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Marylu's soil ag slideshow
 

Marylu's soil ag slideshow

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  • Agriculture, when treated as an ecosystem, is all about using biological resources, re-cycling energy, multifunctionality, working with succession, biodiversity, and edge effects. This is how we need to be doing agriculture, small scale and in the cities.
  • The soil food web is a complex, interdependent, mutually beneficial group of organisms ranging in size from bacteria, to fungi (the largest organisms on the planet) to protozoa, to nematodes, microarthropods, worms and beetles. The foodweb develops good soil structure by binding pieces of soil (clay, sand, silt, organic matter, roots) together and by building airways and passageways through the soil. Good movement of air and water are vital to the health of plants and the soil food web itself. While it seems contradictory, good soil structure both allows water to drain from too wet soil and helps soil to hold water when soils start to dry out.
  • Why at the bottom? What is soil used for?
  • 3 observations, 3 interpretations each

Marylu's soil ag slideshow Marylu's soil ag slideshow Presentation Transcript

  • Agriculture
    • 10,000 years ago
      • Agricultural Revolution
    • The past 200 years
      • Industrial Revolution
      • Post World War II
      • ‘Green Revolution’
      • A new green revolution?
  • Brief history
    • Justus van Leibig (mid-1800’s)
      • ‘ Father of chemistry’
      • ‘ Father of chemical agriculture’
      • Rudolph Steiner (~1920)
      • Anthroposophy
      • Biodynamics
      • Sir Albert Howard (~1940)
      • Organic methods
      • Indore method of composting
      • Lady Eve Balfour (~1946)
      • Soil Association
      • J I Rodale and Robert Rodale (~1947)
      • Rodale Institute
      • Rodale Press
  •  
  • SOIL Be it deep or shallow, red or black, sand or clay, the soil is the link between the rock core of the earth and the living things on its surface USDA 1957 YEARBOOK OF AGRICULTURE
  • Cradle of Life: Soil
    • Soil is a nutritive platform for all life.
    • It is a stage that holds up all actors on Earth and nourishes them.
  • Soil formation
    • Climate
    • Geologic forces
    • Parent material
    • Slope -- topography
    • Water
      • as transporter
      • as rock decomposer
      • as ice
    • Life
      • Microrganisms
      • Plants
  • Soil components
    • 25%
    • Air
    • 45%
    • Mineral
    • 25%
    • Water 5%
    • OM
  • Characteristics
    • Physical
    • Chemical
    • Biological
  • Physical
    • Texture
      • Sand, silt, clay
      • Organic matter
    • Structure
      • Blocky, aggregate, platy
    • Color indicates physical and chemical characteristics
    • Bulk Density – affected by pore space; affects water movement, root movement
  • Soil Texture Triangle
  • Chemical
    • pH - acidity
    • Nutrients
    • Anions
    • Cations
    • Cation
    • exchange
    • capacity
  • Nitrogen cycle
  • Oxygen cycle
  • Biological
    • Soil is
    • ALIVE !
    • USDA
  • Life interactions in (is) the soil: turning inputs into outputs
  • Soil Foodweb
    • “… is a complex, interdependent, mutually beneficial group of organisms ranging in size from bacteria, to fungi to protozoa, to nematodes, microarthropods, worms and beetles.
    • The foodweb develops good soil structure by binding pieces of soil (clay, sand, silt, organic matter, roots) together and by building airways and passageways through the soil.”
    • http://www.soilfoodweb.com /
    • Dr. Elaine Ingham
  • Bio-indicators of soil and site conditions
    • Microorganisms (tilth)
    • Anaerobic bacteria (smell)
    • Mychorrizae
    • Actinomycetes
    • Earthworms
    • Soil insects
    • Plants
  •  
  • USDA
  •  
  • Natural Resource and Conservation Service -- NRCS
    • http://websoilsurvey.nrcs.usda.gov/
    • Area of interest: Keystone Flora garden
    • Soil properties and qualities:
    • Genesee-urban land complex, occasionally flooded
    • Sand 39.8%
    • Silt 37.7%
    • Clay 22.5%
    • OM 2.0%
  • Soil Texture Triangle
  • Scale of Permanence
    • Climate
    • Landform
    • Water
    • Legal
    • Access & Circulation
    • Vegetation & Wildlife
    • Microclimate
    • Buildings & Infrastructure
    • Zones of use
    • Soil
    • Aesthetics
  • Soils Analysis & Assessment from: Edible Forest Gardens, Dave Jacke
  • Designer’s checklist
    • Prevent soil loss and repair/rehabilitate
    • Reduce losses with perennials, earthworks, low tillage
    • Rehabilitate and use green manure first
    • Do soil and plant analysis
    • Match crops to soils
    • Encourage soil life processes
    • Assess water drainage and pH
    • Minimize methods that create negative effects
    • Use animals manures
    • Use appropriate crops in wet areas
    • Shape soil and earthworks to suit crop and conditions
    • Check water-holding capacity of soils
    • Preserve/select appropriate species for poor sites
    • Use foliar sprays and pelleted seed for plant nutrients
    • “ Soil fertility is the condition which results from the operation of Nature’s round, from the orderly revolution of the wheel of life, from the adoption and faithful execution of the first principle of agriculture – there must always be a perfect balance between the processes of growth and the processes of decay.”
    • “ The soil must have its manurial rights…”
    • --Sir Albert Howard, 1940