Class 2
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  • Osteopathic medicine provides all of the benefits of modern medicine including prescription drugs, surgery, and the use of technology to diagnose disease and evaluate injury. It also offers the added benefit of hands-on diagnosis and treatment through a system of therapy known as osteopathic manipulative medicine. Osteopathic Medicine emphasizes helping each person achieve a high level of wellness by focusing on health education, injury prevention and disease prevention. D.O.s are trained to look at the whole person from their first days of medical school, which means they see each person as more than just a collection of body parts that may become injured or diseased. This holistic approach to patient care means that osteopathic medical students learn how to integrate the patient into the health care process as a partner. They are trained to communicate with people from diverse backgrounds, and they get the opportunity to practice these skills in the classroom with simulated patients. 200 additional hours of training in the art of osteopathic manipulative medicine. This system of hands-on techniques helps alleviate pain, restores motion, supports the body ユ s natural functions and influence the body ユ s structure to help it function more efficiently.
  • examination, diagnosis, treatment, and management

Class 2 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Medicine Merit Badge Class 2 By: Pedro Gelabert
  • 2. Overview
    • Class 1:
      • History of Medicine
      • Key Figures
      • Hippocratic Oath
    • Class 2:
      • Health Care Provider-Patient Relationship
      • Health Care Professions
      • Medical Education and Specialties
    • Class 3:
      • The Practice of Medicine
      • Influencing Medical Practice
      • Medicine - Here and Abroad
  • 3. Health Care Provider-Patient Relationship
    • Open communication
      • Need to reveal personal information that is important and relevant to their illness
    • Privilege discussions
      • Disclosed to people directly involved in patients care
        • health care personnel: doctors, nurses, students
        • Health organization or health insurance company
      • Information shared is protected from disclosure to third parties. Some exceptions:
        • Victims of neglect: child abuse, elderly abuse, domestic violence
        • Gun shot wounds or criminal injuries
        • Ordered by judge
  • 4. Health Care Profession
    • Education
      • 4 years for College degree with emphasis on basic science (biology, chemistry, and physics)
      • 4 years of Medical school
        • 2 years biomedical sciences: anatomy, ebryology, biochemistry, physiology, genetics, pathology, pharmacology, microbiology, and immunology and biostatistics
        • 2 years clinical sciences: hospital core specialties and rotations
        • M.D. allopathic
        • O.D osteopathic
      • 3-7 years Residency
      • 1-3 years Fellowship (specialty)
    • Permanent License
    • Board Certification
      • Optional, renewed every 6-10 years
  • 5. Health Care Professions
    • Physician : trained in the practice of medicine and surgery (M.D. or O.D.)
    • Chiropractor : cure disease by treating nerve function, physical manipulation and adjustment of the spine
      • 2 years of College + 4 years of doctor of chiropractic
    • Optometrist : diseases of the eye
      • College degree + 4 years of doctor of optometry
    • Podiatrist : diseases of the foot and related structures
      • College degree + 4 years of doctor of podiatric medicine
    • Pharmacist : preparation and dispensing of drugs
      • College degree + 4 years of bachelor or doctor of pharmacy
    • Psychologist : behavioral disorders, mental and emotional illness
      • Master or Doctor of philosophy or Doctor of psychologist
  • 6. Health Care Professions
    • Physician’s assistant : performs diagnostic, therapeutic, preventive, and health maintenance services under physician supervision
      • College degree + 2 years of clinical training
    • Nurse practitioner : provide health services (preventive care, monitoring, physical exam, health counseling)
      • Master’s degree in Nursing + 2 years clinical training
    • Registered nurse : licensed to care for sick and to promote health
      • 2-4 years of Nursing (bachelor’s or master’s)
    • Nurse-midwife : assist women in pregnancy and childbirth
      • Master’s degree in Nursing + 2 years clinical training
    • Licensed vocational/practical nurse : provide basic care under supervision of registered nurse or physician
      • 1 year of nursing training
  • 7. Health Care Professions
    • Medical assistant : administrative and clinical duties under supervision of licensed medical professional
      • 2 years with associate degree
    • Emergency Medical assistant : paramedic, recognize, assess, and manage medical emergencies under medical supervision
      • 600 - 1000 hr of instruction
    • Medical laboratory technologist : perform laboratory tests
      • 2 years of college + 1 year of clinical training
