Southern Rajasthan, Impact on the Environment leading to Degradation of  the Aravalis
Marble Mining and Processing in Southern Rajasthan, Impact on the Environment leading to Degradation of  the Aravalis
Marble Mining and Processing in Southern Rajasthan, Impact on the Environment leading to Degradation of  the Aravalis
Marble Mining and Processing in Southern Rajasthan, Impact on the Environment leading to Degradation of  the Aravalis
Marble Mining and Processing in Southern Rajasthan, Impact on the Environment leading to Degradation of  the Aravalis
Marble Mining and Processing in Southern Rajasthan, Impact on the Environment leading to Degradation of  the Aravalis
Marble Mining and Processing in Southern Rajasthan, Impact on the Environment leading to Degradation of  the Aravalis
Marble Mining and Processing in Southern Rajasthan, Impact on the Environment leading to Degradation of  the Aravalis
Marble Mining and Processing in Southern Rajasthan, Impact on the Environment leading to Degradation of  the Aravalis
Marble Mining and Processing in Southern Rajasthan, Impact on the Environment leading to Degradation of  the Aravalis
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Marble Mining and Processing in Southern Rajasthan, Impact on the Environment leading to Degradation of the Aravalis

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Marble Mining and Processing in Southern Rajasthan, Impact on Environment, leading to Degradation of the Aravalis …

Marble Mining and Processing in Southern Rajasthan, Impact on Environment, leading to Degradation of the Aravalis

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  • 1. Marble Mining and Processing in SouthernRajasthan, Impact on the Environment leading to Degradation of the Aravalis Presented by Bhomik Shah bhomikjain@gmail.com
  • 2. OverviewIntroductionContext of the Aravalis & Marble MiningObjective of the StudyMining & Processing in the Study AreaMethodologyBusiness & Economic ScenarioEmployment OpportunitiesTribal DevelopmentImpact on the EnvironmentDegradation of the AravalisWhat can be doneEnergy saving and Renewable EnergyConclusion
  • 3. Introduction Greek root “Mamaros” Technically: recrystallised variety of limestone It has 66% of the country’s marble reserves Rajasthan produces 85-95% of India’s total marbleproduction Tajmahal : Makrana (Rajasthan) marble
  • 4. Context of the Aravalis and Marble Mining The Aravalis is most ancientmountain chain of peninsular AravalisIndia One of the oldest geologicalformations of the world Stretch of 615 kms fromDelhi –Haryana-Rajasthan –Gujarat 50,000 sq. kms area A rich source of minerals
  • 5. Context of the Aravalis and Marble Mining Mining is second only toagriculture as the world’soldest Industry Stone Age , Bronze age andIron Age Marble mining is an opencaste surface mining Use of heavy machinery,huge manpower, fuel andenergy
  • 6. Objective of the study To find the economics of marble industry and its impact ontribal To assess socio-economic impacts and employment scenario To assess environmental impacts in the context of theAravalis To find cause effect relationship between marble mining anddegradation of the Aravalis
  • 7. Marble Mining & Processing in the Study Area The study area is three dist. Of Raj: Udaipur, Rajsamandand Banswara, Collectively Udaipur Zone Geographically forming Southern most part of the Stateand tailing end of the Aravalis 23°30’ N to 28°39N latitude and 74°24 E to 75°33 Elongitude
  • 8. Marble Mining & Processing in the Study Area First marble mine in 1955 (Current total 1574) till 1980 only 9 mines, thereafter Geometrical progression Increase in number of Mines 545 454 336 199 31 9 up to 1981-85 1986-90 1991-95 1996-00 after 1980 2000
  • 9. Methodology Marble is found on vast horizontal area Cluster mining Mining belt developmentThree mining belt, one from each district was chosen: Rishabdeo-Obri belt (Udaipur)-159 leases Rajanagar-Kelwa belt (Rajsamand) 239 leases Tripura-Sundari belt ( Banswara) 170 leases
