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Principles of Anatomy and Physiology in Sport <ul><li>Session 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Joints </li></ul>
Re-Cap – Last Session <ul><li>Assignment 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Questions?? </li></ul>
<ul><li>Aim </li></ul><ul><li>To complete assignment 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>To be able to descri...
Joints A joint is   where two or more bones meet and muscles act together to cause movement. <ul><li>The human skeleton is...
1.   Fixed or Immoveable Joints The bones at an immoveable joint  cannot   move - they  overlap  or  interlock,  and are h...
Drag the labels to the correct place on the skeleton... Types of Joint
<ul><li>Freely Moveable joints are also known as Synovial Joints. </li></ul><ul><li>They are freely moving and occur where...
The knee is a hinge joint. Ligaments Tendons Tibia/Fibula Femur Cartilage Synovial Fluid Synovial Membrane Patella The Syn...
The Hip is a ball and socket joint. Ligaments Synovial Fluid Tendons Synovial Membrane Pelvis Cartilage Femur The Synovial...
Elbow Joint <ul><li>This joint can be moved in the following ways: </li></ul><ul><li>Bend </li></ul><ul><li>Straighten </l...
<ul><li>This joint can be moved in the following ways: </li></ul><ul><li>Bend </li></ul><ul><li>Straighten </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>This joint can be moved in the following ways: </li></ul><ul><li>Bend  – but not as much as the knee & elbow. </li...
KEY Ball & Socket Joint Hinge Joint Pivot Joint Gliding Joint Saddle Joint Condyloid Joint Freely   moveable  (synovial) j...
Types of Synovial Joint Drag the labels to the correct place on the skeleton...
Summary <ul><li>Classification of joints </li></ul><ul><li>Structure of synovial joint </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of each ...
Objectives <ul><li>To be able to describe the main classifications of joints in the body </li></ul><ul><li>To be able to d...
Next Session <ul><li>Types of joints </li></ul><ul><li>Movement </li></ul>
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Principles of a+p 1112 session 5 - joints (structure)

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Transcript of "Principles of a+p 1112 session 5 - joints (structure)"

  1. 1. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology in Sport <ul><li>Session 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Joints </li></ul>
  2. 2. Re-Cap – Last Session <ul><li>Assignment 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Questions?? </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Aim </li></ul><ul><li>To complete assignment 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>To be able to describe the main classifications of joints in the body </li></ul><ul><li>To be able to describe a synovial joint structure </li></ul><ul><li>To be able to provide examples of each classification of joint </li></ul>
  4. 4. Joints A joint is where two or more bones meet and muscles act together to cause movement. <ul><li>The human skeleton is jointed to allow movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular contraction causes the bones to move about the joints. </li></ul><ul><li>The bones act as levers with the joints acting as pivots. </li></ul>
  5. 5. 1. Fixed or Immoveable Joints The bones at an immoveable joint cannot move - they overlap or interlock, and are held together by a tough fibre, e.g. the skull. 2. Slightly Moveable Joints The bones at a slightly moveable joint can only move a little - they are held together by strong straps called ligaments and are joined by protective pads known as cartilage, e.g. the ribs. 3. Freely Moveable Joints At a freely moveable joint the bones move freely. They are also known as synovial joints, and are the largest group of joints found in the body, e.g. the hips, shoulders and knees. Types of Joint There are 3 main classifications of joint found in the body.
  6. 6. Drag the labels to the correct place on the skeleton... Types of Joint
  7. 7. <ul><li>Freely Moveable joints are also known as Synovial Joints. </li></ul><ul><li>They are freely moving and occur where 2 or more bones meet. </li></ul><ul><li>There are about 70 freely moveable joints in the human skeleton. </li></ul>A typical synovial joint has the following characteristics: 2. Joint Capsule – The outer covering of the joint that holds the bones together and protects the joint. 3. Synovial Membrane – The inner lining of the joint capsule which also produces synovial fluid. 4. Synovial Fluid – The fluid which surrounds the joint and acts like an ‘oil’, lubricating it to allow easy movement. 5. Ligaments – These are elastic straps which join bone to bone, holding the joint together. 6. Tendons – These are non-elastic straps which join muscle to bone. 1. Cartilage – A material which covers the end of each bone, and which helps prevent friction between the joint. Freely Moveable Joints
  8. 8. The knee is a hinge joint. Ligaments Tendons Tibia/Fibula Femur Cartilage Synovial Fluid Synovial Membrane Patella The Synovial Joint of the Knee
  9. 9. The Hip is a ball and socket joint. Ligaments Synovial Fluid Tendons Synovial Membrane Pelvis Cartilage Femur The Synovial Joint of the Hip
  10. 10. Elbow Joint <ul><li>This joint can be moved in the following ways: </li></ul><ul><li>Bend </li></ul><ul><li>Straighten </li></ul><ul><li>Circle </li></ul><ul><li>Move away from the body </li></ul><ul><li>Move towards the body </li></ul><ul><li>This joint can be moved in the following ways: </li></ul><ul><li>Bend </li></ul><ul><li>Straighten </li></ul>Hip Joint Examples of Synovial Joints
  11. 11. <ul><li>This joint can be moved in the following ways: </li></ul><ul><li>Bend </li></ul><ul><li>Straighten </li></ul><ul><li>Circle </li></ul><ul><li>Move away from the body </li></ul><ul><li>Move towards the body </li></ul><ul><li>This joint can be moved in the following ways: </li></ul><ul><li>Bend </li></ul><ul><li>Straighten </li></ul>Shoulder Joint Knee Joint
  12. 12. <ul><li>This joint can be moved in the following ways: </li></ul><ul><li>Bend – but not as much as the knee & elbow. </li></ul><ul><li>Straighten - but not as much as the knee & elbow. </li></ul><ul><li>Circle – but not as much as the shoulder & hip. </li></ul><ul><li>Move away from the body – but not as much as the shoulder & hip. </li></ul><ul><li>Move towards the body – but not as much as the shoulder & hip. </li></ul>Wrist Joint
  13. 13. KEY Ball & Socket Joint Hinge Joint Pivot Joint Gliding Joint Saddle Joint Condyloid Joint Freely moveable (synovial) joints can be divided into six groups depending upon how they move. Types of Synovial Joint
  14. 14. Types of Synovial Joint Drag the labels to the correct place on the skeleton...
  15. 15. Summary <ul><li>Classification of joints </li></ul><ul><li>Structure of synovial joint </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of each classification of joint </li></ul>
  16. 16. Objectives <ul><li>To be able to describe the main classifications of joints in the body </li></ul><ul><li>To be able to describe a synovial joint structure </li></ul><ul><li>To be able to provide examples of each classification of joint </li></ul>
  17. 17. Next Session <ul><li>Types of joints </li></ul><ul><li>Movement </li></ul>
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