    • Radiologic technologist : perform radiofrequency test and treatments (X-ray, MRI, ultrasound, radiotherapy)
      • 2-4 years degree or certificate
  • 8. Health Care Professions
    • Physical therapist : treatment of disorder or injuries with physical methods
      • College degree + 6 months practical experience
    • Occupational therapist : treat disabled or serious accident victim to relearn muscular control or coordination
      • College degree + 6 month practical experience
    • Respiratory therapist : respiratory care by collecting, reviewing, and monitoring data
      • 2 year associate degree or 4 years college degree
  • 9. Health Care Core Specialties
    • Internal Medicine : comprehensive medical service for adults
      • M.D. or O.D + 3 years residency
    • Family Practice : comprehensive medical service for all family members
      • M.D. or O.D + 3 years residency
    • Obstetrics/Gynecology : care of women during pregnancy, labor, delivery, and period immediately afterward
      • M.D. or O.D + 4 years residency
    • Pediatrics : medical care of children from infancy to adolescence
      • M.D. or O.D + 3 years residency
  • 10. Health Care Core Specialties
    • Psychiatry : mental illness and emot ional and behavioral problems
      • M.D. or O.D + 3 years residency + 1 year of training
    • Surgery : study, diagnosis, and management of all disorders related to operative surgery, (incision, removal, repair of organs, restoring to normal position, transplantation, implantation)
      • M.D. or O.D + 5-6 years residency
  • 11. Health Care Subspecialties
    • Allergy/Immunology : allergies and immune system
      • Internal Medicine or Pediatric Residency + 2 year Fellowship
    • Anesthesiology : administer drugs that control pain and consciousness during surgery
      • 4 years Residency
    • Cardiovascular Disease : heart and peripheral vessels
      • Internal Medicince Residency + 2 years Fellowship
    • Colon and Rectal Surgery : correct and remove disease tissue from small intestines, colon (large intestine), or rectal area
      • Surgery Residency + 1 year Residency training
    • Dermatology : conditions related to the skin, hair, nails
      • 1 year training + 3 years Residency
    • Emergency Medicine : life-threatening conditions
      • 4 years Residency
  • 12. Health Care Subspecialties
    • Endocrinology and Metabolism : abnormal function of the endocrine glands (growth and metabolism)
      • Internal Medicine Residency + 2 years Fellowship
    • Gastroenterology : disorders of digestive system
      • Internal Medicine Residency + 2 years Fellowship
    • Geriatric Medicine : care of elderly
      • Internal Medicine or Family Practice Residency + 2 years Fellowship or Residency
    • Hematology : blood disorders (anemia, leukemia, clotting problems
      • Internal Medicine Residency + 1-2 years Fellowship
    • Infectious Diseases : diseases caused by microorganisms
      • Internal Medicine Residency + 2 years Fellowship
  • 13. Health Care Subspecialties
    • Nephrology : kidney function
      • Internal Medicine Residency + 2 years Fellowship
    • Neurological Surgery : surgical treatment of the nervous system
      • 6-7 years Residency training
    • Neurology : disorders of the nervous system
      • 4 years Residency
    • Nuclear Medicine : use radioactive substances to detect and treat disease
      • 2 years Residency + 2 years Residency training
    • Ophthalmology : disorders of the eye
      • 4-5 years Residency training
    • Orthopedic Surgery : disorders of the bones and joints
      • 5-6 years Residency training
  • 14. Health Care Subspecialties
    • Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery : disorders of the head and neck
      • 5-6 years Residency training
    • Pathology : laboratory study of tissues and cells
      • 4 years Residency training
    • Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation : diagnosis, evaluation and treatment of patients recovering from or overcoming disabilities or impariments caused by injury
      • 4 years Residency training
    • Plastic, Reconstructive, and Maxillofacial Surgery : repair visible defects of skin and underlying tissue
      • Surgical Residency + 2 years Residency training
    • Preventive Medicine : prevention through use of public health measures
      • 2 years Residency training
  • 15. Health Care Subspecialties
    • Pulmonary Disease : disease of the lungs and airways
      • Internal Medicine residency + 2 years Fellowship
    • Radiology : radio frequency diagnostic instruments and treatment
      • 4-5 year Residency
    • Rheumatology : disease of joints, muscles, and connective tissue
      • Internal Medicine Residency + 2 years Fellowship
    • Thoracic/Cardiothoracic Surgery : operations within chest cavity
      • Surgical Residency + 2 years Residency
    • Urology : disorders of urinary tract
      • 1 year Surgical Residency + 4 years Residency
    • Vascular Surgery : disease of blood vessels (except heart, lungs, and brain)
      • 1 year Surgical Residency + 1 year1 Residency