  • 10. Methodology A sample size of 30 households from each mining belt A sample size of 30 workers from each mining belt Two survey questionnaires were prepared in Hindi One for workers, other for households For household survey male above 40 years of age For workers no age criteria, mix age group
  • 11. Marble Mining & Processing in the Study Area Total area under mine leasesis 1805 sq. hectaresMarble processing Industry:Marble gang saw (350)Marble tiling (40)Marble arts and craft (35Major)
  • 12. Business and economic Scenario in 1950 total marble prod. of Raj: 17620 tones, revenue1.17 lakhNow the study area only produces 4.74 million (2006-7)tones Annual royalty of Rs. 920 million (2006-7) Business sales of Rs.4,527 million (2006-7)Excluding business done by arts and crafts and alliedsectors
  • 13. Employment Generation A single mine employs 20-30 workers depending uponlease size, most of them are labour class A single gang saw employs 20-22 workers Total employment around 37000 More than 50% are local, rest emigrants from UP, Biharand MP Unskilled/semi-skilled/skilled labour-wage rates varies
  • 14. Employment GenerationWorkers survey : basic outcome: 61.1% local No female employment Wages paid below govt. rates Average annual working days 270-300 Lowest wage rate Rs.96 per shift Local workers as unskilled or semi skilled Emigrants from other states get higher wagesAverage wages(Shift) Rs. Local: 104, Emigrants 187
  • 15. Marble Mining and Tribal DevelopmentPre-mining phase: Were depend upon agriculture and cattle rearing No transportation facilities No easy access to health, education and other basicamenities Disguised employmentNo cash in handLand mortgage or selling only resort in emergency
  • 16. Marble Mining and Tribal DevelopmentPost-mining phase: No more depend upon agriculture or cattle rearing Web of roads, transportation facilities Easy access to health, education and other amenities Opening of employment opportunities Agriculture as secondary occupation Additional family income Increased purchasing power
  • 17. Marble Mining and Tribal DevelopmentHousehold Survey: basic Outcomes1.14 person per household employed in marble miningindustry Rs. 3556 monthly incomeAgriculture as an extra supportMany people work in multiple shifts, additional income Estimated cash inflow: 670.07 million rupees annual cash inflow as wage earnings (assuming 285 days of employment)
  • 18. Marble Mining and Tribal DevelopmentNegative Impact Orientation towards money and wage earnings Detachment from the nature, especially forests Detachment from their own customs and traditions Apathy towards decreasing forest cover and vegetation 86.66% people did not show any concern for forest Health hazards
  • 19. Impact on the Environment Mining implies selection, selection implies rejection Being opencast mining: requires topsoil & Vegetationremoval Unscientific mining method Heavy machinery Fuel consumption Water consumption Energy consumption Solid waste generation Heavy transportation
  • 20. Degradation of the AravalisGeomorphic Disequilibrium: Average depth of marble pit 20-30m Marble pit with 40-50m depth As lease area extends over 1805 sq. hectares: a hugevolumeBlasting, chain pulling weaken internal rock structureDisruption of geology
  • 21. Degradation of the Aravalis CrevicesGeomorphic Disequilibrium: Visible crevices on the hillocks of the Aravalis in Udaipur District
  • 22. Degradation of the AravalisWaste Overburden: 50% of the mineral is waste Vast area under dumpingsites 2.37 million tones of wastegeneration, 1.42 million tonesof solid waste annually Artificial hillocks of solidmarble waste
  • 23. Degradation of the AravalisWaste Overburden: 1.28 million tones of marble slurryDischarging on barren lands or roadsidesHillocks of waste hillocks of waste are higher than theAravalis This solid waste composes hazardous components Loss of aesthetic beauty
  • 24. Degradation of the AravalisImpact on Biodiversity:Flora: Deforestation on vast area Denuded Aravali hillocks Mining and waste-dumpingaffected a lot Once very dense forestedland Now scattered vegetation Massive loss after 1990s (Extreme Mining)
  • 25. Degradation of Aravalis the AravalisImpact on Biodiversity:Flora: One researcher from Honduras visited forests of theAravalis in 1987-88Found teak and bamboo as climax speciesToday no sign of both of these two species in this area Species like Zizyphus mauritiana and Phoenix sylvestrishave almost vanished Huge reduction in vegetation cover
  • 26. Degradation of the AravalisImpact on Biodiversity:Fauna: Last panther in 1991 (Rishabdeo) Tripura- Sundari was heaven for Nilgai till 1991-92 Rajsamand lake attracted Saharan migratory birdDecrease in vegetation Snatched home of wildlife species Noise: deflected birds, insects and butterflies species migrated from here created pressure on otherforests Natural control of population
  • 27. Degradation of AravalisImpact on Agriculture: Dust particles layers on standing crop, on open fields Nearer the fields, more the dust layer Effect on health of the crop impact on soil texture Ultimately impact on productivity Gang saw unit also generates dust particles Scattered fields, small fields size Farmers do not weigh yield Increase in the salinity of the soil
  • 28. Degradation of AravalisImpact on Agriculture:Parameter Belt A (Udaipur) Belt B (Rajsamand) Belt C (Banswara) Rishabdeo-obri Rajanagar-Kelwa Tripura-SundariProductivity Decreasing(30) Decreasing(29) Don’t Decreasing(29)Increasing/Decreasing know(1) Increasing(1)Use of Fertilizers Increasing(30) Increasing(29) Not Increasing(25) NotIncreasing/Decreasing Using(1) Using(3) Not Sure(2)Use of Pesticides Increasing(10) Increasing(07) Not Increasing(03) NotIncreasing/Decreasing Not Using(20) Using(13) Same (5) Using(21) Same(6)Seed Quality Market Market Purchased MarketFrom previous Purchased(23) (28) Previous Crop(2) Purchased(25)crop/Market Previous Crop(7) Previous Crop(5)purchased
  • 29. Degradation of the AravalisWater Scarcity and Water Pollution: Single marble gang saw consumes 43000 liters/hr water Udaipur zone has 350 such gang saw Per day water consumption (1shift) 120.4 million liters ofwater Annual water consumption 34.314 billion liters of water Can fulfill annual water req. of 15 lakh Indians Marble mines also consume millions of liters of water Water scarcity problem Rajsamand groundwater lowered 7.6 m. b/w 1994-2004 Death of Banas and Gomati rivers
  • 30. Degradation of the AravalisWater Scarcity andWater Pollution: Waste disposal nearwater bodies Discharge of slurry inwater bodies Gang saw located onriver sides in RishabdeobeltReduction in storagecapacity and loss ofaquatic life
  • 31. Degradation of the Aravalis Fuel and Energy Consumption:  Heavy machinery require fuel  Equipments require electricity  One gang saw unit consumes 45kwh elect Annual elect. consumption by marble mining in Raj. is 1500 MW annually (PWC project based calculation)
  • 32. What Can be Done Use of advanced technology Discarding unscientific methods: Blasting. Rope andbucket Use of marble slurry in brick manufacturing and toymaking Limiting the max. depth of marble pit Proper discharge of waste and slurry Green belt development Restoration of abandoned mines
  • 33. Saving Energy & use of Renewable Energy Replacing worn out pumps, motors and machinery Switching from analog to digital control of equipments Adopting Variable Speed Drive(VSD) in motorizedequipments which will save apprx. 400-500MW annually Laser-scanning and digital photogrammetric technology Solar energy usage in tiling plants, where energy needsare low Use of Photovoltaic (PV)solar system ( in China) Use of Geothermal energy in mining (South Australia) Use of biomass powered electricity (Brazil)
  • 34. Conclusion Alarming situation in the mining areas Total degradation of Aravalis Need to take action Participatory approach Need based mining Energy efficient mining
  • 35. Thanks

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